Final Exam Review
Names and Terms
20 out of the 30 will appear, ANSWER 10.
1) Avalokiteshvara: (Buddhism) One of the bodhisattvas (enlightenment beings) who
embodies compassion of all beings. She is one of the most popular and universally good
bodhisattvas. There are various names for her like Kannon and Karunamaya. Wherever
Mahayana Buddhism spread, texts of her local deeds were often spread through stories,
art, and popular texts.
2) Covenant: Binding agreement between God and his people (promise). For example,
God chose Isreal as his people. He agreed to protect and guide them, in return they have
to follow God’s commandments.
3) The Dao: (Daoism) Also known as “The Way”. Although it cannot be spoken or
adequately defined, it is said to be a mysterious power that is the source of all creation
that flows and functions without the will or purpose of a creator god. In China, all
humans were said to share the common Dao, which is the harmony that governs the
4) Dharmasutra: (Hinduism) It is the first four texts in the Dharmashastra tradition. It
focuses on the idea of Dharma, which is a personal guide that Hindu’s strive to live by. It
contains the rules of conduct and rites as practiced in Vedic schools and discusses duties
of people, rites and duties of kings, judicial matters and even personal practices.
5) Donative Inscription: Writings that were engraved on various surfaces that
represent gifts that were given. They were inscribed on shrine walls, railings and
gateways. These inscriptions include records of installation of religious images, which
were often inscribed on images themselves.
6) Eschatology: Branch of theology that is concerned and focused on events
surrounding the end of the world or end of humans. It talks about the ultimate destiny of
human kind. In Christianity, it focuses on events such as death, afterlife, Heaven, Hell
7) Eucharist: One of the seven sacraments in Christianity. According to Gospels, Jesus
broke the bread, blessed it, gave it to his disciples and said, “this is my body.” Similarly,
he took the wine, blessed it, gave it to his disciples and said, “this is my blood.” This is
often used in Church by priests representing Jesus and Christians partake in this believing
that they are taking the blood and body of Jesus (literally and spiritually).
8) The Four Noble Truths: (Buddhism) it provides a way for the path towards
nirvana. The first is, “All life entails suffering.” This means that one cannot deny the experience of mortal existence, which includes death, disease, etc. The second is, “the
cause of suffering is desire.” In other words, it says that humans crave after possession,
sex and power. The third is, “removing desire removes suffering.” The last one is, “the
way for removing desire is to follow the Eightfold Path.” This is the ‘cure’ for the
continuous human cycle of rebirth, suffering and redeath. This allows progression
towards enlightenment. a doctrine formula diagnosing the human condition as marked by
suffering and distorted by desire, then prescribing the eightfold path as a solution. (The
truth of durkka, the truth of the origin of durkka, the truth of the cessation of durkka, the
truth of the path leading to the end of durkka)
9) The Four Stages of Life: (Hinduism) These stages are called ashramas, and it is
believed that every man should eventually go through each stage. The first stage is the
student stage, they should receive formal education. The second stage is the householder
stage, they should get married, have a job, etc. The third stage is the hermit stage, they
should retire and go live in a hut and pray. The last stage is called the wandering ascetic
stage, they should not have a home and should totally devote themselves to God.
10) Gemara: (Judaism) It is part of the Talmud, and makes up part of it. It is the link
from the oral Torah to the written Torah.
11) Hadith: (Islam) Stories or traditions told about the Prophet Muhammad. The
narrative report of Muhammad’s sayings and actions.
12) Haredim: (Judaism) It is an Jewish ultraOrthodox movement that rejects all
modern types and forms of Judaism. The haredi men wear black suits, wide brimmed hats
and the women wear long skits, thick stockings and headcoverings.
13) Hijab: (Islam) It is an Arabic word for veil or external covering. This can consist of
a headscarf alone or it can be a full body covering. It is usually worn by a woman after
she had hit puberty.
14) The Laws of Manu : (Hinduism) It is a part of the Dharmashastra texts and the
most important one. It creates laws that both kings and commoners would have to follow.
It drew from the Vedas, and one of the stories that are told in it is about Brahma’s creation
of the universe.
15) Mitzvah: (Judaism) They are commandments that are set forth by God. These
commandments require deeds of lovingkindness. They also include precepts.
16) Monastery: It is a building or buildings that are occupied by a community of
monks that live under religious vows. Monasteries usually include places reserved for
prayer like chapels, churches or temples.
17) Muezzin: (Islam) It is an individual who issues the call to prayer from the top of
the minerat. Muslims depend on this person to complete their prayers that occur 5 times a
18) Nabi: (Islam) It is the word for Prophet and comes up 75 times in the Quran. It is
someone who has been sent with an important message concerning themselves or their
community, or has been gi