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Midterm 1 CONDENSED NOTES- Week 1-3; Oct 2 - RELIGST 2HH3

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Religious Studies
Stephen Westerholm

Midterm 1 RELIGST 2HH3 Quick-notes October 2, 2013 Context and Importance of Paul  Divisive Issue – Circumcision; should Gentiles follow these laws? o Jews – Jesus and followers o Gentiles – non-Jew new followers of Christ  Paul did not write theology – intention was not to systematically portray Christianity; dealt with issues that arose  Paul was a theologian – had to figure out Gods intentions with a broad philosophical and theological worldview; became fundamental for Christian thinking  Pneumatology – belief that God had given His Holy Spirit to live in believers Paul’s Scriptures – what is called “The Old Testament” in modern times  Tanakh – Jewish OT; same books as Christian OT, in different order 1. Torah – Pentateuch (5 books of Moses; Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deu)eronomy 2. Nevi’im – Prophets; Former (“historical b;Joshua, Judges, 1,2 Samuel, 1) and Latter(Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel) 3. Kethuvin – Writings (Psalms, Proverbs, Job + Others) rd o Almost entirely in Hebrew (and Aramaic) – translated into Greek starting in the 3 century (Septuagint)  Canon of Scripture – exact list of what is accepted into sacred writings Proverbs  Proverbs “horizons” overlap with 21 century 1. Relatable topics – speaks of health, happiness, home, success; not afterlife 2. Authority – personal, passing on intergenerational wisdom; not prophetic 3. General and universal focus – to, for and about all human beings; not necessarily Israel 4. Observations and Advice – understandable, relatable; common-sense 5. Moral Advice – down to earth (eg/ don’t gossip); not rigorous (eg/ compare to Sermon on the Mount) 6. Little Religious Talk – concerns relationships with other human begins; not religious duties  Wisdom Literature – same format (short, pi, same common themes (sexual immorality, evil, ; ascribed to Solomon in Jewish culture o Proverbs, Job, Ecclesiastes  Differs from Modern Thinking o Modern Worldview – choose what IS right or wrong o Mindset of Proverbs – morals built into universe; choose what to do (right or wrong)  Moral order is enforced – if we don’t abide by moral order in universe, we will not do well 1. God as overseer of moral order – God rewards and punishes 2. World has built in morals – natural outcome  Split into two categories (earlier chapters) 1. Righteous and Wise – seeks to acquire wisdom; behaves accordingly; willing to accept rebuke; will be blessed  All creation is permeated by God’s divine wisdom; every part of creation contains purpose, goodness and moral order  one will do well if wisdom is sought  Proverbs 3:19 – by wisdom the lord lard the earths foundations/ by understanding he set the heavens in place 2. Wicked and Foolish – ignore the call of wisdom; pursue own inclinations; will not do well  It is better to be poor and righteous than rich and immoral o Proverbs 16:8 – “better a little with righteousness/than much gain with injustice” o Proverbs 16:9 – “better to be lowly in spirit along with the oppressed/than to share plunder with the proud” o Proverbs 19:22 – “what a person desires is unfailing love/better to be poor than a liar” Hebrew Scriptures – Divided into 8 Sections 1. Creation; Genesis 1-11 – creation  human sin  multiplication of human sin  consequence of sin o Creator is divine o Creation is good(declared at end of each day of creat– not self imminent; bad occurs in the world o Genesis 3; introduction of evil into world – humans wanted to be gods themselves, were unwilling to accept place in creation; did not follow single command given to them  World, universe, cosmos – not evil (bad from the s, but falle(good but something happened [human disobedience] that disturbed natural order)  Note: Jews and Christians read Genesis 3 differently  Jews – one instance where evil tendency prevails over good tendency; example not to follow  Christians – the “fall” of human kind o God will put justice into universe – God, who created the world, is good and powerful  the world God created is good  Sinfulness cannot be final  goodness will triumph in the end  Prophesied – Eg/ Amos – judgment, God restoring His people; Eg/ Jeremiah 31-33 – hope in the future o Two institutions of society are introduced as instituted by God  Marriage – not good for man to be alone; man and woman become one flesh  Paul implies that celibacy is better  Government – God provides that if humans shed blood of other humans, they will be punished (Genesis 9) 2. Patriarchal; Genesis 12 o Begins story of Israel; Abraham (Sarah) and descendants; Isaac (Rebekah), Jacob (Leah, Rachel), Jacobs 12 sons o Abraham given divine promise  God will be there, Abraham and his descendants will possess the land on which they live; they will be a great nation and a blessing to all 1 Midterm 1 RELIGST 2HH3 o Abraham enters covenant with God  Covenant – arrangement intended to establish a permanent relationship between two parties, based on the solemn undertaking of obligations by one or both parties  Arrangement – can be agreed upon or imposed  Solemn undertaking – swear an oath  Circumcision as a sign of the covenant  Promises don’t seem to be fulfilled  Children – old age with no children; finally have child and God asks Abraham to sacrifice him  Land – living as strangers and sojourners in a land promised to them 3. Deliverance from Egypt o Com to Egypt – Joseph (descendent of Jacob) becomes a leader in Egypt; family comes to Egypt because of famine o Slavery – descendants of Jacob become enslaved in Egypt o Deliverance – Moses delivers them from slavery; redemption of Gods people; prototype of future deliverances o Mount Sinai – leave Egypt to Mouth Sinai; Sinaitic Covenant  recorded in the Torah  Include 10 commandments + other laws (Israel religious worship, civil government, civil affairs, civil justice, purity, food)  Deuteronomy – summary of laws  Deuteronomy 2 – sense of moral order in universe; Mosaic law is the perfect statement of righteousness according to moral order; keep laws for righteousness  Israel fails to obey laws – whole generation dies in wilderness, does not enter promised land  Covenant given with sanctions – good things will happen if you obey; bad if you don’t  Jewish View – covenant with Israel is a renewal of covenant with Abraham; not distinct  Christina View – continual covenant with Abraham (continue to receive bl; Sinaitic covenant is tempora(between time of Moses to J(distinction made by Paul) 4. Entrance into Promised Land o People take possession through Joshua; Moses not allowed to enter o Period of Judges – different judges raised periodically to deal with problems that arise 5. United Monarchy followed by Divided Monarchy o All Israelite tribes united undersingle reign; (Saul , David , Solomon )  2 Samuel 7:11  Situation – David (King) wants to build a house for the Lord --> God says no; I will build you a house; when you die I will establish your throne forever  Problem – Throne was not built in David’s lifetime and expectation that sons of David would be on the throne forever was interrupted  Solution – must await future fulfillment; someday descendent of David will return to the throne  became basis of Messianic Hope o Divided Monarchy – split into 2 Kingdoms (North and South)  Jews eventually exiled 6. Babylonian Exile 587-538 BC o Samaria (capital) – Northern Kingdom (Israel)  No dynasty lasted >3-4 generations  Fell to Assyrian empire (Nineveh Capital) in 722/21 BC  people sent into exile; tribes dispersed o Jerusalem (capital) Southern Kingdom (Judah)  Fell to Babylonians in 587/86 BC  citizens exiled until 538/39  No descendent of David on throne after fall to Babylon  Gods promise interrupted  Gods promise is divine; He will put things right and a descendent of David will rule in righteousness  Joshua had prophesied that the Kings of Judah would be exiled and a righteous branch would later rise up  Put things right through i) a messiah ii) 2 messiahs (royal and priedead sea scriii) without a messiah o Exile is divine punishment for unfaithfulness; learn to be more faithful 7. Jews Return to Homeland; “Second Temple Period” o Babylonians fell to Persians (leader Cyrus) o Cyrus allowed Jews to return to homeland o Babylonians destroyed First Temple of Solomon in 586  rebuilt temple in 520-515 (lasted until 17 AD) 8. Persian Rule (539) to Alexander the Great (2 centuries) o Alexander the Great ended Persian Rule  Greek Rule o 200 BCE – Rule of the Seleucids  King Antiachus IV outlawed the practice of Judaism (forced food, destroyed Torah, took over rebuilt temple, dedicated worship of pagan god) o Jewish Rebellion, led by Maccabees – retaking the temple and rededication to worship of the Lord; 163 BC  Hanukah – celebration of rededication of temple  Timeline in relation to exile o Pre-exilic – up to 586 o Exilic – 587-539 o Post-exilic – 539-63 (Romans entered Jerusalem) Career of Jesus  Major theme – Kingdom of God  3 expressions 1. Eternal and universal reign of God – God is always in control; not everyone acknowledges his rule 2. Kingdom of God coming in the future – day in the future that everyone will submit to Him 2 Midterm 1 RELIGST 2HH3 3. Kingdom of God has come near; is at hand – the future is now; combination of present and future  Jesus spoke of the Kingdom Coming as a process – Jesus appearance, message and activities  will be complete when he returns and is acknowledged by all  Presence of Kingdom made known in:  Jesus’ Teachings – told conditions of entering kingdom  Jesus’ Wondrous Deeds – signs of the presence and power of Gods kingdo(evil (blindness, lameness) will be done away); not merely acts of compassion  Jesus’ Death and Resurrection – died to atone for sins so that we are fit to enter Kingdom; resurrected to God’s right hand (authority and power)  Difference between Jews and Christians o Christians – messiah has come in Jesus; 1) Holy Spirit given 2) Last Supper  Lords Supper (Jesus replaced the Passover Lamb) 3) Baptism (one commitment of repentance) o Jews – messiah is still to come The Book of Acts – Chapter Breakdowns  Gospels – life and death of Jesus Christ (founder of movement) o Jesus – born 4 BCE  Acts – continuation of Gospels through Jesus’ followers (early life of Christian movement) o Shift in ethnic dynamic of group (Jews  Gentiles)  Part 1: Acts 1-12 – focuses on Peter (Jewish; mission to the Jews in Jerusalem) + Others (Steven, Phillip…)  Part 2: Acts 13-28 – focuses on Paul (exception Acts 15 = Council) o 13-14 – 1 Missionary Journey; went out to Jews and Gentiles to Diaspo(diaspora = dispersion; Jews not in Judea after dispersion by Assyrian (N) and Babylonian (S) overtaking) o 15 – Jerusalem; leaders decide which rules and stipulations required of Gentiles o 16-18 – 2 Missionary Journey o 19-21 – 3 Missionary Journey o 21-26 – Jerusalem; stays in Judea o 27-28 – Rome  Name switch in Acts 13:9 – Saul to Paul; Saul = Jewish; Paul = Roman  Breakdown 1) Acts 7:58-8:33 – Paul’s first appearance; Saul as an executionerin Jeru, led stoning of; caused Jews to leave Jerusalem to Cyprus and Egypt; actions catalyzed spread of Christianity 2) Acts 8:4-8 – Philip in Samaria 3) Acts 8:24-40 – Ethiopian Eunuch Philips first instance of church expanding beyond boundaries of Judaism 4) Acts 9:1-30 – Paul’s conversion and missionary work to the Gentiles 5) Acts 10-11 – Peter’s acceptance of Gentiles into Jewish movement (Peter’s vision) 6) Acts 11:19-30 – Paul’s early missionary work in Antioch; started speaking to Hellenists (Greek) who became Christians 7) Acts 15 – Peter’s admission of Gentiles; conditions and requirements of Gentiles; circumcision 8) Paul eventually goes to Asia, Greece then Rome Acts 9  Breakdown of Acts 9 o Acts 9:1-2 – Setting; Saul want sot go to Damascus to kill Christians or bring them to Jerusalem to face penalty o Acts 9:3-9 – Sault meets Jesus; goes blind o Acts 9:10-16 – Ananias’ vision to heal Saul o Acts 9:17-19 – Ananias heals Saul o Acts 9:19-22 – Saul teaches Jesus to Jews o Acts 9:23-25 – Jews want to kill Saul o Acts 9:26-30 – Saul in Jerusalem; Christians sacred of him; he begins to teach and they grow to trust him  Permission from the High Priest to preach Christianity in the Synagogues is needed  Terms o High Priest – Jewish Leader; religious, social, judicial (first arises in Acts 9:1) o Synagogues – place of Jewish worship (first arises in Acts 9:2) o “In the name of” – a) power and authority (Acts 9:27, 28) or b) equal to the person (Acts 9:16) o Messiah/Christ – savior from oppression (Acts 9:22)  Followers of Christ – not called Christians  3 terms for Messianic Group (Acts 9:20, 22, 28) 1. Disciples of the Lord (Acts 9:1,10,14,25-26) 2. Brothers (Acts 9:17,30) 3. The Way (Acts 9:2) Acts 15  Breakdown o Acts 15:1-5 – Setting; introduce conflict (circumcision); Paul and Barnabus want to solve issue (go to Jerusalem to talk to the Apostles and elders) o Acts 15:6-11 – Peter’s take (vision; welcome Gentiles) o Acts 15:12 – Paul and strnabus’ testimony o Acts 15:13-21 – Paul’s 1 Missionary Journey (Acts 15:13-14); meet James (opinion of situation) o Acts 15:22-29 – Gentiles should be included and not circumcised; letter written for non-Jewish churches o Acts 15:30-35 – Resolution  Terms 3 Midterm 1 RELIGST 2HH3 o Pharisees – Jewish Sect (Acts 15:5) o Circumcision – must be done in order to be Jewish (Acts 15:1-5) o Law of Moses – Torah; rules of living (Acts 15:5) o Simeon = Peter o Holy Spirit – marker of being a Christian (Acts 15:28)  Necessity of circumcision o Acts 9 – followers of Christ seemingly entirely Jews  Jerusalem council is defining borders  don’t have to become Jews to become Christians o Acts 15 – resolution through James  Acts 15:6-11 – Peter’s Testimony  Acts 15:8 – God gives Holy spirit to Jews and non-Jews  circumcision is not a requirement to receive Holy Spirit  Holy spirit becomes marker of Christianity (above circumcisio
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