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Midterm 2 Study Notes - Week 4-8; Oct 30 - RELIGST 2HH3

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Religious Studies
Stephen Westerholm

MIDTERM 2 RELIGST 2HH3 Quicknotes October 30, 2013 1 Thessalonians  Thought to be the earliest of Paul’s writings (some think Galatians)  Paul’s Circumstances when writing 1 Thessalonians o Visited Thessalonica on 2 missionary Journey (Acts 17)  Philippi(persecuted; Acts, 1 ThThessalonica (short time; received messae)Athens (worried) o Only in Thessalonica for short time (3 weeks) – positive response to message, but when in Athens, Paul is worried that they will not stand firm in the faith due to persecution and forgetting new faith o Paul sends Timothy back to Thessalonica to check up on Thessalonians (Acts, 1 Thess) – Paul writes to the Thessalonians upon Timothy’s return with good news  Acts – Athens  Corinth where Timothy and Silas join him  1 Thess – Athens  send Timothy to Thessalonica  Timothy returns to Paul  Themes (note: many Pauline themes are not found in 1 (had not yet developed characteristic style; or heavy involvement of Silas and Timothy) 1. Pure Motives – Paul and coworkers not seeking gain, distinguish self from wandering philosophers, do not want to be a burden  Other apostles accepted support; could be seen as snobbery on Paul’s part 2. Gentile Community – Paul’s message received warmly as word of God, return from idols to serving the true God; suggests that Thessalonians were not Jews (1 Thess 1:9) 3. Jesus’ Second Coming/Day of the Lord – wrath is coming, people subject to Gods judgments, followers of Jesus will be delivered; believers can look forward to coming of Jesus  Children of the light – be prepared for the day of the Lord, could happen any time; thief in the night, but do not be surprised  People believed that the Day of the Lord was when the Jews would be exiled – but exile occurred and history continued  Amos dispels people’s belief that the Day of the Lord would of light and celebration and that God will judge their enemies  Amos turns popular belief upside-down – Jews belief that God treats them special because they are His chosen people; Amos says that because they are given more, more is expected of them  Day of the Lord – God brings history as we know it to an end, puts things right in creation and delivers his people  Day of Christ – deliverance for followers of Jesus; will be a dark day; God sends son to and puts things right with return of Jesus (Paul’s usage) 4. Believers who die before Christ Return – expected Jesus to return so quickly that no one would die beforehand  At Christ’s return, those who have died will be raised from the dead and forever with the Lord 5. Implicit Christology – study of nature of Christ; not explicit a. Day of the Lord  Day of Christ – Lord of OT identified with Christ of NT b. God the Father, Jesus as Lord (1 Thess 1:1)– special relationship between Jesus and God; OT God referred to as Lord (divine name (Yahweh) or God (title) c. Prayer to Jesus and God (1 Thess 3:12-13) – equal appropriateness d. Will of God to give thanks in all circumstances (Thess 5:18) 6. Moral Advice (1 Thess 4-5) – traditional moral advice given in early church a. Sexual Morality – Jew and Gentile standard differed; men are to have one wife, no sexual relations with others b. Christian Love – love as the greatest commandment, in which all moral duty is summed up in c. Work with own hands to support self – people became lazy thinking that Jesus return would be soon Pseuderigraphic Writing (pseuderigrapha)  Writing in the name of someone else  Common in ancient world o Ancient Jewish Phenomenon – testaments of early fathers (Simeon, Levi etc); Enochic, Apocrypha (apparent letters by Enoch, Jeremiah) o Early Christian Writing – Ignatius (Bishop of Antioch) wrote 7 letters on his way to Rome; true letters determined in 17 century  Paul refers to letter to Laodiceans in Colossians; Paul’s correspondence with Seneca – only pseuderigrapha have been found  Reason to write in another persons name o Sign of respect – recapture spirit or content of teacher/master o Told by master to write in their name (eg/ boss and secretary scenario) or dictated by master o Convey a message – claim to be someone else to have authority and credibility o Citing a source – eg/ Solomon’s name attached to Wisdom Literature;  Recognizing a pseudographa o Stylistic differences – writers usually have a constant style  Argument – people change style over years  not sure fire sign  Large amount of writing of alleged author in possession is required to gain sufficient knowledge of style o Different time period or location – compared to time and place of alleged author o Content – contrary or similar to authors typical message or previous writing  Argument – peoples mind can change  not sure fire sign  Paul’s Writings o No Doubt – Romans, 1+2 Corinthians, Galatians, Philippians, 1 Thess, Philemon o Degree of debate – 2 Thess, Colossians < Ephesians < 1+2 Timothy, Titus (most doubts) 1 MIDTERM 2 RELIGST 2HH3 2 Thessalonians  Possibly pseudographic – i) repetition of topics from 1 Thess ii) seeming contradictions of other messages of Paul  arguments are circular (if it’s like Paul or unlike Paul – it can’t be Paul) o Future expectations of Jesus return; Christ will deliver his followers; judgment of sons of darkness  Differences  1 Thess – Jesus return could occur at any time; don’t let it surprise you  2 Thess – timeline to Christ’s return; anticipation of a number of events to occur first o Restraint of lawless one (2 Thess 2:7); when restraint is removed, lawless antichrist figure will arise and lead many astray by signs and wonders, set himself up on the temple of God – Son of God will appear and destroy him by the breath of his mouth o Some believed Paul was referring to Roman Government; was not explicit as to not appear as a revolutionary  Explanation – Thessalonians began to slack off, believing that Christ was returning soon (misinterpretation of 1 Thess)  Paul clarifying; must be ready, but continue hard work because many things are still to come before Christ’s return o Comparison made to synoptic Gospels (Matthew, Mark, Luke) – expectations of future; combination of Jesus return at any time with other events occur prior to return o Style is not a factor Summary of Relations – Paul-Corinthians 1. Paul’s first visit (referred to in Acts 18) 2. Corinthians A – (referred to in 1 Corinthians 5:9); not in our possession 3. Corinthians B – 1 Corinthians; making plans for visit 4. Painful visit to Corinth – (referred to in 2 Corinthians 2:1) 5. Corinthians C – tearful letter carried by Titus to Corinth; not in possession 6. Corinthians D – 2 Corinthians 1-9; when Titus returned and bought good news from Corinth in response to tearful letter 7. Corinthians E – 2 Corinthians 10-13 1 Corinthians  The Lords Supper o 4 instances – similarities between Matthew and Mark; Luke and 1 Corinthians  Problems in the way the Corinthians were observing the Lord Supper; Paul quotes a tradition “I received from the Lord what I also will pass on to you”  Manuscript Differences o 1 Corinthians 11:24 – this is my body, which is for you/which is broken for you/which is given for you  “Which is for you” suspected to be original; scribes may have added explanations (given borrowed from Luke, broken as a metaphor for bread) o 1 Corinthians 13 – if I give away all that I have, and if I give up my body, so that I am burned/so that I may boast, but do not have love, I gain nothing  Burned and boast are one letter difference; boast doesn’t make sense (Paul refers to boasting as bad)  Lacking primary purpose; no clear structure, moves from issue to issue  More information about Corinthian church than any other church – gives glimpse into particular church; seemed unstructured; cannot extend idea of Corinthian church to other churches (Jerusalem with Apostles probably more structured)  Paul’s Circumstances o Relationship with the Corinthians – Corinthians were skeptical about Paul’s intentions  Compare to Thessalonians of Philippians (in Macedonia) – warm open relationship with Paul o Corinth (~18 months; Acts 18; first visit)  Jerusalem  Ephesus (3 years; beginning of 3 missionary journey)  Taught in synagogues and house of Titius Justus; brought before Roman Proconsul, case dismissed by Galeo (proconsul in Acacia Corinth in 51-52 AD) o Letter written while in Ephesus (1 Corinthians 16) o Referred to previous letter (not in our possession)  1 Cor = 2letter to Corinthians o Purpose of letter – i) addressing issues Paul heard about (Ch 1-6) ii) answering questions asked iii) telling of travel plans (visit them shortly) o Sources of Information  Chloe’s Household – Chloe likely wealthy business woman, employees travelled to Ephesus; reported to Paul that divisions in the church was forming  Leaders from Corinthian Church wrote him a letter with many questions – brought to Paul by leaders or Chloe’s people  Themes – Paul’s responses to the Corinthians o 1 Corinthians 1 – divisions in the church; breakdown of unity; some following Peter, Paul, Apollos, Christ  Should unite around common message; should not line up behind one person based on human standards (eg/ Apollos = better preacher, wiser etc)  Message of the cross; emphasis on crucifixion (most shameful death) – God used humiliation and execution as means for salvation  God overturning human values and standards by demonstrating that apparent foolishness is Gods wisdom  Through weakness in humans, God demonstrates strength; Christ’s death shows emptiness of human standards o 1 Corinthians 3 – Community of believers as a temple of God’s Holy Spirit (1 Corinthians 3:16-17, 6)  Spiritualization of notion of temple – no longer confined to geographically located place; where believers are  Dangerous to be temple of God; danger to approach God unworthily  Disunity in community = destroying temple of God = not worthy temple; danger of Gods judgment o 1 Corinthians 5 – Immorality and possible misunderstanding of Paul’s message  Man living with stepmother; would not even occur among pagans, should not occur amongst them 2 MIDTERM 2 RELIGST 2HH3  Proud of immorality  may be misunderstanding of Paul’s message of freedom from the law; grossest activity as an expression of freedom o 1 Corinthians 6 – Individual as a temple of God’s Holy Spirit; dangerous because of immorality, sexual impurity, resorting to prostitute o 1 Corinthians 7 – specific questions; marriage; good to live without marriage in order to devote self fully to God; marriage is not bad o 1 Corinthians 8, 9, 10 – meat offered to idols; can Christians eatthis meat?  Chapter 8 – in principle, no harm eating meat because idols are not real Gods; meat is same as any  Chapter 10 – should not eat meat if it affects others; if meat is eaten in front of those who believe that it is worship of other Gods, it may encourage idolatry  Principle – right to something, but right out not be exercised if it has adverse effects on others o 1 Corinthians 11 – roles and nature of men and women are different in creation and should be respected in the church  Reference to a veil and angels  The Lords Supper – not observing it properly o 1 Corinthians 12-14 – spiritual gifts; love; spiritual gifts (refer to 1 Corinthians 13) o 1 Corinthians 15 – some may not believe in the resurrection  Greco-Roman thought – material world and body < spiritual world; spiritual world imprisoned by body, death liberates spirit  belief in life after death, but not resurrection of the body  Resurrection of Jesus – first fruits of those who sleep; example of what will happen or all believers; if belief in Christ’s resurrection, cannot deny resurrection of the body  body will be raised in a spiritual way  Lists witnesses of Christ’s resurrection using traditional language, showing transmission of information in early church – Peter/Sephas, 12 Apostles, >50, James, all Apostles, Paul  1 Corinthians 13 o Context – love between spiritual gifts chapters  gifts are to be used to edify love  1 Corinthians 12  1 Corinthians 12:1-11 – variety of spiritual gifts (tongues, prophecy) given to fulfill certain roles  1 Corinthians 12:12-31 – one body; gifts related to body, individual members have function important to the whole  everyone is equal; should not be elevating certain gifts above others  1 Corinthians 13 – love  1 Corinthians 14:1-25 – tongues < prophesy; prophesy build up the church, tongues build up individual (unless there is an interpreter) o Details  1 Corinthians 13:1-3 – mentions certain gifts; if you have these gifts, but do not have love, it amounts to nothing; also to humble those who boast in their gift  Tongues (angels, men), Prophecy, Understanding/Knowledge (foolishness of God>wisdom of man; humble the braggarts), Faith (demonstrations of saving faith), Giving (Jesus giver of life; seeming best way of demonstrating spirituality)  1 Corinthians 13:6-7 – love is more than a feeling; is the negation of self for others  Love does not rejoice at wrongdoing o Eg/ Instance of man sleeping with step mother – absolute freedom from law; evil in church o Eg/ Bringing disputes before the government – using government to steal from others; lost if problem cannot be solved within church o Eg/ Divisive nature of church – elevating self above others; if opponents fall can be on top o Eg/ Discipline – leaders rebuke and discipline church when someone falls  Love rejoices in the truth o Eg/ Exposing man sleeping with step mother to help him; give flesh away, soul to the Lord o Eg/ Discipline should be used to elevate church (teach) not elevate self  It always protects, always trusts, always hopes, always perseveres – love has no limits, regardless of what people do to you (distinguish from someone being taken advantage of, as Marx claims, “opiate of the masses”, Christianity emulsifies life)  Travel Plans (1 Cor 16:1-8) rd o Recall: Corinth (~18 months; Acts 18; first visit)  Jerusalem  Ephesus (3 years; begin. of 3 missionary journey) o Plans: Ephesus  Macedonia  Corinth o Writing from Ephesus, want to visit Corinth after Macedonia, don’t want to visit in passing, wants to spend time there o Has not yet decided whether he will go to Jerusalem for the collection; wants Corinthians to prepare for collection 2 Corinthians  Outline of events (mentioned in 2 Cor) o Change of travel plans (2 Cor 1:15) – Ephesus  Corinth  Macedonia  Corinth  Judea; (Corinth twice; Judea for collection)  Recall plans from 1 Cor: Ephesus  Macedonia  Corinth o After Macedonia did not return to Corinth to avoid another painful visit – member of Corinthian community had pained and offended Paul (2 Cor 1:23) o Paul wrote tearful letter (Cor C, not in possession) after offense, outlining punishment of offender, which was carried by Titus to Corinth o Paul had missionary opportunity in Troas; was uneasy because was meant to meet Titus there, but he was not present and was worried about what happened to him in Corinth – Paul went to Macedonia (2 Cor 2:12) o Titus arrived in Macedonia – brought good news to Paul from Corinth, they had punished offender as instructed (2 Cor 7:5) o Paul writes letter to explain that offender should be welcomed back and forgiven (Cor D/2 Cor 1-9) 3 MIDTERM 2 RELIGST 2HH3  2 Corinthians 1-9 Themes – (context: on good terms with Corinthians; welcome back offender) o Compare Old Covenant (Moses) with New Covenant (Paul) – Paul as a theologian; relationship between Israel’s history with person of Jesus (2 Cor 3:1-18) Old New Covenant Covenant of the letter/law; written on tabletsCovenant of the Spirit; written on hearts stone Ministry Ministry of death; condemnation Ministry of life; justification, righteousness, acquittal, approval of God Given with Divine Glory God’s glory Even more glorious Temporary/Lasting Temporary Lasting o Nature of Service under New Covenant (2 Cor 4-5) – covenant inaugurated by Jesus death, service marked by suffering with Jesus in own life; reenact death of Christ everyday so power seen in us is not from us but from God  Those opposing Paul, claiming to have better credentials  true nature of a servant is through serving and suffering, not impressive externals o Basics of Message (2 Cor 5-6) – reconciliation between God and human kind  Salvation – God’s judgment coming on world; believes saved from divine wrath (1 Thess)  Redemption – (Romans)  Justification – people considered condemned will be acquitted and declared righteous  Reconciliation – hostility emerged because of sin; desire for God and human kind to be on good terms; Jesus has allowed for reconciliation; Paul ambassador and messenger on Gods behalf for reconciliation o Collection – Macedonia is contributing even though they are poor; Corinthians should participate (1 Cor 16; 2 Cor 8-9)  2 Corinthians 10-13 – may be a different letter than 2 Cor 1-9 (good terms)  accusations between Paul and Corinthians; support has broken down o Meek when present; bold when away (2 Cor 10:1) o Powerful letters; weak and contemptible speech among Corinthians (2 Cor 10:10) o Do not care for Corinthians because support is not accepted (2 Cor 11:1-11) o Falls short of super apostles (2 Cor 12:11)  Super Apostles – came with impressive credentials; make demands of Corinthians  Paul’s response (2 Cor 11) –compelled to “take on role of fool” and boast, then comparisons  Paul truer servant because of suffering; inappropriate standards that Super Apostles use to claim superiority; boast in weakness, not strengths; in weakness that Christ shows his power o Using collection to exploit, for own financial gain (2 Cor 12:16-18) o Questioning whether Christ speaks in Paul, whether Paul is really a Christian Apostle (2 Cor 13:3)  2 Cor 1-9 and 2 Cor 10-13  may be different letter 2 Corinthians 1-9 2 Corinthians 10-13 Relationship Good relationship; confidence in Corinth Objections and accusations from Corinth; Paul’s confidence has deteriorated Collection in Future tense regarding collection Past tense regarding collection Jerusalem - Will send 3 people to Corinth to help in collect- Being accused of using collection for own purposes (Titus + 2 brothers [from church, from Paul]) - Paul says that Titus and two brothers who were sent did not exploit Corinth o Explanation for difference – i) interval of time before finishing letter ii) two separate letters  Note: famous benediction (last verse) – acknowledges trinity  trinity is implied, not explicit; doctrine had not yet been formed o Anachronistic – taking something from a later period and attributing it to the past o 14May the grace of the Lord Jesus Christ, and the love of God, and the fellowship of the Holy Spirit be with you all.  2 Corinthians – last communication between Paul and Corinthians; seems to end on bad terms; mentions Corinth on good terms in Romans (regarding collection in Jerusalem) Galatians  Paul’s first letter – either 1 Thessalonians or Galatians  Do not know location – may have been written in Ephesus, around same time as 1 Corinthians  Recipients of Letter o Geographically Galatians  Southern Galatian Hypothesis/Provincial Explanation  People who lives in province of Galatia, not ethnically Galatians – Acts 13-14; Paul in SE Turkey o Ethnically Galatians  Northern Galatian Hypothesis/Ethnic Explanation  People lived further N of Turkey – not in Acts (Acts not complete recollection)  Galatians 1 – Galatians (gentiles) believe that Jesus is the Messiah, but begin to follow trouble-makers who teach circumcision and Jewish Law; outsiders seem to undermine Paul’s calling as an Apostle and his message must be incorrect o Paul defends that he is called by God to be an Apostle; message received, not by people, but by God  Paul could not have received second hand information, because little time spent in Jerusalem with Peter and James  Emphasis on former life; once persecuted the church and adhered to Jewish Law – i) could not have received message from Peter (persecuting Peter); must have been divine conversion and authorization ii) life was like that of false teachers; God would not have intervened with Paul’s life if his message were not true  Jerusalem apostles confirmed Paul’s message (Gal 2) o Reasoning of false teachers – Jesus is still the Messiah, but that does not change the fact that Jews are Gods people; Jews are circumcised, thus circumcision is necessary to be God’s people 4 MIDTERM 2 RELIGST 2HH3  Galatians 2 o Gal 2:1-10 – ambiguous; bracketed sentences; going to Jerusalem through revelation (v1-3)  false brothers, slavery vs. freedom (v3-5)  Jerusalem apostles confirmed Paul’s message (v6-10) (v3-5 seem out of place)  Nature of Galatians 2:4-5 (false brothers teaching circumcision)  Related events – situation in the church with false brothers teaching circumcision, related to revelation  Goes to Jerusalem to solve problem  Unrelated events – Paul goes to Jerusalem, gets gospel approved  situation in the church with false brothers teaching circumcision  Paul uses approval in Jerusalem to explain that his Gospel message is validated; do not listen to false brothers  Affirmation of Paul’s Gospel by the Apostles – Paul’s mission to Gentiles (uncircumcised) = mission of Pater, James and John to the Jews (circumcised)  agree on mission; not giving authority but agreeing on author from Christ  Galatians 2:1-10 and Acts 15 Galatians 2 Acts 15 Where Jerusalem Jerusalem
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