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Religious Studies
Stephen Westerholm

RELIG 2HH3 MIDTERM 2 Religious Studies 2HH3 – Oct 1, 2013 1 Thessalonians -First, earliest, Christian writing that we have  1 Thessalonians (Paul’s writing)  Paul’s letters are the earliest Christian writings  Some think 1 Thessalonians was written first (others think that Galatians was first) -Gospels: people thought it was important to write things down what Jesus’ apostles were saying (preserve memories) -Paul’s circumstance when he wrote 1 Thessalonians: nd  Paul visited Thessalonica shortly on his 2 missionary journey  went to the synagogue for 3 weeks until he was driven out and went to Berea, then Athens (famous speech). Then went to Corinth (Acts 18)  Silas & Timothy joined him in Corinth (Acts 18:5) -Why Paul was writing the letter: Acts 17 -Paul was persecuted in Philippi before he went to Thessalonica -People in Thessalonica accepted his message warmly, became a good example to other -Paul then went to Athens  In Athens, Paul was worried for the people in Thessalonica  they were experiencing some persecuting and Paul was worried how they were responding to the persecution  They were firm when Paul was there, but were they standing firm after he left? Was Paul’s work in Thessalonica in vain?  Paul sent Timothy back to find out how they were doing -1 Thessalonians: Paul was in Athens, sent Timothy to Thessalonica to find out how they were doing and to come back with news (good news – they were anxious to see Paul, and have nothing but good memories) -Acts: Timothy & Silas joined him in Corinth Major Themes in 1 Thessalonians -Written around 50AD, from Corinth to Thessalonians  Within 20 years, letters distributed from Palestine??  ???????????????????????? -Paul set up his trade in Thessalonica separate himself from other travelling entertainers (distinguish himself)  1 Thess. 2:5  emphasis on this: the pure motives of Paul & his coworkers (they weren’t doing this for any monetary gain)  Sensitive point: Jesus told his apostles to accept support freely, but Paul didn’t do that o Problem: In a community where Paul didn’t accept support, but other apostles accepted support  Might think Paul is too proud, or that he isn’t on the same level as the other apostles (negative impression of Paul) o Major topic when Paul writes to the Corinthians -Warm response Paul receives when they go to Thessalonica  people “turned from idols to serve the living and true God”  Implies that people in Thessalonica weren’t Jews  Jews still serve the same God, not other idols  Predominately a Gentile community -Return of Jesus: mentioned in every chapter  Major theme of 1 Thessalonians and main emphasis of Paul  1 Thess. 1:9  “Turn from idols to the living God and wait for his Son from heaven to deliver us from the wrath to come”  Expectation of Paul & Thessalonians that God will come and judge the world (“Wrath to come”)  some will be delivered (followers of Jesus) o Believers can look forward to the coming of God’s son to deliver them from the wrath  Suggests that main emphasis of Paul’s message is that God is about the judge the world and you better escape judgment by accepting the deliverance from judgment through his son  Emphasized so strongly that a problem arose in the Thessalonian’s mind, that Paul had to address at end of ch. 4 o They were expecting the return of Christ to come so soon that they were wondering what happened to believers in Jesus that already died – do they lose out because they didn’t live until the time that Christ returned? o Paul says that those who died did not lose out and they would be raised from the dead  Ch. 5 – “You are children of light so you won’t be taken by surprise when that day comes”  The day of the Lord will not overtake you by surprise o Amos 5:18  first reference in OT for “The day of the Lord”  Darkness, not light; gloom, disaster, judgment, not deliverance o The people were looking forward to the day – presumably they thought that the Day of the Lord is the day the Lord comes and judges their enemies. It will be a day of light & celebration for the believers (Amos contradicts the people’s expectations of the day) o Amos takes popular beliefs and turns it upside down: common belief: we are God’s special people; common expectation: we’re special and God cares for us in a special way  Amos says that you’re special, held accountable, and judged more than others o Talking about a day in history when God will intervene in history and judge his people  Assyrians came and God’s people were in exile  Day of the Lord: event where God judges his people in the course of history  Jewish view of Day of the Lord: God brings history as we know it to an end (see to it that his creation is restored some day)  Paul is building on Jewish expectation, taking it over, but giving it a Christian mutation  those who aren’t delivered on that day will be the followers of Jesus????, and the Day of the Lord becomes the Day of Christ (Lord identified with Jesus)  Identification of the Lord in OT as Christ: major difference Paul says -Implicit Christology (1 Thessalonians)  the study of the nature of Christ  Implicit, not explicit (ex. John: in the beginning was the Word and the Word was God etc.)  Nowhere in 1 Thess. does Paul tell people what they should believe about Christ o Day of the Lord becomes Day of Christ (role of Lord of OT is interpreted as Christ) o Seen throughout NT that the Lord in Hebrew scriptures is applied to Jesus in the NT  1 Thess. 1:1 : church in God the Father AND Jesus Christ  Paul not telling us what to believe about Jesus, but implicit about nature of Christ (joining God and Jesus together)  In OT, God is referred to as “God” or the “Lord”  Lord in OT is usually in capital letters (LORD) o God is the title and Yahweh (LORD) is the divine name  the LORD is God o Typical of Paul to take these 2 divine names in Hebrew scriptures and uses God as the father and the LORD as Christ  1 Thess.: 3:11-13  prayer is directed jointly to God the father and our LORD Jesus (no explicit Christology, but implicit that God the Father and LORD Jesus are equally appropriate addressees for prayer)  1 Thess. 5:18 -Theme of moral advice Paul gives to the Thessalonians (ch.4 & 5)  Traditional moral advice that’s given within the early church  1) Insistence on sexual purity/immorality  Jewish standards much different from Gentile standards o Gentiles common for a man to have a wife for childbearing, but also other women for sexual pleasures  2) Primacy of love Love becomes the great commandment, and all of moral duty is summed up in commandment to love  3) Important that they each work with their own hands, support themselves, not be lazy and rely on the support of others(Specific to Thessalonica) o People had very real expectations that Jesus would return at any time  If Jesus will return at any time, why bother working? o Indifference towards supporting themselves and becoming a burden on others (that’s why Paul worked himself, to set an example) -Many of the themes we associate most closely with Paul are not found in 1 Thess.  Language & common themes about the law are typically associated with Paul (none of the typically Pauline language found in 1 Thess.) o Walk in Spirit, struggle with flesh & spirit, justification by faith  Explanation 1: This is the earliest letter that Paul wrote – didn’t develop distinguishing style yet. Issues like justification became issues in later letters and not a central point in this letter yet (themes emerged through contact with other communities later on)  Explanation 2: This letter is not just sent from Paul, but from Paul, Silas & Timothy (1 Thess. 1:1) o Did Paul just include Silas & Timothy as a courtesy, or did they have a hand in writing the letter? o Is this why the letter is less typically Pauline compared to other letters? Religious Studies 2HH3 – Oct 4, 2013 Midterm Test Review -Human beings must decide what they do  presupposes that there is no one in the universe to tell us what is right, we decide for ourselves (the only highest moral agents in the world)  “Right” or “wrong” no longer means what it means  isn’t universal for everyone  It’s more like “what’s more beneficial for me” Human beings decide whether they will do what is right  right/wrong not determined by us, but dictated by someone greater than us, or in the nature of things  In line with Proverb’s thinking  the wise thing is the right thing (determined by wisdom of God in creation) -What assumptions lie behind claim in Deut. that even non-Israelites will recognize Israel’s laws  Laws were given by Israel’s God (the “rightness” doesn’t lie simply in the fact that God told Israel what to do)  Presupposed there is a moral order in which all humans ought to live. God spelled this out in the laws given to Israel, but corresponds with what all nations should do -Which readings likely to be original? (“Servant of God”, “Fellow-worker of God”, “Servant & fellow-worker of God”, “Servant of God and our fellow-worker”)  The most difficult expression is likely to be the original  a scribe won’t change an easy line to difficult, but might change difficult to easy  Most difficult is “fellow-worker of God”  places human beings on the same level as God (easier to say that they are a servant of God)  Conflation – 2 readings and a scribe combines both of them (servant and fellow-worker of God)  “Our fellow-worker”  simply “fellow-worker” still sounds too equal to God Pseuderigraphia? -There are conventions that say things that aren’t true (ex. there are no real hobbits), but since we recognize the convention, we don’t believe that it is true and that you’re lying -These conventions vary from one society to another  what is recognized as conventional & not lying in one society might not be recognized in another society?  Same case in moral writings -In ancient world, they write in the name of someone other than themselves  writing Pseuderigrapha (“false writing”)  Writings that are Aristotle or pseudo-Aristotle (someone writing on behalf of Aristotle)  Letters writing on behalf of 12 patriarchs (12 tribe of Israel) written much after their time  Apocrypha: has a later letter written in the name of Jeremiah  Ignatius (bishop of Antioch) was martyred in Rome. One way to Rome, wrote 7 letters to different communities to encourage and warn then o There’s a whole host of letters from the name of Ignatius, and wasn’t until later that it was figured out which letters Ignatius actually wrote  1 Cor.  Paul never wrote to the Laodician, but there was never a letter, so someone composed a letter to the Laodicians from “Paul” -Problem: What do you think was the thinking of people who wrote pseuderigraphically. What are the conventions that allow people to do this?  A sign of respect to the person, want to embody them, the spirit of the original teacher  Disciples of Plato/Aristotle write in their masters name (reverence for their master)  maybe a new situation arose that the master never addressed, so their disciples will address it in their name  Disciples told specifically by masters to write in their name  You have a message you want to get across, but no one will listen to you  write in the name of someone else so you will get noticed (more value)  Name of Solomon was attached to everything in the nature of wisdom literature  written around the 1 st century, in Greek and referred to as the wisdom of Solomon (Solomon didn’t write in Greek) -How do you recognize pseuderigraphic writing from a genuine writing?  Stylistic differences o Amount of writing  if you have more writings from the original writer, you have enough to go on to figure out their style (need a certain quantity of literature to decide what the style is)  style might change over the years, so need sufficient evidence  Signs that writings come from a different time period (ex. written as though in times of Solomon, but signs show that it was written in a different time)  Anachronism?  Content – person writing things that are contrary to the thinking of the original author o Not a sure fire sign: people’s content might change over the years Paul’s Writing – Pseudographia? -Are any letters attributed to Paul a pseudeopographic writing?  Think 2 Thessalonians might be  No question that Paul is the author: Romans, 1&2 Corinthians, Galatians, Philippians, 1 Thessalonians, Philemon  With other 6, there are varying degrees of debate on who the author is -2 Thess. And Colossians, many scholars believe these were by Paul, but some think they weren’t -More scholars believe that Ephesians was not by Paul, though a few do -Still more think that 1&2 Timothy and Titus (Pastoral Epistles) were not by Paul, but some still do 2 Thessalonians -Why write 2 Thess. when you already wrote 1 Thess. And so much seems to repeat  Parts of 2 Thess. seem repetitious of 1 Thess.  Another part of 2 Thess. seems to contradict what is said in 1 Thess.  If it’s like Paul, it can’t be by Paul but if it’s NOT like Paul, still can’t be by Paul confusing  No noticeable stylistic differences  Parts of 2 Thess. seem to repeat what is said in 1 Thess. so why write and repeat yourself? (their faith, love and persecution and Paul is giving thanksgiving for them) o Suggests that there is an imitator of Paul by copying themes that we find in Paul’s letters  Expectation of the future: o 1 Thess. – Jesus is going to return, judgment is coming sense that it will happen very soon  The Thessalonians expected that it would happen SO soon, they were surprise people had time to die before Jesus came back  Impression that Jesus could come back at any time (don’t be caught by surprise like a thief in the night ) o 2 Thess. – Timing of Jesus’ return after a lot of things happen (don’t get the idea that it is already here)  A lawless/antichrist figure is going to arise, lead astray many people, set himself up in a temple of God and perform signs & wonders to deceive people. Then Jesus will appear and destroy him.  2 Thess. 2:7 – Antichrist is going to come in the future but hasn’t come yet, though his spirit is working on earth  lawless figure won’t fully come until the thing that restrains it lets him loose  Maybe referring to Roman government keeping restraint on lawlessness  Why would Paul not mention explaining what the thing restraining is?  Maybe Paul didn’t want to specifically say the Roman government (too revolutionary etc.)  Maybe Paul means angelic forces of good vs. evil  Therefore, same author couldn’t have written both  repeated information and different interpretations of future -Counterargument:  2 Thess. is written to correct a misimpression that the Thessalonians got from the first letter  The Thessalonians weren’t working (impression that Jesus would show up at any time, so why bother working?)  Similar problem in 2 Thess. think that someone is copying Paul o But maybe Paul repeats it to correct the misinterpretation by saying that a lot of things have to happen first before Jesus comes back, so keep working -Synoptic gospels and their expectation of the future  combination of some texts saying the Jesus may return at any time, and others saying that Jesus will return after a whole series of events  Purpose of this text to tell followers to be ready and do what they ought to do ALL the time (be ready), but at the same time, warning them of things that will happen before  1 Thess. warning to be ready at any time, 2 Thess. provides more details about Day and events before Jesus’ 2 coming  Same side-by-side comparison in the gospels as in Paul’s letters  say that Paul doesn't contradict himself -Sometimes, people wrote their own letters, dictated to somebody else what to write, or a boss will tell their secretary to “please write a letter and send them to this”  secretary drafts a letter in their own words, sends it to boss and they will sign off on it  Different styles explained  same letter but in different styles, but from same person Religious Studies 2HH3 – Oct 8, 2013 1 Corinthians Manuscript Styles 1 Cor. 11 – 4 places in Bible where Jesus instituted the Lord’s Supper (Matthew, Mark, Luke, 1 Cor.)  Paul mentioned it because there were problems in how the Corinthians were observing the Lord’s supper  he introduces it in a form close to the one in Luke (Matthew & Mark closest to one another, then Luke & Corinthians to one another)  Paul passed on a tradition/sayings/narratives of Jesus passed on to new believers  1 Cor. 11:24 – “This is my body which is for you”, “This is my body, which is broken for you”, “This is my body which is given for you” o “Broken” speaking about breaking bread and using it as a metaphor for Jesus’ body o “for you”  most scholars think it the first reading, most difficult  Scribes wanted to add something: Broken for you metaphor for bread, given for you from what Luke said and to fill out the saying 1 Cor. 13 – “If I give up my body so that I may be burned”, “If I give up my body so that I may boast”  No clear answer  1 letter difference (burned & boast) scribe might make a mistake when copying it  Paul often says that he is wary of people boasting  bad thing, can only boast in the Lord -Paul’s relationship with the Thessalonians were warm, open, good relationships (also with Philippians)  in Macedonia (close to each other) -Corinthians were very suspicious of Paul  wondered about Paul’s agenda, and relationship between Paul & Corinthians eventually broke down Acts 18 -Paul went from Athens to Corinth, was there for 18 months at least. He taught in the synagogues, but when he was no longer allowed, he left and taught in the house of Thitius Justice? He was brought before the Roman proconsul, Gallio, and Gallio realized it was an inner-Jewish dispute and dismissed the case (this is the one point where we can pin down the date where something happened – Gallio was proconsul in the year 51-52 (Paul was in Corinth in year 51-52 CE) -Then Paul left Corinth, returned to Jerusalem and started on his 3 journey and went to Ephesus & modern southern Turkey for about 3 years  Little is said about the 3 years  a riot happened for a day was mentioned, but that’s about it  Paul wrote his first letter to the Corinthians (he’s in Ephesus as he writes it 1 Cor. 16, but he hopes to visit them) -Paul mentions that he already wrote them an earlier letter (but we don’t have it)  1 Cor. 5:9  Referring to earlier letter already written to them (not all of Paul’s correspondents survived)  Paul heard different things from Corinth and is writing letters about that  Paul has different sources (Chloe is a wealthy business woman who has people who travelled to Ephesus for business and informed Paul of things that have happened)  heard that there is disunity in the church  Also visited from leaders in the Corinthian church (ch. 16) who refreshed him and told him about things going on in Corinth  Paul was very well informed and could deal with problems in the church -Paul also speaks of a letter that they have written to him (3 church leaders or Chloe) who brought Paul a letter  They addressed a series of questions  First 6 chapters of 1 Cor., he takes up issues that he has heard about them, then addresses issues (ch.7) that they had addressed to him in the letter -Paul also tells of his travel plans  will visit them shortly -No one focus/theme in the first letter to Corinthians (so many issues)  Galatians and Thessalonians have 1 issue  thanksgiving for Thessalonians etc.  Thus, we know much more about what happened in a church meeting at Corinth than any other church (1 Cor. 11 – issues about Lord’s Supper) -Danger: this is the only church where we have this kind of information  we may assume what happened in Corinth occurred in all the other churches (NOT TRUE)  Corinth might have been unusual and the things going on in their church meetings weren’t going in other churches -Church meetings were very unstructured (ch. 14)  Apostles were present in Jerusalem, and probably took more of a leadership role Paul’s Response to a Series of Issues 1) Church Disunity 1 Cor. 1 (ending)  there are divisions in the church (some cast support for Paul, Peter, Apollos, Christ etc.)  Unity in church is breaking down  these things shouldn’t happen  Talks about the cross  How is this a response to the issues Paul was talking about (dissensions in the Church) o If you think about message of cross (God used humiliation of a criminal’s execution as his means of salvation), God is overturning human values & standards o The cross of Christ shows that what appears foolish to us is how God exercises his wisdom and brings salvation o Corinthians are saying that they support different people for different reasons  they are lining up behind one person or another based on human standards (things normal human beings value) o This is wrong, because God has showed the emptiness of human’s pretentions and values through the cross as his means of salvation  All early Christians knew Jesus was crucified, common to speak about Christ dying for our sins/redemption o Paul is the first to make a great deal that is was a death ON THE CROSS (not simply that Christ died for our sins) o Also writes in his other letters  Christ died the most shameful of deaths (shows that God overturns human values/standards) o Philippians: shows great extent that Christ emptied himself to even death of a cross o Moral/theological lessons on the actual nature of Christ’s death 2) Believers as the Temple of God 1 Cor. 3:16-17; 6  Paul speaks of believers as the temple of God’s Holy Spirit  Idea that community of people could be a “temple”  implies that this is the dwelling place of God  Temple in Jerusalem (dwelling place of God) different from synagogues (where people gathered, read Torah etc.)  You didn’t go into the temple unless you were a priest; you met in the courtyard outside if you were ritually pure etc. o The temple was God’s dwelling place  Temple no longer confined to a geological location but wherever God’s people were present  It’s a dangerous thing to be a temple of God (also a privilege)  Paul refers to people as the temple of God  Ch.3  community of believers is the temple of God o If there is disunity in the community, they are destroying the temple of God and God won’t like it o In danger of God’s judgment  Ch. 6 talking about individual believer as the temple of Holy Spirit o Holy Spirit lives in each individual believer, but it’s also a dangerous thing o Talking about dangers of immorality, using prostitutes etc. o Must live a moral life as temples -Important theme: dwelling place of God transferred from a place to a body of believers 3) Immorality 1 Cor. 5 Gross immorality – man living with stepmother  Paul says it’s horrible - wouldn’t be permitted among pagans, but yet it’s happening in your community  Paul says “you are proud of it”  Paul had proclaimed to them a message of freedom from the law o Certain people interpreted this freedom from the law as being free to do whatever they choose o If you believe you are free to do whatever you choose, wouldn’t doing the grossest thing be the greatest expression of your “Christian” freedom? o Take pride as it’s the perfect expression of “Christian” freedom 1 Cor. 6  Resorting to prostitutes (common practice by Greeks)  Paul doesn’t refer to a law, but refers to a Christian principle (temple of Holy Spirit – can’t be using prostitutes to satisfy your sexual desires) 4) Marriage 1 Cor. 7  Paul deals with specific issues that the Corinthians raised  Ch. 7 – is it better to not marry at all? Anything to do with body is bad, anything to do with spirit is good o Spirit is trapped in an evil body  better to not do anything with the body at all  Paul says in principle, it’s good to live without marriage (not because it’s bad, but you can devote yourself more wholeheartedly to the Lord without distraction)  Paul also says it’s not a bad thing – you are free to marry, and within marriage, sexual relations are in order 5) Meat for Idols 8-10  Meat offered to idols  Most meat on the market in Corinth was from animals that were sacrificed to pagan gods (could believers with good conscious eat this kind of meat?  Ch.8  in principle, it’s okay to eat the meat (the idols don’t exist and you know that)  Ch. 10  you shouldn’t be doing this in certain circumstances. There are some people who think of this meat as meat being offered to idols (they might think you are participating in idolatry if you eat this meat) o If you eat this meat in good conscious, but in front of people who think this is idolatry, you might be telling others that it is okay to commit idolatry o Need to think about how it will affects others  if it damages the conscious of others (encourage them to do something they shouldn’t), then you shouldn’t do it, even if you can in principle Ch. 9? Paul gives example of someone who has the right to do something, but not if it has a negative effect on others  Ex. Paul’s relationship in accepting the help of other believers (he has the right, but doesn’t use it) Ch. 11 Relationships between men and women in the church  reference to the veil (don’t know how it works in the ancient world), reference to angels  Roles/nature in men and women are different in creation and should be respected in the church -Talks about Lord’s Supper 6) Spiritual Gifts Ch. 12-14  spiritual gifts  There are all kinds of charismatic gifts, but they were valuing the wrong gifts  The most important ones are those that benefits most to others (prophecies vs. tongues) o Prophecies can help others Religious Studies 2HH3 – Oct 11, 2013 1 Corinthians 1 Corinthian 12-15 -Spiritual gifts are for building up the community and those are the most valuable -1 Cor. 12 – Paul talks about the church as a whole like a body (theme in Paul’s letter)  Everyone was concerned about one particular gift, but they don’t realize that God distributed the gifts among the community so they can function together as a body (can’t all be eyes or ears – need to appreciate the diversity of gifts) 7) Resurrection -Ch. 15 – discussion of the resurrection (not sure why)  Paul speaks as if members in the Corinthian community don’t believe in the resurrection – why?  Greco-Romans thought about the material world/physical body as inferior, and the spiritual world as superior  this life is the life in which the superior element of human nature is imprisoned in the physical body  Death brings deliverance of the spiritual part of the person from the body  Maybe Corinthians adopted the idea and thought about life after death, but didn’t think of resurrection of the body (inferior part of nature) o Death is the escape of the spirit from the body with resurrection from the body  Paul talked about resurrection of the body of believers to come  talked about resurrection of Jesus o Speaks of it as the first-fruits of those who sleep  sign that there are more to come o First of what will follow for all believers later on (their resurrection in entailed in his  as Jesus rose from the dead, so will they o Makes no sense for Corinthians to NOT believe in the resurrection of others but believe in the resurrection of Jesus  Paul supplies a list of those who have witnessed the resurrected Jesus  “I received this info from others and pass it on to you” o Transmission of info from those within the early church o First to Cephas (Peter), the 12, more than 500, James, apostles, then last to Paul (lists himself with others to whom Jesus has appeared) 1 Corinthians 16 -1 Cor. 16: 1-8 wants Corinthians to prepare for Paul taking up collection for believers in Jerusalem -In Ephesus as he writes  plan is to visit them, but will visit Macedonia first  Doesn’t want to just visit Macedonia in passing on his way to Corinth (wants to spend some time in Macedonia)  Taking up collection for believers in Jerusalem, but not clear whether Paul himself will go up with the collection (Paul hasn’t decided if he’ll go up himself)  These points are important in 2 Corinthians 2 Corinthians 1? -V. 15-16  2 ways in which Paul’s plans have changed since he wrote 1 Cor. 16  1) He was originally going to go to Macedonia first, then Corinth o Now he will go to Corinth, Macedonia, back to Corinth, then Judea  visit Corinth twice  2) He will go to Jerusalem with the collection -V. 23 Paul did not want to go to Corinth the second time, instead wrote a letter (“another painful visit”)  Paul planned Corinth, Macedonia, then Corinth, but the first time he went to Corinth, it turned into a “painful visit”  rather than return and have ANOTHER painful visit, he wrote them a letter instead History of Paul’s Relations with Corinthian Believers 1) Paul’s First Visit (Acts 18)  first contact with Corinthians 2) Corinthians A (1 Cor 5:9)  talking about earlier letter Paul sent to the Corinthians but was never found 3) Corinthians B = “1 Corinthians”  the one in the Bible, to answer a series of issues/questions that arisen there 4) Visited Corinth – Painful Visit (2 Cor. 2:1)  We have to read between the lines about what had happened and the content of the tearful letter (Paul & Corinthians know what happened, so Paul didn’t state it out in his letter)  Somebody has pained Paul (caused him problems there)  Paul doesn’t want to make it too personal a thing o Some personal offense to Paul  someone in the Corinthian community offended Paul (maybe resisting something Paul said) o Paul withdrew from Corinthian under such awkward circumstances that he didn’t think it was a good time to return, so he wrote them a letter instead 5) Corinthians C = “2 Corinthians 2:1-11” wrote letter to Corinth instead of visiting a second time  Tearful letter  much anguish, pain o Asking Corinthians to take steps to punish the individual who wronged him o Carried by Titus  Something happened between when Paul wrote the tearful letter, and when he is writing a new letter  Paul went to Troas so he could carry on his missionary work there  uneasy because he expected to meet Titus, but Titus didn’t show up  Therefore, he passed up on the mission opportunity and went to Macedonia instead  Paul then drops the narrative and picks it up in ch. 7 -Ch. 7:5 Anxious about Titus not showing up, so Paul was relieved when Titus showed up at Macedonia  Anxious because Titus was in Corinth and his mission was to bring the tearful letter asking them to punish the person who wronged Paul  Paul wasn’t sure how they would respond to the letter  Paul was very concerned about Titus’ reception in Corinth after bringing the tearful letter (which side did the Corinthians take and how they did respond to Paul’s request to ask that they punish him)  The Corinthians have taken Paul’s side, punished the person, and shown their zeal/love to Paul o Paul was greatly relieved 6) Corinthians D = 2 Corinthians 1-9  Written after Titus’ return and brought good news about the Corinthians’ response to Paul’s tearful letter  Paul now asking the Corinthian community to relent on the punishment they imposed on the offender (Paul’s ready to forgive, so they should too) o Expression his gratefulness to the Corinthian’s response to his tearful letter and to forgive the person who wronged Paul 7) Corinthians E = 2 Corinthians 10-13  Come from later letter than 2 Corinthians 1-9  Paul has been reconciled with Corinthians when he writes 2 Cor. 1-9  ends 2 Cor. 7 that he has “complete confidence in you” o They are loyal to Paul and he has complete confidence o Something happened between 2 Cor. 1-9 and 10-13  serious accusations between Paul and Corinthians  10:1-10  Corinthians think Paul is “meek when present, but bold when away”  11:7-11  Paul not accepted support from them as a sign that he didn’t care for them  12:11  Paul falls short from the “super-apostles”  12: 16-1  Suggestion that Paul is using the collection to line his own pockets (exploiting them for his own financial gain)  13:3  asking whether Paul is really a Christian apostle at all (does Christ really speak in him?))  Paul’s confidence in Corinthians also deceased  afraid they’re going to be led by Satan, find them in sin, whether they are Christians or not… -What happened between ch. 1-9 and 10-13?  Most scholars think 2 different letters o 2 Cor. 8:16-19 Paul talking about collection he’s taking up for poor believers in Jerusalem and he’s sending Titus to help Corinthians get their collection together o 3 people going to Corinth to help get collection ready: Titus, an unnamed brother appointed by the churches themselves (representatives – not Paul’s choice), and another brother of Paul’s choice o 2 Cor. 12:16-18 Paul refutes the thought that he was exploiting the collection, by saying that he already sent Titus and the other brother and asking if they were exploiting the Corinthians as well  Thus is a later letter than ch. 1-9 ****-2 Cor. 1-9 earlier letter than 10-13  something different going on (different tone – good relations broken down completely) Separate letter: when he writes 1-9, he’s sending Titus and another brother and help with collection 10-13  refers back to mission of Titus and other brother, asking if they were honorable and didn’t exploit them  makes it seem like it’s a later letter - Maybe same letter, but interval of time between ch.1-9 and 10-13, and in the meantime, he’s heard some bad news about the Corinthians and had to change his letter tone -Super apostles being compared to Paul  Paul doesn’t measure up (no credentials, no demands) o Using against Paul that there are “super apostles” who’s credentials are better and had made more imposing demands to the Corinthians than Paul had done o Paul ironically asking if they like being slaves, asking in what way did he come short to the super apostles? o Paul’s response: Corinthian impressed by the boasting of the apostles’ credentials. Paul says that it’s inappropriate to boast (be a fool), but the Corinthians are forcing him to boast about HIS credentials  2 Cor. 11  Paul is Hebrew, Israelite, a descendent of Abraham, greater labor/imprisonment/flogging, was in danger, shipwrecked, hungry/thirsty/naked, anxious about other churches  Proves that he is a “better servant of Christ” because of his suffering  shows how inappropriate their standards are that they are using to claim that they are superior servants of Christ (great because of wisdom, authority, visions etc.)  Paul boasts of his weakness, what he suffered, because he says that in his weakness is Christ’s power evident  True mark of apostle is not impressive credentials and their boasting, but is the suffering of a crucified Christ and the weakness through which divine power of Christ can be seen Themes 2 Cor. 3  Paul compared old covenant and new covenant (Moses’ ministry vs. Paul’s ministry)  What God was doing in Abraham and Moses, and what God was doing in Jesus Christ  Paul works out the relationship between Israel’s history and what he believers God is doing in Jesus  thus he compared the old covenant and the new Old Covenant  Letter (law)  people encountered God’s demand under the law (written on stone)  Ministry of Death  Covenant leads to Condemnation  Divine covenant – glorious  Temporary New Covenant  Spirit  encountered God’s demand not based on external factors, but based on what God writes on their heart and the gift of the Spirit  Ministry of Life  Covenant leads to Justification/Acquittal  Divine covenant – far more glorious  Lasting -2 Cor.4-5  descriptions of nature of service under new covenant  New covenant inaugurated under death of Jesus  covenant marked by suffering with Jesus  Re-enacting death of Jesus in one’s own life day by day so the power seen in us is not from us, but from God  Treasure of Christian message in earth vessels (clay body subject to breakdown, persecution, frailty)  Profound nature of Christian ministry -Those in Corinth opposing Paul, claiming to have better credentials by boasting of their rhetorical skills, spiritual gifts/power  Paul responds by saying the true nature of someone in Christ is not shown by externals, but by suffering (service of a crucified Messiah with involve suffering) -2 Cor. 5-6  Paul describes basics of messages as a message of reconciliation between God and humankind  No one single way of describing his message, but uses number of different pictures o Message of salvation – God’s judgment coming, but follower are saved by divine wrath to come o Message of redemption – seen in Romans o Message of justification – people who are otherwise condemned at the judgment are acquitted (determined righteous) o Message of reconciliation – idea that God and humankind ought to be on good terms, but hostility has emerged because of humanity’s sin (at enmity with each other due to human rebellion against God)  Hostility must end to have a reconciliation  Move for reconciliation has to come from God’s side because humans were the ones who rebelled  God provided through Jesus, a way for humanity to be reconciled to God  Jesus or Paul? is an ambassador on God’s behalf, asking for people to be reconciled to God -Benediction at end of 2 Corinthians: acknowledges father, son and Holy Spirit (treated as divine)  NT provides us with raw data that early church used to come up with the formula of Trinity (Trinity not mentioned in NT)  Anachronistic - that Paul believed in trinity taking something from later period and implying that it was used in the earlier period (doctrine of Trinity not in Paul’s day)  Paul speaks of father, son and HS as all appropriate object of prayer  not specifically say that they are Trinity o Early church later came up with trinity: 3 persons, 1 essence in God -How did things end up between Paul and Corinthians?  Romans 15Paul in Corinth when he writes to Romans  Paul says the churches in Archae? there have contributed towards collection in Jerusalem  Romans15-16  Paul on good terms with Corinthians again, but don’t know how it happened Collection for Jerusalem 2 Cor.8-9  Paul on better terms with Corinthians and asking them about the collection again  Macedonians were doing a great job on the collection even though they were poor Religious Studies 2HH3 – Oct 15, 2013 Galatians -Some think Galatians was earliest letter instead of Corinthians maybe written roughly same time Paul wrote to the Corinthians when he’s in Ephesus -Paul is South-eastern Turkey, Antioch … and established community of believers there -North Galatian Hypothesis vs. South Galatian hypothesis:  Ethnically, people in these cities were not Galatians, so when Paul writes to the Galatians, they lived in the province of Galatea, but are not ethnically Galatians  churches Paul speaks of in Acts 13-14  Or maybe they were ethnically Galatians, and those ethnically Galatians lived further north in interior of modern Turkey  Acts not clear if Paul ever evangelized there (Acts not complete record of everything Paul did, so maybe Paul did go there and do missionary work, even though not recorded) Ethnic + Northern explanation  Paul wrote to those in North who are ethnically Galatian Provincial + Southern explanation – writing to those in the South who are not ethnically Galatian but lived in province of Galatia -Problem in Galatia  Gentile believers got idea that they needed to be circumcised -Troublemakers went to Galatians and gave them a different message they were “Christians” (believe Jesus was Messiah), but also thought non-Jews had to be circumcised and keep Jewish law  Messiah has come, but doesn’t mean they shouldn’t keep the law  Jews are God’s people and had to be circumcised  Messiah coming doesn’t change that Jews are God’s people and that God’s law is still his law  Therefore, need to be circumcised, keep Jewish law  God’s laws -Galatians on verge of accepting what they are being told -Gal. 1-2  seems that Paul talks about his own calling as an apostle, and the way he does it makes it clear that outsiders undermine Paul’s authority and his claim to be an apostle  They undermine Paul’s authority by saying something different than what Paul told them (Paul was wrong) and that he wasn’t an apostle on the same level as others  Paul didn’t see baptism of Christ (Act’s definition of apostle)  grounds for saying that Paul isn’t really an apostle on the same level as the 12 apostles (not on same level) so Paul probably got his message just from other human beings  Peter, James, J
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