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McMaster University
Religious Studies
Stephen Westerholm

RELIG 2HH3 MIDTERM 3 Religious Studies 2HH3 – Nov 5, 2013 -Not true to say that all parts of Scripture equally important  Ecclesiastes not as important as Psalms -Which book most important in NT to Christian faith?  Matthew, John and Romans quoted most frequently in early church  developed most Christian doctrine  Suggested that Orthodox church, gospel of John most important. For Roman Catholic, Matthew, and for protestant, Romans most important  Matthew includes everything that Mark has, but also added things, like Sermon on the Mount o Matthew & John both gospels and stories -Romans most important non-narrative writing in Christian church in NT  Works out Christian theology & thought along with Matthew & John th -Most important theologian in 20 century?  Karl Barth  Famous for commentary on Romans History of Romans -Why does Romans stand out from other letters?  Why more theology here than other letters (more basic letter)? Rome was center of the empire, maybe better chances of circulation?  Other letters mostly written to churches that Paul himself founded, they know him well – Paul doesn’t need to go over basics cause he already told them that when he was there o Paul has never been to Rome  Paul has the opportunity to set forth the gospel as he understands it for people who haven’t heard it from him o Given that there were others with a different sense about what the gospel was about  Paul needs to set forth his understanding of it o Paul had a calling to speak to the Gentiles  Rome center of Gentile world (they need to hear the gospel from the one whose primary responsibility was to the Gentiles) o Paul has an “obligation for them”  wanted to go to them and bring the gospel o Thus, Paul needs to start from the basics  Paul was a controversial figure in 1 century  some liked him a lot, some disliked him a lot (thought he was the apostle, or thought he was less superior). Some opposed his idea of a law-free gospel o These people spread word about Paul and who he was (wasn’t presenting Paul in a light where he would like to be understood) o Paul tells them his perspective, what he stands for, and his understanding of the gospel  Different reasons to why Paul presents his gospel in a more systematic way than other letters o He needs to start from stage 1 (they never heard it before) o Misrepresentations of Paul from others, Paul needs to set things right -Paul more mature in Romans (more mature statement of issues that arisen in earlier communications)  Language of justification by faith (not in Thessalonians, Corinthians etc.) o Paul faced crisis in Galatea where people were told to keep the law  Paul first used language of justification by faith in Christ, not by law (does this only because of a crisis) o In Romans, this became a normal way of Paul’s thinking/repertoire  Part of Paul’s basic message, worked out from crisis in Galatea  Paul talks about church as a body in Corinth crisis (celebrating certain gifts over another)  need whole body o Worked out idea that church is a body in context of particular crisis o In Romans, this is part of Paul’s repertoire (Ch. 12)  1 Cor. 8-10, Paul dealing with issue of whether Christians should eat meat for idols  came up with idea that okay in principle, but don’t do it if offends brother o Worked out in particular crisis in Corinth o In Paul’s normal repertoire in Romans -Romans is a mature statements of themes developed from Paul’s other contacts  most important and influential letter Paul’s Circumstances when writing letter -Romans 1  Paul’s plan is to visit Rome shortly (he’s always wanted to do it, but wasn’t will of God – always stopped)  Paul preparing them for his visit -Romans 15  Paul’s circumstances become clear  Paul about to go to Jerusalem with his collection from Gentile churches to Jewish believers (already talking about this in 1 Cor.)  After this, he wants to go to Spain (finished with work in East and wants to bring gospel to Spain – always been his ambition to take gospel where it has never been before) o Wants to be a pioneer, not build off of what other people have done  Rome on way to Spain, and Paul has always wanted to visit Rome  Paul would visit Rome before going to Spain o Paul asking for support in sending him off to Spain -Ch. 16 – Paul is in Corinth or just outside Corinth  Acts 20:2-3  Paul spent 3 months in Greece before going up to Jerusalem (Greece includes Corinth) o Paul writes Romans in Greece before going up to Jerusalem Why Paul wrote this letter -Preparing Romans for his visit (telling them his plans so they’ll be ready when he comes) -Planning to go on from Rome to Spain and wants their support -Paul is apostle to Gentile (his calling) and Rome is the center of the Gentile world  obligation towards them, so he writes them a letter to set forth the Christian message as he understands it for their benefit -Paul also asks for their prayers on his behalf (end of Romans 15)  Concerned about 2 things when going up to Jerusalem  1) Own safety – some people there regard him as a traitor  2) His service (gift of collection) will be accepted by believers in Jerusalem – Paul so suspicious that maybe even believers in Jerusalem afraid to associate with him/accept money from him o Lots of apprehensions about what might happen to him in Jerusalem and if he’ll be welcomed o Paul eventually got arrested in Jerusalem and went to Rome as a prisoner (not what Paul wanted to do) -How much did Paul know about the circumstances of the Roman church?  Seems like a broad statements about Christian message that you can send anywhere  Romans 14-15  Paul talks about strong and weak believers (strong believing them can eat anything, weak believing that they won’t eat meat, still observe Jewish law) o Did Paul know about the presence of strong & weak believers in church in Rome?  maybe Paul aware of issue in Rome and trying to address particular issue -Church already established, but Paul has never been there  unsure of where and how gospel reached Rome -Romans 13 – government not a problem yet (institution from God)  no suggestion that they are persecuting believers -Towards end of 40s, Roman Emperor banished Jews from Rome how many actually left?  Report that there was too much fighting concerning a “Cristos”  conflict in Jewish community between those who believed in Christ and those who did not  Conflict caused Emperor to banish Jews from Rome (no longer applied when Paul was writing to Romans)  there were Jews that Paul was greeting in his letter (allowed to return by then)  Maybe possible that there was a time then when the believing community in Rome was made exclusively of non-Jews (since Jews were banished from Rome)  When Jews came back and tried to join then, tension between Jewish & non-Jewish believer  suggested that non-Jewish believers looked down on Jewish believer (strong vs. weak believers)  Romans 11  Paul writing to Gentiles to not boast over Jewish people Romans 1:16-17 – Theme Statement - “I am not ashamed of the Gospel”  language means that Paul is openly confessing the gospel  Jesus said if they are ashamed of him, he will be ashamed of them in front of God o Paul openly confessing gospel  Language of Psalms  speaker is in trouble (asking God to not let him down, put him to shame) o Gospel doesn’t let Paul down -Comes from Isaiah – God will bring salvation to people from their exile in Babylon  Language of proclaimer of Good News taken over by Jesus in the gospel (coming of God’s kingdom)  Gospel is good news of God bringing deliverance, redemption & salvation  Paul passing on means of how God brings salvation (not just information he wants people to believe) -Universal message no longer contained to Jewish people, but also to Gentiles, and on the same terms for whoever has faith and believes -How is it a message of salvation?  In Gospel, righteousness of God is revealed -Debated phrase (2 ways it can be interpreted) 1) Righteousness of God means salvation of God  salvation God brings to his people  God’s way of putting things right (God is all-powerful and all good – evil can’t triumph in the end)  Repeated in Christian & Jewish faith  Gospel is the means by which God puts things right in a world that has gone temporarily wrong 2) Righteousness of God means God’s way of declaring people in the right who are otherwise in the wrong  People have done what they ought not to do, and they will stand trial in front of God and be condemned  But righteousness of God is God’s gift of righteousness to people who are not righteous in themselves Religious Studies 2HH3 – Nov 8, 2013 “Get the product you deserve”  underlying assumption that people think well of themselves, and if you tell them to get what they deserve but can’t afford, then they’ll do something stupid  Paul has pessimistic anthropology  pessimistic understanding of human nature -Abrahamic faiths (Judaism, Islam, Christianity) – important aspects of faith that they share (ex. monotheism)  People have within themselves a good impulse and an evil impulse  Judaism & Islam o Humans can do what is good if they resist the evil impulse (up to humans whether they do what they ought to do, or whether they don’t) o Capacity to both good or evil found in both – we just need to get rid of the bad  Christianity typically follows Pauline teachings  more pessimistic o Not what Paul said (basic assumption we can do both good and evil)  Paul says no good innate human being (pessimistic anthropology) o Different from Judaism & Islam -Why does Paul have such a negative view on anthropology?  Judaism & Christianity seem to have a positive view  ultimately optimistic (good will overcome evil eventually)  Paul on his way to Damascus with a positive view on himself (he’s righteousness), then encounters Christ, and realizes he was opposing Christ, despite thinking he was good  Judaism – God gave his law, blessed if obey and cursed if disobey o If you think this way, you will be able to do what human beings should do and receive God’s blessing -Paul thinks the only reason the Messiah had to die was for people to be righteous before God  this means that humans could not be righteous through the law or else Christ died for no reason (Gal. 2)  Paul more optimistic prior to encounter to Christ and more pessimistic view after  He saw that if God’s solution to human problem was so drastic that the Messiah had to die, then the problem must have been much more drastic than he previously believed  Heart of Christianity is crucified Messiah as God’s means of salvation  dictates more pessimistic view of anthropology than humans would have had  “Paul’s reason for solution from plight”  solution was death of Messiah, then need to rethink the plight o Solution dictates nature of plight Romans 1:18-32 and Romans 2:1-3:20 -First major section of Romans – follows theme statement (Romans 1:16-17) -God’s righteousness: God’s way of putting things right or gift of righteousness God gives to sinners  Why did people need this gift of salvation? -Paul gives depiction of plight which requires gospel as its solution (dilemma humans face that require God to provide the gospel of Christ as salvation) Romans 1:18-32 – Gentile Plight Romans 1:18-32– Paul focuses on Gentile plight (not just humankind in general)  Gentiles not given law of Moses (difficult)  they were never told what to do and disobeyed it  How can Paul say they are guilty before God and accountable? o How can they be inexcusably guilty even though they were never given the law? **Enough evidence of power & deity of God in nature for Gentiles to realize their indebtedness to God  That apparent knowledge has been suppressed by humans  That which is knowable about God, has been refused to be recognized  Thus, they are guilty and inexcusably so Fundamental Sin (Sin) – refusal to acknowledge God  Naturally going to refuse to acknowledge the created order if refuse the creator  will commit small “sins”  sins are evidence of the major SIN of refusing to acknowledge God  Paul said God gave them up to these little ‘s’ sins because of the fundamental Sin they did by refusing to acknowledge God Incidental Sin (sins) – expressions of fundamental sin -Paul uses stoic language about what is good/evil that he naturally doesn’t use  without resorting to reference to the law, he talks about acting contrary to “nature”  Similar to Proverbs – in nature, there is a wise order that people should act according to  People have acted contrary to nature -How Proverbs depicts what happens to people who do not follow the order of nature (do what is right in their own eyes instead of what they ought to do)  The wrongdoings that you do will come back to haunt you -Proverbs has 2 ways of speaking of the bad consequences: 1) Your own sin will come back and haunt you  inevitably happening given the way things are 2) God is going to punish you  divine judgment  Both these ways are put in Romans  on one hand he speaks of divine judgment where God judges them (v18), and he also speaks about how God gave them up to the consequences of their own ill-doing (God didn’t specifically intervene, but abandoned them to the consequences of their own wrongdoing)  God gives them up, but also God will one day judge  This is the dilemma which brought on the solution that God gave -Depiction of Gentile world specifically  talks as if it’s universal (thinking primarily of Gentiles for 2 reasons) 1) Depicts guilt without referring to law of Moses  Frames condemnation in terms that applies to Gentiles 2) Highlights idolatry and forms of immorality not common among Jews  Kinds typical of Gentile worlds as Jews saw it (ex. worshiping the creation vs. the creator) Romans 2:1 – 3:20 – Jewish Plight Romans 2:1 – 3:20 – Paul focuses on Jew plight  Often compared with what we find in opening prophecies of Amos Amos -In northern kingdom of Israel and announces God’s judgment on all of Israel’s neighbours. God will judge them for a specific wrongdoing and a particular judgment. Then Amos talks about the transgressions of Judah and Israel and how God will judge them  judgment that God brings on his own people for their own wrongdoing. -Seems rhetorical get attention of Israelite about how God will judge their enemies, but then say the Israelites are also liable for judgment (no different from their enemies) -Amos takes expectations of people (their enemies will be judged) and turns them upside down (they will be judged)  Special status of Israelites mean they are even more responsible for their wrong doings -Paul adapts the Amos approach  Start off with typical denunciation of evilness of Gentiles, then follow-up by turning it on Israel themselves (you who judge others will be judged as well because you do the same things they do)  Show universal sinfulness of humankind, but also rhetorical “game” in which Paul sets up Jews who think they are God’s special people by denouncing Gentiles sins. Then turning the tables and saying Jews are just as liable -He does this to insist of God’s impartiality  common Jewish theme  God will judge Jew & Gentile by the same standards  If you sin without the law, you will be judged without the law; but if you sin under the law, you are judged by the law  Doing what is good and what is commanded in the law are the same thing -Romans 2:6-11 what people ought to do is “good” (basic moral term) and ought not to do “evil”  Whether Jew or Gentile, you will get eternal life or judgment -Not hearers of law which are righteous in God’s sight, but doers of the law  Doing good is parallel with following the law -In Deut. – sense that what God commands in the law is what is good because it conforms to the moral order  Deut.4 – Moses says that even Gentiles will recognize the goodness in the laws  the laws simply spell out what is wise and what is in conformity to the order -Is there any advantage in being a Jew?  Yes? They’ve been given in the law in a concrete statement about what they (and Gentiles) should do  it is written in the law  They can be teachers of the Gentiles (those who are in darkness)  educators  Assumption that Jew & Gentile alike are responsible of meeting the same requirements of doing what is good, whereas Jews have it spelled out in the law, but Gentiles don’t o What is written in the law, God has written it in the Gentiles heart  they themselves know what is good deep down o They have an awareness (written in the law of nature in their heart) o So Gentiles not crucially disadvantaged for not having the written law  Jews not given an advantage because unless they obey the law, it won’t do them any good -Jews have been given the laws spelling out the mutually moral responsibilities of Jews & Gentiles, but Gentiles not disadvantaged because they have a sense of it anyways. And Jews not advantaged because unless they obey the laws, they are not any more special than those who are “uncircumcised”  Jews & Gentiles and on the same footing before God  Scripture itself shows that all human beings are guilty before God (Jews & Gentiles)  Ch. 3 – Paul talking primarily about Jews -Whatever the law says, it’s addressing those under the law (benefits for the Jews)  If Jewish scripture is written for Jews, and the whole world is guilty before God, this also includes Jews despite them having the law  None can claim to be righteous before God – situation calls for revelation of God’s salvation Romans 2:13 vs. Romans 3:20 Ch. 2:13 – not the hearers of law which are righteous before God’s eyes, but doers of law will be justified in God’s sight Ch. 3:20 – no human being will be justified by deeds prescribed by the law  Has Paul directly contradicted himself? 2:13  spelling out moral principle in which world runs (do good and be rewarded, do wrong and be punished. If you do the law, you will be justified) 3:20  shown that no one can accomplish this (Gentiles wicked of immorality and Jews do the same things. They have been given the law, but no advantage to them) -In principle, the principle is that those who do what is right will be justified -In fact, no one does what is right  can’t follow the law and be justified -The law comes with dual sanctions  when Paul speaks of the law, he ignores the righteousness and life  Understanding that no one obeys the law  speak of the law as a covenant of death and condemnation only -Paul feels need to talk about what good the law is if no one can obey it (developed more in ch.7)  Through the law comes the knowledge of sin  demonstrates sinfulness of human kind in which the righteousness through Christ is needed Religious Studies 2HH3 Tutorial 7– Nov 6, 2013 Romans 3:21-31 Romans 3: 21-26  heart of Romans, centre of entire book (maybe “centre of Bible” – Martin Luther)  Very compact/dense argument, large theological words Romans 3:21-26 -Explains why Christ died on the cross  In these 5 verses, is Paul’s gospel Righteousness of God: 1) Salvation of God 2) God declaring people righteous  Main focus of ch.1-4 in Romans  People are just/good (language in Proverbs) 3) God’s faithfulness in upholding creation’s goodness (Pg. 73)  Gen 1  people originally created good, but people fell. God wants to restore creation (needs to make people good again – declare them good & just)  Interrelated with points 1&2 -Main topic: Righteousness of God Romans 3:21  “what”  “Righteousness of God” APPEARED Romans 3:21 – 22a  “when”  When righteousness of God appeared Romans 22b – 23  “for whom”  Whom righteousness of God is for Romans 24 – 25a  “how”  How righteousness of God is for the people they’re for Romans 25b – 26  “why”  Why righteousness of God appeared WHAT V.21  main point of argument (God’s righteousness has now appeared) WHEN -Background: Romans 1:18 – 3:20  Paul’s argument that all have sinned (Jew & Gentile) and are under God’s wrath  Problem with humanity and argued in OT  broken God’s law and alienated from him  Romans 5 – comes back to this question (why everyone’s a sinner)  Gentiles ignored God even though God is evident in nature  they should know God is there  Jews aren’t that much better – they are given explicit laws, but still went their own way -V21  NOW righteousness of God appeared  Law & Prophets = Old Testament  salvation hinted in OT  Whole OT points towards the coming of Jesus and salvation -V22a  righteousness of God/salvation appeared when Jesus Christ came -Salvation comes apart from the law  law covenant/Mosaic covenant/Sinaitic covenant (Exodus 19 – Deuteronomy) FOR WHOM -V23  all have sinned and don’t meet God’s standards; all accountable to God’s wrath  Righteousness of God applies to ALL who believe  Condemnation that spread far & wide corresponds to salvation that spreads just as widely (to Jew & Gentile) HOW -V24  justified freely by his grace through redemption found in Christ Jesus -Redemption – bought back/pay to free  If slave in Paul’s time, someone had to redeem them (pay for their freedom)  Righteousness of God came from Christ redeeming them from slavery -Justified –acquitted/declared just  Christ redeems people from slavery and now they’re declared just  Paul has said that people were all unjust  now saying that they’re just? -Great Paradox – the unjust declared just  Makes God sound unjust (God who is just is declaring the unjust just) -V25  God made Christ a [propitiation/sacrifice of atonement] for our sins -Expiation (sacrifice of atonement) – “removal of sins”  through sacrifice, sins are now removed  The sacrifice paid by the punishment of dying so you don’t suffer the punishment; guilt and sins are removed  God made Jesus the expiation on the cross by his blood  beauty of the cross (the unjust & guilty are freed from their debt and seen as just before God) WHY -2 reasons: 1) God is just v25b - Christ's death covers past sins  All these sins in the past that God seems to have not dealt with (ex. David was a sinner but was a man after God's own heart)  All people do not meet God's standard -God is just because he shows you the cost of sin (death of Jesus)  God didn't just forgive all sins for no reason, they came at the cost of a life  God dealt with previous sins (hasn't just ignored them)  he deals with them at the cross 2) Reconcile people to God v26 - God made his righteousness appear because he wants people in the right relationship with him (goodness of creation) -People used to have an esteemed place with God, and God is restoring people to that position through salvation -Everything in this system is about faith in Jesus Christ  For Paul, this faith does not compromise that this is a free gift (all you need to do is believe) Romans 3:27-4  how does faith work? How faith doesn't compromise that salvation is a free gift -This is Paul's gospel/good news/system of salvation Religious Studies 2HH3 – Nov 12, 2013 Oedipus – prophecy that he would marry his mother and kill his father (king)  wanted to avoid it so sent Oedipus away to die. He was raised by a shepherd who found him and at some point, heard the prophecy. But thought he was the son of the shepherd, so he left and met his real father, killed him and married his mother.  This is all background before the play begins -Problem at beginning of play: plague on the land (Oedipus & mother don’t know about each other’s identity)  They are in a relationship that ought not to be (incest)  they don’t know about it  There’s a plague on the land because of this incestuous relationship – they don’t know what to do and what has been done to cause this plague  Eventually they realize that the land is polluted by this “wrongdoing” and in order for the land to be delivered, the pollution has to be removed (king married to mother has to be removed or whole land will be subjected to the plague) Deuteronomy 21:1-9 – mysterious murder but don’t know who did it  Take heifer to brook, break its neck and wash their hands over it  Oedipus killed his father innocently, but it shouldn’t have happened. Thus, the whole land has been polluted  Until an act has banished this pollution, the whole land will be polluted -Don’t know who committed the murder, but the community has still been polluted  something must be done to see that the wrongdoer bears the punishment or the whole land will suffer  But can’t find the criminal  God graciously provides a mean by which they can atone for the wrongdoing that has been done so not everybody suffers (natural result would be the whole land is polluted and suffer)  God has given them a rite to be performed -Same mindset  wrongdoing not something a judge decides on/punishes, but something that pollutes the whole land (introduces something out of order that has to be dealt with or else everyone suffers) -In OT  important to find the wrongdoer and they shall “bear his iniquities”  Make sure wrongdoer bears iniquities so not everybody has to suffer (not pollution that disturbs everything) -In Western society, we think of sin in terms of legal terms  Someone breaks law, judge will look into book and judge accordingly -Sense of sin more dynamic in OT/Hebrew thought  sin is something that disturbs everything (ex. someone pours toxic waste into the lake – can punish the wrongdoer, but won’t solve the problem)  Introduces disorder that will come back to haunt you -Atonement: God provides a substitute victim on whom the ill that follows wrongdoing can exhaust itself so that the wrongdoer themselves don’t have to suffer it  Ex. the Heifer who’s neck was broken so the whole society doesn’t have to suffer for it Romans 3 (Jews & Righteousness of God – what, when, for whom, how, why) -Paul says God has put forward Jesus Christ as means of atonement for their sins something has to be done about the wrongdoing before God can declare us righteous (atonement!) -God shows his righteousness and it’s the righteousness of faith  Not ordinary righteousness by people who do what is right, but extraordinarily granted to them when they respond in faith (2 paths of righteousness)  God would not be righteous/just if he declares the unrighteous righteous without atoning for the unrighteousness  provides Jesus Christ -This path to righteousness based on faith is open to Jew & Gentile alike when they hear the gospel not depend on observance of Jewish law, but faith  Universal path  Path that excludes boasting – boasting is excluded when righteousness is by faith and not by the law o Undeserving of righteousness, yet declared righteous (cannot boast of something you do not deserve but have been granted) o Boasting that a Jew might make for being God’s special people is also excluded (path to righteousness not based on observance of law, but by faith, which is open to everybody) o God not just the God of Jews, but of Gentiles and everybody -Romans 3:31 – Not doing away with the law, but establishing it? 1) Misunderstand about what the law is doing  thus establishing law in its true purpose  Doing away with understanding that you can be righteous by the law, but establishing it’s true purpose to show how sinful we are 2) Law also referring to first 5 books of the Bible (law of prophets – Gen  Deut.)  Paul claims that the law (books of Moses) talks about righteousness of faith  Romans 4  shows how law supports righteousness of faith  Law rightly understood supports righteousness by faith (establishes law) Romans 4 Abraham -What about Abraham? What was true for him according to the flesh? Why did Paul talk about it?  Abraham as forefather of the Jews  he was righteous before God (he did what he ought – doesn’t this disprove Paul’s claim that righteousness comes by faith instead of what people do?)  Paul needs to show his point that Abraham establishes Paul’s view instead of righteousness by law 1) If he was righteous by doing something that he ought, Abraham would have something to boast about  But Scripture says he believed God and THAT was counted to him as righteousness (not because he was righteous in all that he did, but on the basis of his faith)  Faith was counted as righteousness  Not even Abraham was righteous in what he did (he was a sinner), but on the basis of faith  therefore, no one has anything to boast about 2) A wage is paid not as a gracious gift, but something that is owed to you (you deserve it)  But to the one who does not work, but believes in God, it’s all a matter of grace ( a gift from God)  God who declares righteous the ungodly  Paul is paraphrasing OT text telling people what they must not do (judge must not declare righteous the guilty, and declare the righteous guilty ex. bribes)  GOD declares righteous the guilty o God is still just because he’s had Christ atone for sins o Using strong, paradoxal language by saying people have not earned righteousness, but as a gift of grace V.1-5  righteousness by faith, a gift of grace, not because of something anyone has done, so no one can boast  Abraham confirms this (we interpret scripture right) V9-16  applies to Jew & Gentile alike (shown through Abraham)  Abraham was declared righteous before he was circumcised (before he was a “Jew”)  This makes Abraham the father of all Gentiles who believe and are declared righteous (not be descendent, but by faith  “spiritual sons”)  Abraham is also literally forefather of Jews, but also Jews who have the faith  Abraham is the forefather of all who have faith (Jew & Gentile alike) David -David also proves righteousness is not based on something someone has done (not just Abraham) V.6-8  David author of Psalms 32  David speaks of the blessedness of the one who’s iniquities have been forgiven; sins that God has covered -Paul is proving his point made previously in ch. 3 by things that scripture have said Ch. 4:15 -Idea of righteousness by faith is exclusive of righteousness by the law  Real effect of law: bring wrath  law not given to bring righteousness, but given for another reason Nature of Abraham’s Faith -Paul gets carried away at end of ch. 4  Gal. 3 – Paul also used text of Abraham that righteousness based on faith, not law -Paul shows nature of Abraham’s faith and anticipating what he says in Romans 5 about nature of Christians  Nothing in circumstances in which Abraham was living to encourage faith (getting old, wife too old to bear children etc.)  yet his faith did not waver, he believed God who calls into being that which is not (make something out of nothing)  Abraham’s faith parallels that of Christian faith  “believed by faith and counted to him righteousness” not just for Abraham’s benefit, but also for ours -Parallel to Christian faith: Abraham’s faith is like ours because God can call life out of death (Abraham & wife’s body was old/dead, but God called life out of it)  Abraham believed God could call life of the dead, just like us (we believe God calls life out of Jesus’s death)  “Abraham believed in hope against all hope”  retained hope in which no basis for hope, and God counted it to him righteousness Romans 5 -Our faith is like Abraham – we enjoy peace in God by Christ’s death  We stand in God’s favour, have peace with him -The hard times we’ve experienced not a cause for despair, but for encouragement and joy (like Abraham)  V3. Believers can do so because hard times develop character, experience, develops hope  V5. This hope does not disappoint/let us down because God’s love has been poured out in our hearts through the HS (conviction of God’s spirit that we won’t be let down)  All part of divine plan -Paul’s understanding of the Holy Spirit  HS is a promise that would come (Ezekiel 36)  People in OT given HS to perform particular tasks, but promise that in last days, God will pour out his spirit on ALL the people (Joel 2:28-29)  Early Christians believe the promise and it has not come true (see in Acts’ charismatic outbreaks)  Paul gives this a moral component  bases ethics on the idea of the spirit vs. flesh -This text is also basis of Christian assurance  HS is assurance of God’s love which will never disappoint Religious Studies 2HH3 Tutorial 8– Nov 11, 2013 Romans 5:12-21 -Tells us how all people became sinners (Some scholars divide Romans into 2 parts) Part A: Romans 1:18-3:20 all people sinned Romans 3:21-26  the “cross” passage (gospel)  Solution to problem that people sinned Romans 3:27- 4  faith  How to get that solution Part B: Romans 5:1-11  justification/righteousness of God has come  its benefits  People can have peace, people are justified Romans 5:12-21  extent of justification  saved, salvation of God  The right standing people have before God (status of righteousness) -Paul introduces a popular figure in Christian & Jewish thought  Adam Romans 5:12 1) ADAM  brought sin into the world and sin smuggled in death 2) Death in world and people are in the world  all people will die because they sin -What is the relationship between these 2 points? Not explicit connection between Adam’s sin and the death that came with it. Just told that death is now in the world and everyone is a sinner and will die  Adam = Example o He was an example of a sinner and paid the punishment of sinning by dying o Everyone follows his example by sinning and dying o No notion of inheritance Romans 5:19a -Does this tell us anything more about the relationship of Adam’s sin and people?  V12 – doesn’t tell us specifically relationship between Adam’s sin and death  V19a – more explicit connection -Through disobedience, all are made/ordained/appointed/established sinners  Adam = example  not enough  There is a strong causal connection between Adam’s sin and all people being made sinners Romans 1:18-32 -Why do people sin? 1) God’s invisible attributes apparent to all  No one is without excuse when they see nature  they should know there is a God there 2) Deny the truth/disobey God  People deny the presence of God despite the nature 3) Result: God gives them up to their sin -Sin is human responsibility  their fault that they sinned Source of Sin Romans5: 12, 19a Adam  Adam originally created as “good”  innocent  Given explicit commandment by God Romans 1: 18-32  People  People are bad and sin (they did not acknowledge God) not innocent  No explicit command -There is a causal between when Adam acted and people  There is an introduction of bad/evil nature  Logic as to why we inherited evil  but no explanation about how it comes to be -Is Paul contradicting himself?  No. He’s saying that all people sin  everyone is bad, not just that we turned away from God  There is an innate, evil nature that somehow, Adam has introduced this bad and evil nature  Even though people feel like they have a choice and can do good, they are still acting within the bounds of this evil nature -Adam’s one act ordained this evil nature  DON’T KNOW HOW though (P.102 on Westerholm’s book) Law -What is the point of the law? Romans 5:13 sin in world before law was given  If you don’t know what right or wrong is, you can’t be held accountable for making an error (no standard for right or wrong, then you can’t be held accountable) Adam----------------------------Abraham-------------------------------Moses || LAW Romans 5:13 – sin is not counted when no law ------------------------Death reigned----------------------------- (Romans2:15 – Effects of Adam’s sin that all people died) -People are still suffering the consequences of sin by dying, even when the law wasn’t there Romans 5:12-14  before law came into play, there was death -“Sin is not counted when there is no law” must take relatively and not absolutely  Relative to Romans 5:20-21 Romans 5:20-21 -Law came to increase trespasses/transgressions in the world  Not only function of law, but one of them -Better explained when see results of transgressions increasing  GRACE MAY ABOUND  CROSS -Unclear what “sin” is before Moses came in  Now explicit statements about what is right/wrong with Moses  A “face” as to what sin is -Although there was no writing down of what sin is, there was a notion as to what it was (ex. rape is wrong) -Now the law makes is explicit so that judgment can be made clear -Also shows how marvelous & wonderful grace is  can better appreciate grace, forgiveness, mercy, by understanding how evil/bad sin is -One of the functions of the law is to point us to Jesus’ death of the cross  Law tells us what sin is and why Jesus had to die on the cross (what our sins are and their consequence)  Grace abounds – we have an explicit statement for what right/wrong is, and now God can restore things that have been wrong |----------------Law------------------ [CROSS] --------------------------------------| SIN REIGNED GRACE REIGNS -The law is an intermediate step to the cross  points towards Jesus dying on the cross Religious Studies 2HH3 – Nov 12, 2013 Paul’s expectations of how believers will get on in this world? What is their fate of living faithfully in th
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