RELIG 2HH3.docx

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McMaster University
Religious Studies
Stephen Westerholm

Lecture 1 - Intro Thursday, September 06, 2012 Who was Paul?  Missionary  Spread of Christianity in 1 century, but not all done by Paul  Apostle to the Gentiles, expansion of "Jewish sect"  Statesman  Settled: "Should non-Jews who become Christian follow the Jewish law?"  Theologian  Law of Moses is the law of God; how does Jesus affect that?  Create coherent picture of Christianity, implications of Christian faith  Paul wrote "occasional" letters about particular occasions and issues of the regions he previously ministered to.  Romans is the most systematic letter. Exception: Paul had not yet visited Rome.  However Paul is not considered a "systematic" theologian. Lecture 2 - Scripture and Proverbs Tuesday, September 11, 2012  The Jewish Scriptures (Tanak, Hebrew Bible, Jewish Scriptures) 1. Torah (Pentateuch; Books of Moses) o Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy 2. Nevi'im (prophets) o Former Prophets: Joshua, Judges, 1&2 Samuel, 1&2 Kings o Latter Prophets: Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Twelve 3. Kethuvim (writings) o Psalms, Proverbs, Job, Song of Songs, Ruth, Lamentations, Ecclesiastes, Esther, Daniel, Ezra, Nehemiah, 1&2 Chronicles  The Protestant OT has same books in differ order  Catholic Bible also include Tobit, Judith, 1&2 Maccabees, Wisdom, Ecclesiasticus (or Sirach) Baruch, additions to Esther and Daniel o "Apocrypha" Scripture vs. Canon of Scripture   Scripture is a body of writings considered authoritative and sacred o However, in Bible times, some books that are in the canon today may not have been "considered" Scripture o Torah, Prophets, Psalms, Proverbs were undoubtedly considered Scripture  Canon is an authoritative list of sacred Scripture  "Horizons" of people 2000 years ago is very different from the "horizons" of people today  The worldview of the reader affects the way the Scripture is interpreted  Perspectives can be changed and horizons can be expanded to understand things not otherwise previously capable  Proverbs is the closest to modern "horizons" than the rest of the Bible Proverbs  Focus on successful living on Earth, never refers to an afterlife  Promises are things that people would want today: success, good health  No divine/prophetic authority claimed  In the prophets, it is often written, "Thus says the LORD"; not in Proverbs  Authority of generations of peoples' wisdom, advice, experience and observations in Proverbs  Universally applicable  Not just intended for Israel, like the rest of the Bible, can apply to anyone  No divine intervention  Much of the advice given in Proverbs is common sense  Moral advice is down to earth and manageable compared to other parts of Scripture o e.g. Sermon on the Mount: don't get angry, don’t lust  Very little is explicitly religious  Wisdom Literature  Universal perspective: corresponds to the way modern people think  Parallel in form and content with other Asian literature (e.g. Babylonian)  Attributed to Solomon, but likely not all written by him  Differences in perspectives  Divides people into only two groups righteous and wicked, wise and foolish o Insists that righteous/wise will prosper while the wicked/foolish will fall to disaster o What makes a person righteous or wise?  Wise are open to rebuke and change, looks to do things according to God's wisdom and creation and structure (Proverbs 3:19)  Foolish do what is right in their own eyes  This makes sense! People only choose whether or not they do what is right or wrong  o Moral standards are not relative, they are set by God o Proverbs 8  Suffering of the righteous; better to suffer than to sin o Proverbs 16:8, Proverbs 16:19, Proverbs 19:22  Why does this worldview make sense to the people of the Bible times although not to us?  The Law of the Torah correspond to the law of Nature  Some laws that do not seem to relate to nature are then interpreted allegorically o e.g. do not eat pigs -> do not associate with pig-like people Lecture 3 - Overview of Bible Thursday, September 13, 2012 1. Creation, spoiled by human disobedience  God created the heavens and the earth, therefore God is distinct from creation  The material world was all good but it is not God and is not to be worshipped  Some people had the worldview of redemption of good spiritual being from the evil physical being o Creation is evil vs. creation is fallen  Humans beings were made good but disobedience from their created roles interrupted/defiled/disturbed creation and humans beings o Fall of humankind by Adam and Eve according to Pauline theology  Creation is good but is spoiled by human sin o Jews believe that this is only one kind of disobedience and that this event doesn't affect the nature of all human beings 2. Patriarchs (Abraham and Sarah, Isaac and Rebekah, Jacob and Leah + Rachel, Jacob's 12 sons)  Given divine promise (the Lord would be their God, they would possess land, be a great nation, and be a "blessing") and "covenant". Males circumcised as sign of covenant. o Covenant: arrangement between two parties intended to establish a permanent relationship between the two parties based on the solemn undertaking of obligations by one or both parties o Paul believed that others were blessed through the Israelites  Remain "strangers and sojourners" in the land; eventually move to Egypt to escape famine o Though the Israelites have been promised much, it is not fulfilled in Genesis 3. Divine deliverance ("redemption") from slavery in Egypt and at Red Sea. Through Moses, Israel given God's laws at Mount Sinai as their covenantal obligations. Wander in wilderness as punishment for unbelief and disobedience.  God delivers Israelites from Egypt after the plagues and Red Sea  God redeems Israel and "purchases" their freedom from slavery o Paul uses this as an example of the Gospel  The law given at Mount Sinai is a covenant to the Israelites o In accordance to God's divine order of creation  Disobedience leads to wandering in the wilderness for 40 years o Paul uses this as a warning for those who are disobedient to God 4. Enter and take possession of "promised land" (under Joshua)  Moses has already died  Entering the promised land is a picture of entering God's kingdom  The story of Israel is reflective of the lives people's response to God 5. United monarchy (Saul, David, Solomon), followed by divided monarchy (Israel and Judah), Israel falls to Assyrians 722/721 BCE; Judah to Babylonians 587/586 BCE.  Note promise of dynasty given to David, 2 Samuel 7:12-16 o But exile of Jews and king o Promise was interrupted because of unfaithfulness of David's descendant but not failure  Punishment o Prophets prophesy that a day is coming when a descendant of David will rule in righteousness as king  Messianic faith of the Jews to re-establish their monarchy  Southern kingdom Judah, capital Jerusalem  Northern kingdom Israel, capital Shechem 6. Babylonian exile 586-539 BCE  Understood that the exile is divine punishment for their disobedience and unfaithfulness 7. Jews allowed by Persians to return and rebuild temple, inauguration "Second Temple Period" (515BCE-70CE)  Rebuilt the temple 8. Persian rule (539-333) followed by "Greek" period (333-63), then Roman rule (63-324)  Alexander the Great ended the "Persian" period  160 BCE Antiochus IV Epiphanies took over the temple Jerusalem and dedicated it to his god, Zeus o Forbade the circumcision of Jewish males and Jewish religion o Caused revolt by Jews, led by Maccabees. They retook the temple and rededicated to God (165BCE). Now celebrated as Hanukkah Jesus  Primary message is that the kingdom of God is near (at hand)  Kingdom of God  Rule of God (eternal), God is always in control  Something that is going to happen in the future o Recognition that most people do not acknowledge Israel's God as "God" o There is one day in the future when God will establish His rule and everyone will acknowledge it  Jesus sometimes announces that the kingdom of God is here and sometimes that it is near o Jesus thought of the coming of the kingdom as a process, not just one event o Jesus' coming is the first stage of the process and the coming of the kingdom has begun  Jesus expects that people act appropriately to be a part of God's kingdom  Jesus' miracles are not only acts of compassion but also as a sign of the coming of the kingdom when all evil will be gone  Jesus' crucifixion death to atone for sins so that people may enter the kingdom  Jesus resurrected and conquered the power of death Jews believe: This age -> God Intervenes -> Age to come Christians believe: This age -> Age to come Resurrection of Jesus Return of Jesus overlap God gives His Spirit to his people Lecture 4 - Evidence of Manuscripts Tuesday, September 18, 2012 Manuscript evidence of Greek texts  No original copies of Paul's letters  Paul would have kept a copy of the letters he wrote  It is unlikely that the letters that were copied and circulated were found in the city/community where Paul wrote to  Oldest fragment of NT text found in Egypt, dated to early-mid 2nd century Evidence for the NT Text  Greek manuscripts  Papyri (116) o Earliest manuscripts written on papyrus o 2nd -8th century; parchment became more prominent staring 4th century  Parchment o Made from animal hide o Uncials/Majuscules (310) Written in capital letters  o Minuscules (2877, latest 700 on paper) o Lectionaries (2432, latest 550 on paper) book or listing that contains a collection of scripture readings appointed for worship on a  given day or occasion o Total = 5735  These number are misleading because many are just small fragments  Quotations in Church Fathers  Quoted in homilies and commentaries  Problems o Quotation by memory -> mistakes o Paraphrasing or adapted to fit their point o Some verses may not be found in all manuscripts 3. Early translations (Syriac, Latic, Coptic, etc.)  May be paraphrase or free translation Eclectic Texts  No manuscript is complete and perfect  Scholars put together a text based on all the different manuscripts, what is found in bibles today  Diplomatic texts are a direct reproduction of a manuscript Papyrus  Many strips pressed together to make a bigger sheet  2-3 inches wide, 7 metres long  Damaged/decomposed by moisture  Best remaining manuscripts found in Egypt  2 primary collections P46 Papyrus 46   Originally contained 10 letters by Paul  Order longest to shortest, similar to today's NT  Abbreviations for 'God', 'Jesus', 'Lord' used by drawing a horizontal line  Distinctly Christian conventions to abbreviate sacred words  No written communication outlining this practice, therefore it must be a standard practice and there may have been oral communication and clear understanding among the early Christians about this Codex  Ancient equivalent of a modern book  Early Christians wrote their text in codex form  Jews continued to write their scripture on scrolls  Other texts were also written on scrolls  Christian deviation from the norm Codices were not commonly used until the 4th century   No clear reason why Christians did this  Distinction from other Jewish and other texts  Easier for transportation and storage  Codices were sometimes used as notebooks  May have been first used by Mark to write his gospel, so Christians adopted this practice Uncials  Dried animal skins  Vaticanus  4th century Contains OT and NT as well as Apocrypha   Is missing parts of Genesis and the end of the NT  Sinaiticus  4th century  Alexandrimus  5th century Evaluation the Evidence  No originals survive, no copies perfect  Where different readings are found scholars consider all the evidence, decide which reading is likely to be original  Mistakes may be unintentional or intentional  External Evidence  How well a particular reading is supported by the evidence of Greek manuscripts, quotations, versions Support for a given reading must be weighed, not simply counted  o Larger number of manuscripts may not always be the correct one  An early copy may have been written wrong yet copied abundantly o Need to construct a "family tree" of manuscripts and trace to best original  Broadly speaking, the evidence for the NT text can be divided into three "families" o Alexandrian tradition: evidence goes back to 2nd century; generally our best witness to the original text o "Western": evidence goes back to 2nd century; less homogeneous as a family; marked by freedom in paraphrasing text o Byzantine: evidence goes back to 4th century; a more polished text; dominates the later manuscripts Internal evidence   Here different readings are considered on their own merits: which reading is more likely to be original in this context? Crucial question: which reading is more likely to have led to the other readings?   Generally, the more difficult reading is likely to be original o Scribes would not leave anything out that is important o The scribe may have changed the text to make it more comprehendible o e.g. Philip and the eunuch Tutorial 1 - Acts Thursday, September 20, 2012 Acts of Apostles  Apostle: sent to spread the Gospel that Jesus is alive in heaven  Mathias replaces Judas as the 12th disciple  12 disciples because 12 tribes of Israel  Pentecost  Passover: fast and feast to commemorate the exodus of the Israelites from Egypt.  50 days after Passover, the Israelites had the feast of Pentecost  Was initially an agricultural festival  Also to remember that God gave the Law on Mount Sinai  In NT, God is fulfilling some of his OT promises o Sending of the Holy Spirit (Job) o New covenant; law written on the hearts of people (Jeremiah)  Church is unified and growing  The first followers of Jesus were not Christians  They didn’t see themselves as a new religion; they were Jewish followers of Jesus  First conflict recorded in Chapter 6  Aramaic (Hebrew) followers of Jesus from Palestine  Greek followers of Jesus from everywhere else (Rome, Asia minor, Alexandria, Diaspora, etc.) o Greek followers did not feel that their widows were well taken care of with the distribution of food  Apostles appointed deacons to handle these situations o Stephen is stoned to death because he was falsely accused of speaking words of blasphemy against Moses and against God  Persecution leads to mission  Despite persecution, God's mission is not thwarted Semetic languages Arabic Aramaic Syriac Hebrew Ethiopic Acts 1:8 -> Synopsis of Acts But you will receive power when the Holy Spirit has come upon you, and you will be my witnesses in Jerusalem and in all Judea and Samaria, and to the end of the earth. Septuagint LXX  Greek version of the Bible  Was the primary bible used by early Christians since many of them spoke Greek  Often the version quoted by Paul Acts 9  "Saul's Conversion"  Problem: Paul was not 'converted' because he still thought of himself as a Jew  The word 'Christian' does not show up at first, they were initially called the 'Way'  Because following Jesus is the only way to God the Father in heaven  Difference between the Jews and 'Christians'  Jesus and his resurrection  Son of God - kingship: God promises David that he would be the father of the King o Kings in Israel were anointed by pouring oil on their head o Messiah/Christ from the long awaited line of David  Prior to his encounter with God  Paul was a devout Jew who persecuted Christians  Jews thought that Christians were ridiculous in what they were doing because Jesus died on the cross. o The Messiah was not supposed to die o Scandal of Jewish and early Christian perspective  Galatians 1: Paul's on perspective on his own conversion  2 Corinthians 4:5-6: "Let light shine out of darkness" o Metaphor from Genesis; light of Jesus changed him The Way  In Hebrew bible (wisdom lit.), the Way is understood in a moralistic view  The good vs. bad way to live Lecture 5 - Manuscript Evidence of Acts Thursday, September 20, 2012  We don't know exactly which year Jesus was crucified.  Best guess is March/April 30 BCE.  By 6 months after, Jesus' followers were still mainly Jews  There were some practices that distinguished them from other Jews, obeying the instructions of Jesus o Communion, Last Supper, group gatherings outside the synagogue and Temple o Baptism o Not extremely distinct in terms of practice  Christians still went to the temple/synagogue and observed the law  Beliefs were very different o Jesus was Messiah  Inherent to the Jewish and Christian faith that God is going to put things right in the world Different perspectives of how God would accomplish this   Many Jews believed that a Messianic figure would deliver them from foreign rules  The Dead Sea Scrolls talk about two 'messiahs': kingly and priestly Christians believe that it is through Jesus that God would put things right, i.e. the Messiah   Others believed that Jesus' mission failed when he was crucified on the cross o Jesus had risen from the dead! The resurrection of Jesus meant that Jesus was after all the instrument by which his plan  would be fulfilled  God vindicated Jesus by raising him from the dead  Jesus is Lord and is ruling at the right hand of God  Jesus as the first fruit from the dead (of the general resurrection of the believers)  Others will rise after him as well o The end is near  The kingdom of God is near  Expectation that Jesus would come again soon  Why is he still not here?  Allow the gospel to be spread and more people to repent and change their lives Acts  Authorship:  Anonymous but traditionally accredited to be Luke  Acts is by the same person as the author of Luke  Evidence of the authorship of Acts and Luke is found in Acts  Internal evidence o Paul does reference a person named Luke in his letters o Acts switches back and forth between third person to first person about Paul's travels  The author of Acts must have been a companion of Paul  Other possibilities  The author of Acts had a journal of a companion of Paul detailing his travels  But writing style doesn't change throughout the book  A fictitious device, written to add liveliness to the narrative o Not written by Paul  Many things that were important to Paul were not recorded in Acts  Paul considered himself as an apostle  Acts does not consider Paul an apostle since he was not following Jesus since his baptism to his resurrection  Could a companion of Paul leave this out even though it was so important to him  Paul believed that Christians were no longer subject to the Law  Paul himself is a faithful observer of the Law when he was with Jews  Date: 80s  A couple decades after Paul's death  It seems that the author of Acts is not aware of Paul's letters  By the end of the 1st century, Paul's letters were already widely circulated in the early church o It is unlikely that the author of Acts, who focuses much on Paul, would knowingly leave out reference to his letters  Therefore, Acts was likely written earlier in the 80s Content  Jesus stayed with the disciples for 40 more days  Instructs his followers to stay in Jerusalem until God sends them out Descent of the Holy Spirit at the Pentecost   Stephen and deacons appointed because of a dispute between Hebrews and Hellenists  Widows were not well taken care of  Were the Hebrew Christians less observant of the Law?  When persecution occurred, it seem that the Greek Christians were more affected and so had to flee. o As a result they were able to spread the gospel  In Antioch, Jewish and Gentile believers met together  Led by Barnabas and 'enlisted' the help of Paul Lecture 6 - Acts and 1 Thessalonians Midterm Oct 4 at 2:30 in T28 Tuesday, September 25, 2012  Paul's travels divided into 3 missionary journeys  Paul did stay at the various cities that he visited during his travels Travel about 20-25km a day from inn to inn   A fourth journey when Paul was taken to Rome  When Paul arrived at a city, he worked to support himself  Worked with leather, tent builder  Main point of contact at the local synagogue, many Jews there o There were also Gentile God-fearers who were attracted by the theism of Jews and their high moral standards  Paul would stay until a good Christian community (30-40 people) was established or he was driven out o Churches established in houses  Working was important for Paul o Many people lived on the streets o There were travelling entertainers (e.g. magicians) who made money from their followers o Paul wanted to make sure that his message was not "for the money"  He did not take money from the people of the communities he visited so he supported himself by working  There was a tradition among some rabbis that they should be supported by their pupils or the people who received the Gospel from them  Paul distinguished himself from these people by making money through working  1st missionary journey  Travel with Barnabus  Cyprus, modern southeastern Turkey  ~2000km  Conflict of whether Gentiles needed to become Jews and obey the Mosaic Law  2nd missionary journey  With Silas; Timothy joins partway  ~4000km  Luke also joined Paul when narrative changed from 3rd to 1st person  Cross to western coast of Turkey and go to Macedonia, Philippi, Thessalonica, Athens, Corinth  Towards the end of Paul's 18 month stay in Corinth, he is brought against the counsel led by Gallio but case was dismissed o Gallio took up counsel in 51AD and left by 52; o Allows us to date Paul's visit in 50-51 AD: fixed point in Pauline chronology  3rd journey  Starts Acts 18:23  In Ephesus for 3 years (more than 2 years, less than 4)  Travelled ~4000km  Riot in Acts 19 for one day  Likely that the crisis in Galatia happen when Paul was in Ephesus, he wrote letter then Paul traveled between Ephesus and Corinth   Acts 20: Paul has left Ephesus and is heading to Jerusalem o Taking up a collection from his different Gentile churches for the saints in Jerusalem  Demonstrate the unity of the (Gentile) church around the world o Acts 20:3: Paul in Greece (Corinth) for 3 months, when he wrote the letters to the Romans o Asks the Roman believers to pray for him that he would be delivered from the unbelievers in Jerusalem and that the offering he is collecting will be acceptable to the people in Jerusalem o Interesting that Paul worries that the people in Jerusalem would turn down money  Paul is such a suspicious character and disliked by the Jerusalem community that it would not be right to accept money from him  Paul was arrested in Jerusalem and appealed to be tried by the Emperor in Rome  Paul was in Rome for 2 years where he was able to spread the Gospel freely before the narrative (Acts) ends. Why?  Acts is about the birth of the early church, not all about Paul  Possible that Paul was executed at the end of the two years  Possible that Paul was released at that point and carried on missionary journey for a while longer before being rearrested and then executed  Paul seems to have carried on missionary activity in Titus and Timothy  At the end of Romans, Paul wanted to go to Spain, to go west where the Gospel had not been yet  No indication in the bible that Paul had gone to Spain but by according to late 1st century tradition, Paul had gone to Spain, so Paul must have left Rome the first time  No clear definite conclusion 1 Thessalonians  Thessalonica is the capital city in Macedonia  Short stay until driven out of town, moved on to Athens  Paul was concerned about what was happening to the young Christian community established there  Paul sent Timothy to see how things were going in Thessalonica  Paul moved on to Corinth where Timothy returned to give Paul news that the Thessalonians were faithful and remembered what they learned and long to see Paul again  Letter of joy, good relations with this church  Answers a couple questions that the Thessalonians may have had  Themes  Be ready for the return of Christ o The day of the Lord is coming, God's wrath will be poured out on humans, followers will be delivered from this wrath  Amos 5:17-20: first reference to the day of the Lord  God comes and intervenes on behalf of his people and destroys his enemies, a day of judgement and darkness. Jews believed that it would be a day of deliverance. A day of intervention.  Later references to the day of the Lord is the end of the world  NT expectation is the return of Christ, the judge. People who will be delivered are those who follow Christ o The Thessalonians thought that the return would be so imminent that they became distressed o Some people died and they were worried about what would happen to them o At this point, Paul seems to write as if he would live to see Christ's return  Integrity and sincerity of Paul's mission (not in it for the money) o Paul worked to support himself Tutorial 2 - Acts Thursday, September 27, 2012 How does Acts 9, Paul’s Conversion, fit in with Acts 1:8?   He is an apostle to the Gentiles, key to the mission of the church.  Paul may not have thought of his journeys as journey 1, 2, 3. It’s likely he just saw it all as one big mission, but for our purposes, there’s no problem in dividing them up.  Acts 10 is the complement of Acts 9 in terms of the mission. Peter has a vision where God welcomes the Gentiles into the church.  Gospel means good news, from the Greek, euangelion. It is a Greco-Roman idea that the birth of such and such emperor is born was considered good news. From the Jewish side, they had their own good news that a messiah would one day come.  Mark starts with his book being the good news of Jesus Christ. Mark was probably written in the 60s. The ministry and life of Jesus is really good news. Ch 9 and 10 in Acts make it very clear that this good news is not just for the Jews, but also for the Gentiles.   Antioch, a place in Syria, became home base for Christian missionary activity. Paul is sent off from there and returns there by the end. Herod Agrippa was grandson of Herod the Great. He got along well with the Pharisees.   In Acts 15, first major meeting, Gentiles become part of the church. Did they need to be circumcised? Need to follow Jewish Law? Galatians 2 was in response to this very important meeting. Paul was very worked up.  2nd journey, starts/ends in Antioch. Acts 15-17. In Acts 17, he’s right in the middle of the journey. He arrives in 3 different cities to spread the Christian message. What appears to be his initial strategy? Why is it appropriate to begin the way he does? He goes to the synagogues and arguing from scriptures about Jesus and the Gospel. Synagogue was the Jewish place of worship during the Sabbath. Temple was the central worship place, but there was only one. Jews maybe went once a year for a festival.  What is strange about verses 2 and 3? Paul is going to the old scriptures. There is a bit of discrepancy between Acts and the letters, but here, Paul’s own words are in alignment with what it says in Acts (in terms of him tying in Jesus with the OT). 1 Corinthians 15:3-8, “according to the scriptures”. He was anchoring his messages by what the Jews believed, and placed his foundations in the Old Testament. 2 Timothy 3:16, “all scripture is God-breathed”, refers to the Hebrew scriptures. Paul is appealing to his Jewish friends to look at the scriptures in a new light, to find the connections between Jesus and the prophets.  In Athens, instead of the synagogue, he talks in the meeting of the Areopagus. It was a place where rulings were sent out and many of the philosophers hashed out their ideas; a religious think tank. People in Athens were very curious about new ideas. They called Paul a babbler, a cock-sparrow, a bird nibbling on this and that. The Athens considered themselves as par-excellence in terms of religious thought, and saw Paul as a poser, someone who seems to know a lot but really doesn’t. Yet, they are still interested and Paul shows he is not just a one-trick pony (he can hold his own). He references the Athenian’s poets, showing that he is well- rounded and that his gospel is not just for the Jews. He takes snippets from their philosophers and how the Christian message sheds light on them.  Paul’s approach is very different here, different people, different message. His education shined through. He was not a peasant, he was a Roman citizen, learnt in the Jewish/Pharisee ways.  Though Paul gains many followers, he also experiences much opposition. How are people showing opposition to Paul? Jewish officials kick him out of Thessalonica and philosophers in Athens mock and sneer at him. The Jewish officials were saying that there was an anti-imperial thrust to the gospel. They accuse Jason for helping them out, and that the apostles are proclaiming a message against the king, trying to overthrow the king. Pilot later gets fired from the king (Ceasar) for putting down a movement like this. Jews tried to use this tactic against the Christians.  However, it is what Jesus has done that is so great, not what/how he is born. Test stuff To study for the test, do not try to remember everything from your readings. Too much to remember. Go over your notes in lectures/class, and if anything in readings were covered in class, go over those readings again. In both tutorials, we talked about the differences between Christians and Jews who did not believe in Jesus as the messiah. What are some of the implications? How did that play out? With the manuscripts, just know the general differences between uncials and stuff. Just get a general idea, don’t sweat the details. Know the internal and external evidence of the Bible. Lecture 7 - 1&2 Thessalonians & Pauline Authorship Thursday, September 27, 2012 1 Thessalonians  Written ~50CE  Paul expressing his joy about the Thessalonians keeping their faith and also addressing a few questions  Integrity: Paul supported himself while there so he will not be seen as taking advantage of the people Day of the Lord: judgement for the wicked and also the day of Christ, who will return and set things right   Introduced because of a question of the Thessalonians: What will happen to those who already died?  Those who have died will also rejoice with the living  Jesus was Christ  Prayers directed towards God the Father and the Lord Jesus Christ  Implicit Christology (understanding of who Christ is), not explicit  Exhortations and council on how to live  Sexual immorality o How Jews and Christians distinguish themselves from others o Sexual relations only in the confines of marriage  Love o Love one another o Central to the Christian tradition, Jesus' commandments  We lack certain themes in 1 Thessalonians that are typical of Paul Walking in the Spirit   Struggle between flesh and Spirit  Justification by faith  Why? o Themes that arose in Paul's later correspondence and he hadn't fully developed it yet  Result of certain crises; those crises have not arisen yet o Paul lists Silas and Timothy as co-author  Possibly just a courtesy  If letters were joint, content is collaboration Pauline Letter Authorship  In Jewish and Christian works, just as in other literature, there are people who write under popular, known names not their own.  Not really considered deceiving or cheats because It was a convention of the time, just as writing fiction is not considered lying  Mindset of the author. Why would they do this? o Students write under their teacher's name for his honour or respect o Tradition  Are all 13 letters attributed to Paul in the NT all really written by Paul or did some people (e.g. his disciples) write in his name?  Authentic letters (universal agreement that Paul wrote these letters)  Romans  1&2 Corinthians  Galatians  Philippians  1 Thessalonians  Philemon  Disputed letters (controversy/doubt/discussion about authenticity by Paul)  2 Thessalonians  Colossians  Ephesians  1&2 Timothy  Titus (Listed in increasing controversy)   Criteria to determine authenticity  Writing style o 2 Thessalonians is extremely similar o The rest have distinct writing style that does not fit with Paul's o Could the letter still be by Paul?  Writing style can change over the years  Paul wrote to "adapt" to the recipient of the letter  Some words/vocab found only in a certain letter based on the issue he is addressing  Purpose of letter  Paul adopted a more liturgical style in Colossians and Ephesians  Paul used different secretaries  Paul dictated the letters but never wrote it himself  Writing outcome depends on freedom given to the secretary based on the content  Consistency in thought/theology o Dangerous criterion  Diff periods of history and different authors develop/interpret thoughts that fit into their own comfort  Important to not read own thoughts into the text o We don't know everything about Paul to formulate the whole picture  Does the letter presuppose things that did not happen in Paul's lifetime? o If letter addresses issues (or mentions events) that occurred after Paul's lifetime, the letter was certainly written by another person o e.g. church offices/organization (pastor, deacon, elder) are thought to be part of the 2nd century church 2 Thessalonians  Disputed letter  In 1 Thessalonians (undisputed), the return of Christ is expected to occur at any moment soon  In 2 Thessalonians, there is a series of events that must occur before Christ returns o A lawless person (antichrist) will arise and draw many people after him and perform signs and wonders. When Christ returns, he will destroy the antichrist  Theology of the return of Christ is too different to be written by the same person  Why is it possible that it could be the same author? o 1 Thessalonians is a warning to be ready at any time, 2 Thessalonians provides more details about the Day and events before its coming Test 1 Oct 4 Part A: 5 Definitions - 1-2 Sentences Part B: 2 Short Essay - 4-5 sentences Part C: Tutorial Essay 10 Marks Lecture 8 - 1 Corinthians Tuesday, October 02, 2012 Second Missionary Journey  In Corinth for 1.5 years  Travelled with Silas  Started teaching in the synagogue, like usual  Jewish opponents tried to bring Paul to the Proconsul Gallio but Gallio dismissed the case  Gallio was Proconsul in 51AD so Paul must have been there after that  Wrote 1 Corinthians from Ephesus  1 Corinthians must be at least the second letter written to them  He refers to an earlier letter  There are people who think that the whole of the earlier letter was not lost  "Do not be yoked with immoral people" o Corresponds well with the earlier letter that hasn't survived o Theory: 2 Cor 6:14-7:1 is a fragment of the earlier letter mentioned in 1 Cor 5:9   Was misplaced and inserted into 2 Cor  Writing because he has heard reports about the Corinthians that things are not well and they are not following in faith  2 sources o Chloe's people  Not certain who Chloe is but she may have been an important business woman  Would have servants o Letter received from the Corinthians  Wanted some questions to be addressed by Paul  Many different issues addressed of concern to Corinthians, no central theme o Lack of focus but tells us very much about what was going on in Corinth o Much better picture than any of Paul's other epistles of the community church  Warning: May warrant generalizations about other churches that were only happening in Corinth  Written in 50s Chapter 1:18-30  Addressing disunity in Christian community  Allegiance to Paul, Peter, Apollos, Christ  What did this really mean to the people? o Just loyalty to a specific teacher so something more?  The people were valuing certain people (leaders) more than others by normal human standards (better education, better speaker, wiser, more qualified, etc.)  Human standards that raise certain leaders above another is foolish  The message of the cross has turned upside down all human standards o Message of weakness and foolishness o The Christ who died can save all sinners regardless of how foolish or weak it seems  Christianity had to find a way to fit the Messiah into God's plan and their faith  Paul seems to be the only one to understand that the death was a crucifixion, the most shameful way possible that represents human weakness in the extreme  If it’s the message of the cross that brings salvation, it represents the futility of human standards  Paul does not boast about anything except the cross, they are unified because of Jesus o Extreme shame becomes glory for Christ 3:16-17, 6:12-20  Paul speaks of the Corinthians as the Temple of God  As a community representing the Temple of God (Ch 3)  Individual believer as the Temple of God (Ch 6)  Temple  The dwelling place of God on earth o Holy of holies that the high priest could only enter once a year  The average person could not enter the Temple/Tabernacle  They gathered in the courtyard to celebrate feasts o Good thing to have God dwelling in their midst o Dangerous thing because the presence of God in the midst of humans is a peril to them if they do not live the way they ought...punishment  Comparison to Synagogue o Meeting place for the people of God o Everyone could go and worship/learn  Corinthians as a Temple of God changed the idea of Temple  God's presence is not localized but is present wherever the community is  Dangers o Destroying the Temple of God when there is disunity within the community (Ch 3) o How can a person engage in immoral activities and sin when he/she is the Temple of God (Ch 6)? End Ch 5-Ch 6  Paul criticizes an immoral activity done by the Corinthians that even their pagan neighbours don't do  "Christian" engaging in sexual behaviour with step-mother  Paul's theme of Christian freedom from the law may have been interpreted by the Corinthians that they were free to do anything they please  May be an instance of pride that they could do even something that is immoral, something not even done by their neighbours o "Because of my freedom, I can do …"  Is it ok to have sexual relations with a prostitute/outside of marriage?  Common activity done by those around them (e.g. Greeks)  Corinthians are tolerating this activity within their own community  "The body has need for sexual gratification just as the body needs food. There is no harm in it" Paul obviously thinks that these things are very wrong but doesn't refer to the Mosaic law to resolve these  issues  He tries to show on the basis of Christian principles that what they were doing is wrong If your body is the Temple of the Holy Spirit, it is unacceptable to have those sexual relations not  defined by God End of Ch 11  Corinthians have community meals  Some people are stuffing themselves (rich) while some have very little to eat (poor)  Paul condemns this  Refers to the Last Supper and its institution o Clearly quoting a tradition about what happened that night, not written in his own words o Wording very close to Luke's account  Also found in Matthew and Mark, which are very similar to each other  Paul is reminding them of what happened  Jesus' traditions are being passed in the early church o Traditions already found in a standard fixed form that Paul would have taught to the early communities he ministered to Ch 15 o Some Corinthians were denying the resurrection, the day when the dead would be raised o Corinthian perspective aligned with the worldview that the physical body, the bad, will be gone at death and only the spiritual would live on  If the body was bad, they wouldn't want it back o Paul says that their bodies would be resurrected as well, although not exactly the same since perfected o Jesus was resurrected  If Jesus did not resurrect, their beliefs/actions would be in vain o "...traditions I handed on to you…"  Paul taught the Corinthians what he learned as well Tutorial 3 - 1 Cor 13 Thursday, October 04, 2012 Overview  Ch 1: divisions in he church  2: "wisdom" of the cross  What is the connection between divisions and the "wisdom of the cross"? 3-4: more on divisions (apostles as servants)   5: sexual immorality  6: lawsuits among believers  7: marriage  8: eating food offered to idols  9: rights of an apostle  10: warnings from Israel`s history  11: inappropriate practices at worship (esp. Lord`s Supper)  12: Spiritual gifts  13: the 'love' chapter  14: gifts of prophecy and tongues  15: resurrection  16: collection of offering for the saints and misc. details Corinth  Big city with a large mix of people  Divisions in the church  Paul charges them to stop fighting with each other  Followers are arguing about their different leaders, that one apostle is better than another  But Paul tells them that they are all under Christ and they should all be striving towards the same goal  All believers are united under the Gospel  Wisdom of the cross o The idea that someone great and sinless was crucified as a criminal goes against the wisdom of the world  Jesus was a servant, he died o If God can use the death of Christ on the cross to bring about salvation, there is absolutely no reason for all the divisions in the church o The apostles are servant leaders, just like Jesus; no one is better than the other; there shouldn`t be so many divisions  Paul being sarcastic to challenge their faith and beliefs o One day the apostles will judge the nations and if they can`t be united now, how will they be able to judge others with God later Marriage  Paul is so passionate about his experience with Christ that he wishes everyone would be like that  His own opinions is that people do not get married so that they can devote all their time to the work of Christ  But if getting married will save them from sexual immorality and sinning, he says that they should get married Food offered to idols Jewish people would not eat food offered to idols  They thought that even eating meat is implicitly condoning idolatry  Deuteronomy 6:4 "Jewish creed"  Paul says that it is ok to eat the meat because those idols aren`t god anyway  But Paul doesn`t want to offend the 'weak', those who still follow the law and traditions  He is being sensitive to those people so if it causes trouble, don`t eat food offered to idols Inappropriate practices at worship  People in Corinth met in homes of believers  Paul was concerned that the poor were being excluded from the Lord`s Supper, favoritism  Tells the people to wait for everyone and eat together, share Spiritual Gifts Everyone who is part of the church has the gift of the Holy Spirit   Therefore everyone can contribute to the ministry of the church  No gift is better or more important than another gift  Analogy to the human body  The body parts work together for the body to function  A 'lesser' task is not unimportant and things only work well everyone is contributing and everyone is valued Love Chapter 13  Continuation of Paul`s addressing of the Corinthian problems  Everything is useless and pointless without love  e.g. knowledge, speaking in tongues o Tongues  Language of men Language of angels   Outward spirituality is not worth anything  May be a bit auto-biographical of Paul  Paul`s Jewish practices were top-notch but it was all pointless without love  The end  Fulfillment of history, coming of Jesus  Eschaton - the end  All those spiritual things mentioned would not be important at that end time o Even faith and hope wouldn`t be needed any longer  Faith- see God face to face  Hope- the time has arrived o But love will still stand at that time Test Review  Pharisee  Strict about the law  Had great authority and control over the people  More in contact with everyday people  Jesus was most Pharisee (in terms of the religious groups at that time (Sadducees. Essenes) o Believed in resurrection o Mix of free-will and predestination  'Day of the Lord'  Christian perspective o Return of Jesus  Hebrew perspective o God would deliver his people and vengeance on his enemies o But it is not a great day because even the Jews would be in trouble because they know what God wants but they are not really doing it  Circumcision  Covenant between Abraham and God  Snipping of foreskin on eighth day for Jewish baby boys  Gentile Christians did not have to follow this practice  Baptism  Christian initiation  Symbolized death from sin and come back to life (like Jesus' death and resurrection  Christian manuscripts vs Jewish Scriptures  Jews kept scriptures on scrolls  Christian scriptures found on codices and papyrus Lecture 9 - 2 Corinthians Tuesday, October 09, 2012  Paul's 1st visit to Corinth  Acts 18  Stayed1.5 years (50-51AD)  Brought before Gallio, case dismissed  1 Cor 5:9  Refers to a letter he already wrote to the Corinthians ("Corinthians A")  Paul wrote 1 Corinthians  3rd correspondence with them  Received word from Chloe's people about issues in their community  Received a letter from the Corinthians with several questions  1 Cor 16:1-8  Collecting money for the poor believers in Jerusalem  Paul hasn't decided how the money will reach Jerusalem, himself or send someone else  Writing from Ephesus  Says will visit them on the way back from Macedonia  2 Cor 1 Decided to visit them twice on to and back from Macedonia   Decided to take the offering up to Jerusalem himself  v23: Paul decides not to go to Corinth the second time after returning from Macedonia o Something painful happened the first time on the way to Macedonia o Decided not to pay them another painful visit  Someone personally caused him grief, someone confronted/wronged him  Paul withdrew from the scene  Wrote letter to them instead of visiting them again o Wrote "tearful" letter of rebuke  Told the Corinthians to take measures against the person who wronged  Be ready to forgive the person just as Paul was ready to forgive that person  Went to Troas o Was uneasy because he expected to find Titus there  Sounds like Titus had been to Corinth, possible that he brought the tearful letter there  Rendezvous plan to meet Titus at Troas  What happened to Titus? How did the Corinthians respond to the letter? o Continued to Macedonia  Paul meets Titus here  Corinthians proved themselves loyal to Paul  They had taken necessary steps to punish the wrongdoer  Forgive that wrongdoer  2 Cor 1-9: "Letter of Reconciliation"  2 Cor 3 o Paul being compared unfavourably with other church leaders (similar to 1 Cor)  Rebuking the letter of recommendation, their life is like a letter of recommendation  Marks of a true follower of Jesus are not external credentials  Marked by suffering like Jesus  2 Cor 5 o Salvation from Jesus o People have become enemies of God by their sin but God has taken steps to reconcile God and humans  Jesus bore human sin 2 Cor 8-9  o Collection for the saints in Jerusalem o Encouraging the Corinthians to contribute o The Corinthians have promised to give a year ago and used this case to encourage other communities to contribute as well  Paul doesn't want to arrive at Corinth and see that they have not prepared the offering yet  2 Cor 3 o Comparison between the old covenant and new covenant: Mosaic law vs Jesus  Some people claimed that the Mosaic law did not really come from God (not divine) or came from a lower God  Others believe that because God gave the law, people still need to observe it regardless of what Jesus did  Paul did insist that the Mosaic law was a divine covenant given by God But it has been replaced with the new covenant which is even better   Paul combines the old and new covenant, both are divine  Condemnation vs righteousness/justification; Covenant of death vs covenant of life  Condemnation/death: no one can perfectly follow the law  Blessings if commandments obeyed, curses and death when disobeyed  Paul only talks about the curses and death because people did not really obey the Law  Righteousness/life  Life possible even for those who deserve condemnation  Old glory faded away (temporary), new glory is permanent  Covenant of letter vs covenant of spirit  Letter: law written on tablets of stone  Spirit: God's will is encountered and fulfilled by living in the Spirit  Paul says he has complete confidence in them (Ch 7) Paul's Correspondence with the Corinthians 1. 1st visit 2. Corinthians A 3. 1 Corinthians (B) 4. Painful visit 5. Tearful letter (Corinthians C) 6. 2 Corinthians 1-9 (D), 2 Corinthians 10-13 (E)  Theoretically the same letter 2 Cor 7 Chapter10  Tone changes No confidence in Corinthians, No loyalty   Accusations against Paul  10:1: meek when present but bold threats when far away  10:10: meek and contemptible in present but strong and threatening otherwise  11:7-11: Paul refuses to accept support from Corinthian community o They think that Paul doesn't really care for them  12:11: Paul falls short of the "super apostles"  12:16-18: collection that Paul is taking up is only for himself  13:3: Paul is not a true apostle of Jesus  Paul's worries with the Corinthians  11:3: Led astray by the serpent  12:21: afraid that Paul will find them in sin  13:5-6: concerns with whether Christ is in them  Comparison to other "apostles"  Paul is forced to boast about himself even though he thinks it is foolish to boast about his credentials  But Paul also boasts about his sufferings, the important thing  2 Cor 11-12 Tutorial 4 - Acts 15, Gal 2 Thursday, October 11, 2012 From Pauls' perspective in Galatians, the very "freedom" of early Christians was at stake in the debate in Jerusalem: certain false brothers were trying to "enslave" them. What do you think these brothers who Paul considers "false" were trying to do?  The "false" were trying to impose the Mosaic law on the Gentile believers  The first Christians were fully Jewish, the law is part of their heritage  How would they defend what they were doing? o "We've always done it this way." Jewish identity was wrapped in keeping the law. It is part of their tradition.  Not an minor issue. o Jesus is the Jewish Messiah. According to DSS, the coming of the Messiah is also a time of purity, when everyone would keep the law  Why does Paul think what they were doing amounts to an attempt to "enslave" Christians? o Paul says in Galatians that no one can keep the law perfectly. o Peter repeats in Acts 15 that no one can keep the law, Jew or Gentile o But because the Messiah died, God was up to something new and Paul had to "rethink" the law  The law is not bad or secondary  It is good but it has served its purpose and if God is doing something new, why should they go back and do things the old way? o Enslavement might be an exaggeration but Paul wants the believers to be on track with what God is doing How does Paul speak of James, Cephas (Peter), and John in these verses?  Paul is upset that they had gone back on what they said o Hypocrisy o Their words in Acts 15 that the law cannot be fully followed are not reflected in Gal 2;  If Gentiles can be part of the church, then what is wrong with eating with them?  Everyone can receive the Spirit, not by works of the law o The "pillars" of the church were not really good leaders and were not in unity  Why do you think he speaks of them in this way? o Because Peter and James are leaders, they have influence over believers, causing them to sin o Even Barnabus, a respected person in the early church and by Paul, was led astray o If the pillars are not one with Paul, their whole belief will fall apart What items were agreed upon at the meeting, as Paul describes it?  The leaders of the church agreed with Paul  The Gentiles could become part of the church o They didn't have to be circumcised, follow dietary restrictions, etc. o Belief that Jesus died and resurrected and following him is the way to salvation What is the issue being debated at the meeting of thee apostles and elders in Acts 15  Should Gentiles keep the law?  James o (Half) brother of Jesus, leader of the early church o Seems to be very conservative about the Jewish law o Generally agrees with Paul but suggests them to follow a few things o James doesn't want to offend others and seem like they are worshipping idols if they eat meat offered to them  Why is the position of "some believers who belonged to the sect of the Pharisees" (15:5) a plausible position to hold? o Jewish tradition  What was at stake for the early Christians? o Division, conflict o Can everyone potentially be a follower of Christ? What do you think is the relation between what Paul and Barnabas report (according to 15:12) and the issue now being debated in Jerusalem?  If God is giving the Spirit to Jews and Gentiles, it is not necessary for the Gentiles to be circumcised  Paul is saying that they are moving backwards, trying to be saved by the flesh  Disciplinarian/Supervision (Gal 3:25) o The law was good and it served its purpose as disciplinarian/supervisor/guardian o A new faith has arrived and a new way of relating to God  If the Gentiles have the gift of the Spirit by having faith, it is redundant to insist that the Gentile converts be circumcised Paul is not anti-circumcision  o Paul will encourage his fellow leaders to become circumcised so they don't offend/scandalize the Jews o But he doesn't enforce it upon everyone Many scholars believe that the meeting in Jerusalem described in these verses is the same as that spoken of in Acts 15:1-29; other scholars believe that a different meeting is meant. What arguments can you think of in support of both positions, and which do you think is stronger?  Support against o Discrepancies chronologically and in content o Therefore, not exactly the same event o It is Paul's third trip to Jerusalem in Acts  But in Galatians, Paul says that he has only gone up to Jerusalem twice  Meeting in Acts  Very important meeting where a lot of people were present  But in Galatians, it says only a few people were at the meeting  Acts 11-12 is the meeting that Paul is referring to in Galatians 2 The aftermath of that meeting, the leaders go back on what they said before, Paul gets angry  and writes Galatians, there is another meeting to iron out details o If event was the same, Paul must have ministered to the Galatians earlier, giving support to the (north/south) Galatian hypothesis *don't need to know specifics of chronology and location* Recall: Paul writes occasional letters, as a response to something important or a situation, in the heat of the moment. Lecture 10 - 2 Corinthians & Galatians Thursday, October 11, 2012 Continue tracing the correspondence between Paul and the Corinthians  1st visit  1st letter that did not survive  1 Corinthians 2nd visit   Tearful letter instead of another visit o Titus likely brought the letter there o Paul expected to meet Titus at Troas but he wasn't there o Met Titus at Macedonia and heard good news about the Corinthians  2 Corinthians o Chapters 1-9: Letter of reconciliation o Chapters 10-13: Relationship broken  Complaints against Paul  Paul must boast because he is being compared to super-apostles but Paul boasts about his sufferings, following Jesus Different tones of 2 Corinthians: 2 Possibilities  All one letter o Paul started writing the letter and everything is going well after hearing from Titus but after chapter 9, he hears bad news and writes regarding that  Comes from two different letters o 1-9 comes from one letter he sent first when things are good o 10-13 is another letter that he sent later, maybe a fragment o 8:16-19  Relationship is well  Titus is leaving Paul to go to Corinth to get collection together  Another brother appointed by the church is being sent with Titus so that there is "accountability" for the money o 12:17-18  Relationship has broken down  Corinthians accuse Paul for using collection for own purposes  Reference back to event that occurred in chapter 8  Occasions are very different so points to two different letters in 2 Corinthians Galatians  Early Christian movement looked as though it was just another Jewish sect  In modern perspective, they are clearly different religions Early Christians were all Jews with the same Scriptures but with the correct interpretation of them   Paul called the Christians the "true Israel" or "true circumcision"  Same heritage as the Jews but the real thing  Both sides say the other has it wrong and claims their own validity  Distinguishing factor: Jesus is Messiah o To believe that Jesus has come is to believe that the Jewish hope has been fulfilled  Division between Jews and Christians were extremely distinct in some communities but not others (hard to tell sometimes)  At what point does Judaism and Christianity become distinct from each other? How to tell between them?  When Gentiles become part of the Christian community o Especially when Gentile believers outnumber Jews o Some Jews welcomed Gentiles who at least partly followed the law o By late first century, most Christians were made up of Gentiles  Created division between Jewish and Gentile believers Following of the Mosaic laws  o Once people do not even make an effort or bother to interpret or practice the law, they were outside Judaism o Jew: someone who follows the Mosaic law; or someone who believes they have the correct interpretation of the law o Paul still claims that the Law of Moses is divinely given and that followers of Christ are the true descendants of Abraham and recipients of God's promises, but says that it was not necessary to follow the law anymore  Jews who don't believe this think that Paul is an apostate (renouncing belief)  Written to Galatians  North Galatian/South Galatian hypothesis about who these people were o Modern central eastern Turkey is where ethnically the Galatians lived (North)  Nowhere in Acts do we read that Paul visits this region and establishes a community there though  But Acts is not complete account of all of Paul's travels and Paul could have gone there o Paul and Barnabus visited south eastern Turkey and established communities there (South)  The people who lived here were not ethnically Galatian, they had mixed origins/ethnicity  But the cities where they lived were in the province of Galatia  Purpose for writing letter Believers were Gentiles   After Paul left Galatia, other people (followers of Christ) had come and told the Galatian Gentiles that they needed to become circumcised and follow the law o "Just because Jesus is Messiah doesn't change the fact that God gave the law and people need to follow the law"  Paul never gave the Gentile Christians this message to follow the Jewish law  They tried to undermine the apostolic authority of Paul o Paul did not follow Jesus when Jesus was alive on Earth o Claimed that Paul got his information second hand o Paul was not a true apostle on the same level as the Jewish authorities or others (e.g. Peter)  Paul talks and defends his own apostleship o Gal 1  Paul was directly commissioned by God and Jesus Christ  Paul received the Gospel from a revelation from Jesus, not from human beings  Background and past in Judaism  Was originally an opponent of the church  If he was so passionate about Judaism before, it must have been from divine intervention that changed his beliefs  Reasoning: Paul is more of an expert of the Jewish law than the other people trying to get others to follow the law but he abandoned it so why are the Gentile believers considering taking it up now?  Limited contacts with Jerusalem  Paul did not get his message from other apostles but he got it from Jesus  Only been to Jerusalem briefly to meet Peter so it is not possible that he learned everything then and there o Ch 2  Peter and John also agreed that Gentile believers did not need to be circumcised.  v 11: Paul and Peter had a major argument  Inconceivable to early church fathers that two apostles would argue  Some believed that Paul and Peter were actually in agreement but put on a theatrical display to convince people of their belief  Peter eats with Gentile Christians but when Jewish believers came from James, they convinced him not to eat with the Gentiles  Paul was appalled because what Peter was doing indicated that Gentile Christians were not true believers  What did the Jewish believers say to Peter that convinced him that he shouldn't be eating with Gentiles?  Argued that Jews were supposed to keep the law and Peter wasn't keeping the law  Agreed with Paul in principle that they didn't have to obey the law but since they are missionaries to the Jews, (for strategic reasons) they have to observe the law or the Jews would never listen to them  Even Paul, when he was with Jews, obeyed the law so he wouldn't offend anyone  Some Jews were very 'zealous' of the law. They took it upon themselves to punish those who did not follow the law. So follow the law to avoid punishment.  Does not indicate that Peter and James were going back on what they said before about keeping the law since that conclusion in Acts was meant for the Gentiles Implicit Christology in Galatians  Galatians 1:1  Jesus is not just a human being, he is on the side of God the Father Lecture 11 - Galatians & Philippians Tuesday, October 16, 2012 Galatians  After Paul taught the Christian message to the Galatians, others came and told them that they had to follow the law of Moses  They also undermined Paul's apostleship  The way Paul addresses his apostleship and the way he received his message is not second-hand, like the people accuse him of, but from Jesus Christ o Jesus appeared to him on the road to Damascus  Paul was initially a fervent persecutor of the church; there must have been a divine message to make him change so drastically  Paul addresses his distance from the Jerusalem apostles, only met Peter and James for a short period of time o Paul received the message before he went to Jerusalem  Gentile believers did not need to be circumcised or follow the Mosaic law  Did Jewish people need to keep the Jewish law?  When Peter went to Antioch, Jews and Gentiles ate together and Peter ate with them  When disciples from James went to Peter, Peter stopped eating with Gentiles  Paul describes Peter as hypocritical for his actions towards Gentiles  Galatians 2:14  Paul addresses Peter that he ought not to do what he had just done  No punctuation in Greek manuscripts o Hard to tell the transition between talking about Peter and addressing the Gentiles  Language/Message of justification in Galatians  Mentioned in 2 Corinthians, but not thematic  There is a judgement to come, God will hold humans responsible for the way they have lived o Condemnation or justification/found righteousness  Justification/righteousness o No flesh can be justified by the works of the law but by faith in Jesus Christ o So why bother following circumcision and the other law  If we could be righteous by the law, why did Christ die? o Because Christ died the law is not necessary o No one can be righteous by the law  Galatians did not need to be circumcised and keep the law  One of the expectations of the Jews of the coming of the new age is the pouring out of God's spirit  Belief of the early Christians that this occurred on the Day of Pentecost  Galatians 3:1-5: Paul presumes that all the Galatians believe this  "since you already believe, why do you think you need to add anything to that"  3:6-9: Justification is by faith Abraham believed God and it was accredited to him as righteousness, not because of keeping the law   3:10-14  The law brings a curse  "Cursed is everyone that does not observe everything in the law"  Paul already assumes that no human keeps all of the law  Old covenant is a covenant of death  3:14-19  The blessings either come from God's promise to Abraham or the Mosaic law o The promise came first so it applies even now o Why are the promises and the law exclusive entities, why can't both exist together?  God promises something and it will happen, one sided commitment  The law is a two sided commitment that requires people to obey  3:19-4:11  The law served a different purpose, more limited  Not the intention by which people will receive blessing  Paul describes the law as a guardian, serving for only a appointed amount of time until Christ should come, not eternal and not instituted when God gave the promise to Abraham  Now that Christ has come, we are no longer under that custodian  4:12-20  Paul's past relationship with the Galatians  Who are Abraham's true descendants  Non-believing Jews thought that only the children of Abraham were the descendants of Abraham to be blessed by God  Paul says that not only physical children and his descendants but those who share the same faith of God are his descendants o Ishmael and Isaac were both physically Abraham's sons but only Isaac was the child of promise and his true descendant o Ishmael was only a physical descendant of Abraham  The Jews are like Ishmael who are descendants only physically o Believers of Christ are the fulfillment of God's divine promise as Abraham's descendants  5:1-12  Personal appeal  Warning of consequences of circumcision and following the law  You can only be righteous by the law or by faith, can't be righteous by both  5:13  Paul is trying to respond to the rejection of the Mosaic law o The law at least gave people moral standards so what is the basis of Christian ethics if people no longer need to live under the law? o Don't use freedom of the law as an excuse for any passions or desires one might have o Walk in the Spirit and do not fulfill the desires of the flesh  Not as clear cut as the Mosaic law about what one should do or not do  Paul needs to redefine what is sin and what is right  "flesh"  Human life in the body (neutral term)  e.g. Jesus lived in the flesh  Contrasted with the Spirit of God and the sinfulness of human (negative term)  Rebellion and hostility of human beings against God  e.g. Adman and Eve wanted to be like God  Desire to do what is right in own eyes rather than to submit to God's will  "Spirit"  Contrast of two aspects of human nature  Not follow passions but do what Is right  Mark of the new age for believers  Follow guidance given by the Spirit  Cannot be sinning and following the Spirit because the Spirit is holy  The fruit of the Spirit is evident (so is life lived by the flesh)  e.g. love, joy, peace, patience, etc.  "If you walk in the Spirit, you are not under the law, but paradoxically those who live by the Spirit fulfill the law"  Live in love  Love is the fulfillment of the law, the law was supposed to bring about love, therefore living by the Spirit in love is fulfillment of the law Philippians  Visited by Paul, Silas, and Timothy in Acts 16 on his 2nd missionary journey, possible that Luke was also present then  Christian community established  Very loyal to Paul throughout, unlike the Corinthians and Galatians  Sent Paul gifts at least twice  Contributed very generously to the collection for Jerusalem  Now that Paul is in prison, the Galatians send him another gift (money) and a brother, Epaphroditus, to help him  Paul is writing a thank you letter expressing his joy  Paul is also writing to send back Epaphroditus to the Galatians  Epaphroditus had become very sick, close to death  Philippians were concerned for him  Was well again and Paul was eager to send him back  Paul is writing to update them on news  Paul is unsure of the outcome of his imprisonment  Very possible that Paul could be executed  Paul may have been in prison in Rome or Ephesus  Walks the Philippians through he possible outcomes o To die would mean that he would be with Christ o If he is released, he can do more work for the kingdom of Christ o Prepare the Philippians for the possibility that he would be executed o Sad thing for the loyal Philippians but Paul shows that it's not so bad  Date: early 60s Tutorial 5 - Philippians 2:1-11 Thursday, October 18, 2012 What seems to be Paul's primary aim in these verses? Different minds/views about what happened with Jesus   They need to be unified, to be of the same mind o Similarity to the Corinthian church The Corinthians chose different sects/apostles (Paul, Cephas, Apollos, etc.) to follow   Boasted in their gifts and church hierarchy  This letter is more joyful but it's echoing the same thing o Not as harsh, more positive o "If Jesus is God, who are we to be arguing with each other since he even became a servant for us. What are we doing?"  Just like the Corinthians, but more positive  Unity demands humility, what greater example that God becoming a person and dying on a Roman cross Many people believe that, in v. 6-11, Paul quotes an early Christian hymn to illustrate the point he is making.  Do you think these verses could stand on their hymn apart from use by Paul? o Is there a rhythm or drive to the verses?  Lines are separated into phrases, like Psalms  It is poetry, there is verse to the text  Translation is also an interpretation, especially when it comes to poetry  Translators try to convey the sense of poetry by staggering the lines  Is the point of these verses, understood as a hymn, different than the point Paul himself is making in the passage? o Not opposing each other but the last couple phrases of the hymn don't express Paul's point  Paul saying that Jesus, even being God, was humble, so who are we to try to be more than that  Hymn seems to emphasize Jesus' glory  Explicit Christology: v6: "being in very nature God" o This helped formulate such doctrines later on what and who Jesus was. o One of the building blocks of theology o Most explicit Christological verse: John 1:1  Word was with God and Word was God  Very high Christology What do v 6-11 tell us about early Christian understandings of Jesus? POSSIBLE TEST QUESTION  Explicit Christology found here  Do they go beyond what we find in the four NT Gospels in any way? o Here is more similar to John's Gospel, focus on the divinity of Jesus  High Christology, very explicit  Prologue John 1: In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God  "I am" statements  Way, truth, life  Good shepherd  Resurrection and the life  "I and the Father are one."  Note: Hebrews also has high Christology o Synoptic Gospels different Very similar within itself   Hypothesis: Mark written first, Matthew and Luke used Mark as a source  Synoptics does not have the same Christology as John or Philippians 2 but it still has high Christology in a sense  Not completely explicit, but not completely implicit ether; still very high christology  Mark starts by announcing that Jesus is the Son of God and ends with the centurion proclaiming that Jesus is the Son of God  Inclusio: starts and ends the same  After baptism, Mark quotes Isaiah 4: "Prepare the way of the LORD"  Divine name of Yaweh  Matthew's genealogy links Jesus back to David  The Messiah was to come from the line of David  Birth story quotes Isaiah 7  The child would be called Immanuel  Great commission  All authority on heaven and on earth as been given to me  And I am with you always to the end of the age  Incusio again!! (Immanuel)  Messianic secret  Jesus tells many people not to tell the public who he is,  But Peter confesses Jesus' Messianic identity and reveal this to his disciples (Mark 8)  Jesus' definition of Messiahship entails death  So does Philippians go beyond? o Gospels not implicit or explicit o Philippians is not exactly the same as the Gospels but it is not to far of a stretch o Gospels written likely after Paul's letters  Connection between the two  Not that different  Paul may be stating things a little stronger  At the basic level, saying that they are completely different is not right o Essentially, Philippians does not go very much beyond  There are minor differences o Claims that Paul and the Gospel writers are making is very similar Lecture 12 - Philippians & Colossians Thursday, October 18, 2012 Philippians  Paul is in prison when he wrote this letter  Purpose Thank you for the gifts set to him after his visit to Philippi   Thanks for Epaphroditus who had been of good service to Paul  Updating them of his new that he is in prison o Possibility of death sentence o Pros and cons of his death o What would it mean for the Philippians if he dies?  If he lives, he hopes to visit them again  If he dies, it is not a catastrophe because of the Gospel  Encourage unity in the Philippian community o Happiest letter of Paul and good relations with the Philippians o Ch 4: Paul mentions two names of people who are not getting along in the church  Personality conflict, people not getting along  Not because of following false teaching  Encourage Christian virtue o Live worthy of the Gospel even when they are suffering o Humility o Contentment, not to complain o Meek, not aggressive o Not to worry what to pray o Focus on what is good  Warnings of potential false teachings (although no evidence that it was actually present), just in case o Warning of people who tell them they have to be circumcised ("legalists")  Like the Galatians who were told they had to be circumcised o Warning against too much freedom ("libertines")  To do whatever they please  Paul uses example: Their god is their belly  In Galatians: walk with the Spirit, not in the flesh Philippians 2:5-11 Why is Paul writing this, what is his message?   Encourage them to consider the needs of others, not only themselves  Supreme example: Jesus Christ o Jesus is an ethical example who did not think of his own interests but sacrificed himself for other  The last 3 verses seem to have nothing with the theme o Most scholars think that Paul is quoting an early Christian hymn o The first part of the hymn fits his purpose perfectly but the second part doesn't o However, Paul just finishes quoting the hymn o Explicit Christology  Clear that Jesus who is God took on human flesh  Hymn not specifically written for doctrinal purposes but to describe the nature of Christ  Christ was obedient to death by humiliation on the cross  Characteristics that are usually attributed to God are applied to Christ (e.g. Lord, everyone will confess and bow to him) Paul, who was brought up as a monotheist, freely refers to Christ and God as both God  Philippians 3:3-11
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