The belief in Shi’aism which suggests that the twelfth Imam and descendant of Prophet
Mohammad (SAW) is the Mahdi. When he was born he went into a state of minor hiding where
he would communicate with a select few people but no one else and at the age of 70 he
disappeared and went into a major state of hiding however will one day return to establish a
kingdom of justice for all mankind
The 3rd caliph. He was a weak ruler, people could easily manipulate him, in his ruling their
existed nepotism = favoring your own tribe over everyone equally, he was from a Umayyad
tribe. Uthman wasn’t corrupt but things were getting out of hand. His governor, Walid in kufa
Iraq was caught drunk in public. Uthman was secluded in his own home in medina and was
protected by ali’s sons Hassan and Hussein but eventually was killed by a group who was
dissatisfied with his ruling in Egypt. In a positive note though he was responsible for elimating
duplicated copies of Qur’an.
-Initially were part of Ali’s army but turned against him when he accepted an arbitration
(settlement to see whos knew caliph) with the enemy (mu’awiyaah). The kharijis had a
statement; only God can Judge, and believed there is a charisma that lies not with an individual
but with a community. “People of Heaven.”. The kharijas ended up killing ali while he was
praying in a masjid during the month of ramadan. They believed their ideas were right and if
you disagreed they’d kill u.
A Persian group revolting against the Ummayad dynesty They were Called Abbasids because
they retract back to the prophet’s uncle (Abbas). Abbasids overthrew the ummayads and
universalized islam. 1st Abbasid caliph was saffah (means sheds blood). He was succeeded by
al-mansur who moved the capital to Baghdad. they saw it as their duty to enforce Islamic law,
they called thmesleves the shadow of god. During this period of Abbasids their were a lot of
strange tactics enforced like kissing the ground in order to greet a caliph but also during their
ruling arabs opened up the world to many great things like librarys hospitals and more.
The 12th and final imam was named Muhammad and is considered the “Mahdi” the messiah.
Literally it means to be rightly guided. For shias the 12th imam is the messiah, at the age of 4,
he enterned into a minor occultation (hiding). (Ghayba). He was able to communicate with his
agents for 70 years and in 940 he entered into a major occultation whereby he doesn’t communicate with anyone, but hes alive and will come back at the end of time, to establish the
kingdom of justice and equality.
The 6th shia imam, Ja’far added the doctrine of taqiyya/dissimulation (hide your true beliefs
when your in danger to preserve your life). This was during a time where shia’s were a minority
to sunni’s and politics played a big factor. If an individual felt his life was in danger your were
aloud to lie to save your life.
the term ulama is used to describe the body of Muslim scholars who have completed several
years of training and study of Islamic disciplines. When an imam went into hiding an ulama took
Islamic law is derived from two sources; the Qur’an itself and the traditions of Prophet
Muhammad (PBUH) known as the sunnah. It conveys moral principles and demonstrates
matters of personal and social conduct. Muslims look to the sunnah as guidance as to how they
should live their day to day lives. For example, sitting down when drinking water as a way of
unwinding and appreciating the water you have been blessed with would be sunnah because
the prophet also did this. Basic rituals of Islam derived from the Sunnah traditions. The Qur’an
and Sunnah together tell a complex story of profound intellectual and moral guidance and
The rightly guided Caliphs: After the death of Prophet Mohammad (SAW), someone needed to
lead the growing Muslim community. While nobody could replace the Prophet, administrative
duties needed attention. The first four leaders; Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman and Ali, aft