Study Guides (238,292)
Canada (115,058)

Islam Midterm Answers/Study Sheet

4 Pages
Unlock Document

McMaster University
Religious Studies
Liyakat Takim

PART I Ghayba – The belief in Shi’aism which suggests that the twelfth Imam and descendant of Prophet Mohammad (SAW) is the Mahdi. When he was born he went into a state of minor hiding where he would communicate with a select few people but no one else and at the age of 70 he disappeared and went into a major state of hiding however will one day return to establish a kingdom of justice for all mankind Uthman- The 3rd caliph. He was a weak ruler, people could easily manipulate him, in his ruling their existed nepotism = favoring your own tribe over everyone equally, he was from a Umayyad tribe. Uthman wasn’t corrupt but things were getting out of hand. His governor, Walid in kufa Iraq was caught drunk in public. Uthman was secluded in his own home in medina and was protected by ali’s sons Hassan and Hussein but eventually was killed by a group who was dissatisfied with his ruling in Egypt. In a positive note though he was responsible for elimating duplicated copies of Qur’an. Kharijis -Initially were part of Ali’s army but turned against him when he accepted an arbitration (settlement to see whos knew caliph) with the enemy (mu’awiyaah). The kharijis had a statement; only God can Judge, and believed there is a charisma that lies not with an individual but with a community. “People of Heaven.”. The kharijas ended up killing ali while he was praying in a masjid during the month of ramadan. They believed their ideas were right and if you disagreed they’d kill u. Abbasids A Persian group revolting against the Ummayad dynesty They were Called Abbasids because they retract back to the prophet’s uncle (Abbas). Abbasids overthrew the ummayads and universalized islam. 1st Abbasid caliph was saffah (means sheds blood). He was succeeded by al-mansur who moved the capital to Baghdad. they saw it as their duty to enforce Islamic law, they called thmesleves the shadow of god. During this period of Abbasids their were a lot of strange tactics enforced like kissing the ground in order to greet a caliph but also during their ruling arabs opened up the world to many great things like librarys hospitals and more. Mahdi The 12th and final imam was named Muhammad and is considered the “Mahdi” the messiah. Literally it means to be rightly guided. For shias the 12th imam is the messiah, at the age of 4, he enterned into a minor occultation (hiding). (Ghayba). He was able to communicate with his agents for 70 years and in 940 he entered into a major occultation whereby he doesn’t communicate with anyone, but hes alive and will come back at the end of time, to establish the kingdom of justice and equality. Taqqiya The 6th shia imam, Ja’far added the doctrine of taqiyya/dissimulation (hide your true beliefs when your in danger to preserve your life). This was during a time where shia’s were a minority to sunni’s and politics played a big factor. If an individual felt his life was in danger your were aloud to lie to save your life. Ulama the term ulama is used to describe the body of Muslim scholars who have completed several years of training and study of Islamic disciplines. When an imam went into hiding an ulama took power. Sunnah Islamic law is derived from two sources; the Qur’an itself and the traditions of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) known as the sunnah. It conveys moral principles and demonstrates matters of personal and social conduct. Muslims look to the sunnah as guidance as to how they should live their day to day lives. For example, sitting down when drinking water as a way of unwinding and appreciating the water you have been blessed with would be sunnah because the prophet also did this. Basic rituals of Islam derived from the Sunnah traditions. The Qur’an and Sunnah together tell a complex story of profound intellectual and moral guidance and empowerment. PART II The rightly guided Caliphs: After the death of Prophet Mohammad (SAW), someone needed to lead the growing Muslim community. While nobody could replace the Prophet, administrative duties needed attention. The first four leaders; Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman and Ali, aft
More Less

Related notes for RELIGST 2Q03

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.