Tutorial Notes Umayyad & Abassid October 22

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Religious Studies
Liyakat Takim

Started on: 10/22/2013 3:28:00 PM Last saved on: 11/10/2013 6:23:00 PM C LASS N OTES FOR : R ELIGIOUS S TUDIES 2Q03 McMaster University, Fall 2013 T UESDAY , O CTOBER 22, 2013 UMAYYAD  Mu‟awiya  Yazi – First Dynasty  711 – Went into Spain (during the dynasty)  Favored the Arabs – Islam was primarily for the Arabs, non-Arabs were second class citizens; o Tax exemptions o Nepotism o Favoritism  Navy – Able to Conquer many parts, including Sicily;  When was the Umayyad empire finally destroyed – 750  ABASSID DESTROYED THE ABASSID ABASSID  Part of the Family of the Prophet  Persians  Lured in the Shias but later abandoned  FIRST ABASSID CALIPH  SAFFAH (The one who sheds bloods)  After Saffah who succeeded? Mansour o Main feature of Mansour‟s empire? Commissioned the first book of LAW o MALIKI o Established Baghdad (moved the capital from Damascus to Baghdad) o Created the Wazir HARUM AL RASHID  Did not punish homosexuality  Poetry about young boys  Imported Arabian culture  Caliph was called the “Caliph of God”  Would have to bow down in front of the Caliph  Before he died; he divided the empire into two. o One was Arab, the other was Persian o Mamun VS. Amin (Mamun killed Amin) M AMUN  Promoted sciences  Established the house of Wisdom in Baghdad o In which debates and issues were being discussed o Greek works were translated into Arabic; translated in Baghdad during Mamuns time;  The flowering of the „intellectual‟ sciences 1 Started on: 10/22/2013 3:28:00 PM Last saved on: 11/10/2013 6:23:00 PM  Also wanted to appease the Shias; o He asked the 8 Shia Imam who used to live in Medina; o Asked him to become his successor; to be the Caliph during his time o Either now, or after he dies o Muman forced the Shia imam to be the Caliph afterwards;  Wanted the Shia to come on his side; because the Shias were disappointed with the Abassid (because the Abassid betrayed them) and therefore in order to gain their confidence, asked the 8 Shia to succeed him.  MERV – was were Mamun was ruling from, later on he moved to Baghdad  The Shias initially supported him.  Later on the Sunnis were the majority – Turned against Ali al rida (who was poisoned, or at least this was what was claimed) o Sunnis went against Mamun because did not want to have a Shia leader, and Mamun had to abandon the plan.  Mamun continued to live in Baghdad until he died in 833;  SUCEEDED BY HIS BROTHER  Mu‟tasim (the capital moves again, because the Caliph was not very secure in Baghdad, own people who were supposed to guard, threatened) o Samarra (Iraq) – at one point held the largest Mosque in the World. th  The 12thmam wth born there  The 10 and 11 imam was born there  Although it‟s a predominantly Sunni city, the Shias visit there because of the Imams  The Caliph gets Turkish Guards o The Turks became very powerful, they made and unmade the Caliphs o Was killed by the Turkish Guards o Until the Abbasids were overthrown in 1258 by the Mongols o END OF THE CLASSICAL PERIOD OF ISLAM o BEGINNING WAS IN 570 o From 570-1258 was the CLASSICAL PERIOD (Abbasid Dynasty crumbled)  Medieval Period 1258 till 1798 (Period of Modernity starts in 1798)  1798 Napoleon Bonaparte set foot in Egypt. o Period of colonization T HEOLOGY – K ALAM  Study of the Divine  Why do people study theology? o AQIDA – CREED o Tells you the sets of beliefs o Why is it important? Need to establish Boundaries;  Those who are Muslims – What do they believe in? Especially when someone challenges you.  Need to know what the true or correct beliefs are.  Statement of belief, statement of what you believe, it draws boundaries, those who are with you accept the same belief, and they‟re to create an „orthodox‟  The word KALAM literally means speech
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