Second Quiz Review 2Q03 Fall 2013.docx

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McMaster University
Religious Studies
Liyakat Takim

Started on: 11/23/2013 7:14:00 PM Angie © McMaster University S ECOND Q UIZ R EVIEW FOR : RELIGIOUS STUDIES 2Q03 McMaster University, Fall 2013 IMPORTANT C ONCEPTS T O KNOW : SIFFIN  Place where Mu‟awiya and Ali fought after Ali succeeded Uthman U MAYYAD  FIRST DYNASTY IN ISLAM  CAPITAL: DAMASCUS in Syria by Mu‟awiya  Islam was primarily for the Arabs  Non Arabs were Mawla – Belonged, but were not full Muslims (went against the „equality‟ principle in Islam)  Shia and Kharijis revolted against the Umayyad  Dome of the rock was built in Jerusalem in 692 (where the prophet went to heaven); not to be confused with ASQA (which was built during the time of Umar)  Umayyad ruled based on the power of the Arabs  Hasan Al Basri – Ascetic; saw through what the Umayyads were trying to do, misusing the Qur‟an  Yazid – Indirectly responsible for killing of Husayn in Karbala  Umar II – Stopped public cursing of Ali; did not favor Arabs over non-Arabs  Overthrown by a revolt in Iran by Abu Muslim; “revolution from within the family of the prophet” ABBASIDS  ABU-Muslim  Capital: BAGHDAD, Iraq (Mansur); river was important  Most were not Arabs  Overthrew the Umayyad  Claimed to be related to Abbas, the uncle of the Prophet  Initially drew in Shi‟a due to the linkages to the Prophet  Favored the Persians  FIRST RULER: Al-Saffah  Brought in a lot of Persian culture  Mansur commissioned the first book of law to be codified  MALIK  HARUM Al-RASHID i. Development of culture; acceptance of homosexuality, poetry by Abu Nuwas, 1,001 nights, Simba the sailor, etc. ii. Excelling in sciences; exchange of information, movement from the Muslim to Europe iii. 2 WIVES 1. PERSIAN a. Mamun son 2. Arab a. Amin son iv. Amin did not want to share the empire with the Persian brother; Mamuns forces crossed the RIVER and killed Amin v. Mamun became the ruler of the Islamic empire RULERS OF THE A BBASID PERIOD – O RDER Ruler order Description Al Saffah “The one who sheds blood” Al Mansour -Commissioned the first book of law Fall 2013 1 Started on: 11/23/2013 7:14:00 PM Angie © McMaster University -Established Baghdad as the capital -Created the Wazir -Importance of River Harum Al-Rashid -Did not punish homosexuality -Imported Arabian/Persian culture -“Caliph of God” -Before he died; divided the empire into TWO -The West for his Arab son from Arab wife (Amin) -The East for Persian son from the Persian wife (Mamun) -Mamun killed Amin and became the next ruler Mamun -Promoted sciences -Established the house of Wisdom in Baghdad -Wanted to appease the Shi‟a -Had to abandon the plan for appeasing Shia because Sunnis did not want this to happen Mamuns brother -Capital was moved to Samarra (Iraq) Mu‟tasim -Samarra has significant to the Shia because of Imams being born there; predominantly Sunni city -Gets Turkish Guards (who became very powerful!) -Everyone had to accept that the Qur‟an was CREATED -Supported the Mutazili -Abbasid were overthrown by the MONGOLS in 1258 -Marks the end of the CLASSICAL PERIOD OF ISLAM T HEOLOGY – K ALAM Kharijis -Strong connection between beliefs and actions -If we act evil, then our faith is impacted (good cannot do evil) -Revolted many times against the Umayyad Murjites -We as human beings cannot decide who is a believer or not -Even if evil, can still be a believer -Belief is important; also action BUT if you believe, you are a Muslim -Belief is constant even if you „behave‟ bad -Idea of pre-determination (God determines our actions) -Umayyad supported them “If we are Evil, God has made us evil” -Postponed the decision on the fate of a grave sinner, accepted the doctrine of free will Qadaris -Rejected the doctrine of pre-destination (Qadar) -“Free will” -Hasan Al Basri believed in free will; insisted that God is just -Believed that Umayyads were playing with religion to justify their actions Mutazili -Rationalist -The theological school established in the 9 century. Among other things; argued for supremacy of reason over revelation and complete free will. -Grew out of the Qadari -Flourished under Mamun -Important things were „reason‟ or „rationalism‟ Fall 2013 2 Started on: 11/23/2013 7:14:00 PM Angie © McMaster University -Even God is subject to reason -Things are good in themselves, not just because God tells us so -Believed in 5 principles -Supported by the Caliph Al-Mamun although were later defeated by the Ash‟Ari M UTAZILI AND THE 5 P RINCIPLES Tawhid -Oneness of God -Things cannot co-exist with God because it defines the oneness of God -Anthropomorphism in the Qur‟an was not to be taken literally! -Acknowledged God into the essence; not duality (were trying to avoid it!) -Two kinds of ATTRIBUTES -(1) Essence – essential attributes of God such as Power, Knowledge, -(2) Attributes of action – does not need to perform these, but not performing does not remove him as being God, not an essential part of God such as creator, or sustainer Justice -Whoever has done good needs to be rewarded; whoever did bad has to be punished -Overemphasizing God‟s justice reduces God‟s mercy -Mutazili: God is giving people a chance to develop themselves if they are suffering -Mutazili: Rejected Shafa‟a (intercession) Grave Sinner -Took a middle ground to say that the Grave sinner is between TWO; -Intermediate position Punishment -Promise and Threat and Rewards -If you do something wrong, he will punish you -If you do something right/good, he will reward you -Emphasis on Justice Enjoin Good -If you see something that is evil, you must oppose it! and Oppose -Must support rightful rulers; etc. Evil A HMAD B. H ANBAL - Source of Knowledge = HADITH o Reasoning was wrong because of human nature (Since it‟s faulty) - Literal meanings of the Qur‟an as opposed to metaphorical meanings - There is NO tradition to say that the Qur‟an was created! Therefore, it was not created. Mamun & The Imposed the idea that the Qur‟an was created; when Ahmad B. Hanbal Qur’an said it was not created he was killed because of it. A SH’A RI Good & Evil Not objective. -You do not know them independent of revelation Becaus
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