Intro to Islam (Notes).docx

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Religious Studies
Liyakat Takim

Islam Notes 10/09/2012 8:23:00 AM 2012-09-08 Islam means one that submits Abraham (2000 BCE)  Abraham was born in „Ur‟ (Babylon, Mesopotamia)  Agreement between god and Abraham o Abraham will worship only one god and in return god will make him a leader of a great nation  Abraham migrated to Jerusalem  Abraham‟s wife Sarah was barren (unable to give birth)  Ismael is born from Hajar (Hagar)---black woman  Isaac was born from Sarah  Isaac‟s son Jacob (Yaqub) o Children is Israel are children of Yaqub  Yaqub had a son Yusuf (Joseph)  Yusuf ends up in Egypt and becomes a treasurer Moses (1200 BCE)  Leads Banu-Israel (Israelites) out of Egypt Muhammad‟s mother was Amina Muruwwa – the way tribes interacted 2012-09-10 Maruwah: customs of the people of Mecca Allah comes from the word Al-ilah which means „The God‟ People of medina are called helpers Muhammad tried to bring together the migrators and the helpers so they can live together in peace Importance of Jerusalem  Jerusalem is the „city of the prophets‟ in Islam  Jerusalem is the direction of prayer for Muslims initially (changed in 624 to mecca)  Jerusalem is where prophet ascended from Battle of Badr (624)  First battle Muslims were engaged in  Against mecca  Only 313 Muslims vs. thousands of Meccans  Muslims won and a lot of leaders of the Meccans were killed or ran away  Ali was instrumental in killing a lot of Meccans Battle of Uhud (hill)(625)  Muslims were defeated in this battle but it was not a complete defeat  For Meccans this was revenge for badr but it was not an overwhelming defeat Battle of the Trench  Salman joined Muslims and told them to build trenches  Muslims won this battle Peace Treaty with Mecca  In 628, Muhammad had a dream that he should go for pilgrimage  There was was peace treaty betweens Meccans and the Muslims  Muslims would go back to medina and come back in 63 for 3 days, perform their pilgrimage and go back to medina  And there should be no war between Muslims and Meccans  The peace treaty would last for 10 years  But the treaty would be cancelled if any Muslims or any Meccans are killed Muhammad arriving to Mecca  Muhammad sent Muslims around the world to spread the message of Islam  In the year 630, a few Muslims were killed outside of mecca and it was meccans who killed the Muslims, which means the peace treaty was cancelled  Muslims marched into mecca with 10,000 Muslims  Muslims were too strong and they provided Meccans with amnesty  There was very little blood shed  Most of the Meccans converted to Islam  The first place Muslims went to was the Kaaba o There was no roof, kaaba had two doors and it was a little bigger than it is right now Prophet returned to medina and then died in the year 632 When the prophet migrated to Medina, there was a jewish community there as well Muslims offered to allow Jews to live under the protection of Muslims if the Jews paid a tax called „Jizya‟ 2012-09-13 Scripture  More than a book  Ongoing relationship between the book and the people  Implies a relationship with someone  No text is a scripture by itself  Has to be related to people (or someone) o E.g. a king cannot be a king without peasants Canon  A book of reference (encyclopaedia) Quran  Quran is not a book of law or history  6666 verses, 114 chapters  Only Mary is referred to by name in the Quran  Quran is seen as a scripture rather than a canon  Quran is recited rather than read  Recitation is suppose to generate inspiration and allows Muslims to internalize the Quran  Quran is a moral document for Muslims not a historical document  Quran should be seen as a mirror rather than a window  In the Quran, god is seen as transcendent and immanent o Immanent: god is very close Islam is to submit to god Iman is to build a relationship with god Muslims see god as personal who you can interact with 2012-09-17 Aqida: belief We can study someone‟s belief but not faith because faith is internal (judge) Quran wants to create morally upright human beings Quran wants t create a society where there is justice for all (not just Muslims) Taqwa  god awareness, god consciousness, inner light preventing you from doing bad deeds (immoral behaviour)  a person who is just to himself and others (same in public and private) amr bil ma'rūf wa nahy an al-munkar  to promote good and to forbid evil  morally strong help morally weak  zakar – helps create a just society by looking over the poor ayat Allah: sign of god nature is the best Muslim (submits to god)  Sun doesn‟t have a choice if it wants to rise or not Natural law has a cycle  Cannot apply the moral law to nature or animals  Moral law only applies to human beings  Human beings are suppose to learn from nature, nurture and respect it, not to destroy it  Earth dies in the winter and comes back to life in spring (no crops in winter) 2012-09-20 Compilation of Quran Abu Bakar  It was during his time that Islam expanded beyond the boundaries of what we call Saudi Arabia  There was a need to compile the Quran because the people who had memorized it were either becoming old or dying at battle  Scribe: people who were trusted with the task of compiling the Quran  People were required to bring a witness (credible and have witnesses the revelation) when Quran was being compiled in order to write it in the scripture  Quran was writer down in the Kufi Script (no vowels zabar, zer, pesh)  As Islam grew, vowels were added to make reading easier for people  Uthman, the third caliph standardized the Quran (all other versions were burned because people started coming up with their own ways of reading the Quran) Surah Fatiha  Opening chapter in the Quran Circumstances of Revelation  Tells us under what circumstance a revelation was revealed  Not all Muslims agree on this though Tafseer  Explanation of the Quran Naskh  Certain verses cancel other verses  E.g. Muslims prayer towards Jerusalem initially but then turned towards Kaaba in mecca  There is a mosque in medina that has two directions of prayer  Initially the alcohol was not prohibited but later it was  Same thing with slaves Ratio-legis  The laws of the Quran (the rationale, the reason)  Down just look at the law, go back into history and find out the reason for which the verse was revealed Early Islamic history is composite (bring together different sources so not 100% sure about what happened) Sometimes, sources are tendentious (want the reader to see through their lenses whether they agree with it or not) Prophet was sick for at lease 3 days before he died He was sick during his last pilgrimage In year 632, the prophet passed away The helper and the migrants were the two tribes in medina Saqifa: a meeting place where the people would often meet to make important decisions (in medina)  Umar and Abu-Bakr came to the saqifa  Abu-Bakr was selected khalifah (not necessarily voted/elected)  Ali‟s name was also mentioned in those days, there were tribes as well as clans  Muhammad‟s tribe was the quraish and his clan was hashim 2012-09-24 Why Ali was not selected:  Ali was responsible for killing a lot of people at the battle of Badr so some people had a grudge  Also, he was very young (30-33) Not all Muslims selected Abu-Bakr as the successor of the prophet We are not sure as to when Ali gave allegiance to Abu-Bakr  Some sources say he gave it 6 months after the prophet‟s death when his wife Fatima passed away (Muhammad‟s daughter) During Abu-Bakr‟s time, Islam spread towards Jordan and Iraq Abu-Bakr‟s reign lasted for two years (632-634) Abu-Bakr died a natural death Appointed Umar as his successor Umar ruled for 10 years  Umar was a strict ruler (strictly abided by the Quran)  Islam expanded to Persia, and Egypt  Muslims reached the gates of Jerusalem (638) Jerusalem is
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