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Religious Studies
Mark Rowe

• Gongen 権権 – Shinto avatar: appeared all over Japan. Responsible for the Honji Suijaku. • Prince Shōtoku 権権権権 (aka Shōtoku Taishi) 574-622 : founder of Buddhism • Soga clan: prince shutoku- built Buddhas shrines;, Mononobe clan, Nakatomi clan • Nara Period 710-794 : first capital state was the city of Nara , buddhism enters th japan with lotus sutras. Indian-> sri lanka, china and as a gift in Japan in 6 century • Heian Period 764-1185 (1192) : capital was moved to modern Kyoto(heian), there was peace. Fujiwara is one of most powerful family- helped influ. Imperial. th 100, 000 in 9 century, 10% were noble families • Saichō 権権 (762-822): was the founder of Tendai Buddhism in Japan. his Buddhism was difficult to accept and opposed the Nara establishment/period • Dengyō Daishi 権権権権: given this title when he died. He left Nara to China to study Buddhism with kukai. • Kūkai 権権 (774-835) Kōbō Daishi 権権権権: Trained in China, stayed their longer than Saicho, studied esoteric buddhism. He was much more about this world and said that one can reach enlightenment if they trained the body, mind and soul and did not have to wait 16 rebirths to do so. Made the religion for the common people `bottom up`. Founded Shingon Buddhism based on Esoteric Buddhism • Mappō 末末 – the end of dharma • Samsara • Nirvāna • Lotus Sutra: described Pure Lands • Esoteric: reading the text and trying to understand them. In terms of practice its characterized by the use of mantras, mandalas, mudras and sensory faculties to allow the practioner to be immersed in a world of Buddhas and Bodhisattvas. • Exoteric: how u interact with text – outer and public • Mantra: Formulaic chants (mouth) • Mandala: diagrams of deities and ritual universe. • Mudra: ritual hand gestures. Mystery of the body. • Shingon Buddhism 末末 • Dainichi Nyorai 末末末末 Mahāvairocana • Tendai Buddhism末末末 • Mount Hiei (Hiezan)末末末末 • Mount Kōya (Kōyasan)末末末末 • Shinbutsu Shūgō – Combination of Kami and Buddhas • Honji Suijaku – Original ground and manifest traces • Amida: will carry you to the Pure Lands when you die. Mahayana Buddhism – Buddhism in Pure Land. Faith in Pure lands. Worst time to die was in sleep since you were not concentrating on Amida. • Nembutsu • Taira/Heike • Genji/Minamoto • Jomon Period (10 000 BCE – 300 BCE): hunting/fishing/gathering societies – there may have been some cultivation. Named for its “cord patterned” pottery. Ritually – some settlements with burial pits in the center. Jomon ceramic figurines- most are females figures, with a swollen belly or even a clay ball in a belly implying pregnancy – maybe connected to reproduction and fertility cults. • Yayoi Period (300 BCE – 300 AD): named for the site in Tokyo where types of pottery from that era were found. Beginning of full-scale agriculture – wet rice cultivations, rice paddies. Bronze and Iron tools. Migration, trade, diplomatic exchange with China and Korea. Social stratification into elite and commoner classes.
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