Gongen: power/authority with manifestation, kami are manifestations of Buddha (combination of
Buddhism and kami worship)
Prince Shotuku: (574-622) Asuka period, created Japan’s first constitution (17 Article
Constitution), famous for commentaries on Buddhist texts, sage + virtue, part of the Soga Clan
Soga Clan: Prince Shotuku, wanted to keep Buddhist traditions, Soga no Umako beats the
Mononobe clan and allows Buddhism to flourish in Japan.
Mononobe Clan: opposed Buddhist tradtions, led by the Mononobe no Moriya, lost to the Soga
clan and failed to stop the spread of Buddhism.
Nakatomi Clan: fought alongside with the Mononobe Clan, Nakatomi no Kamatari established
the Fujiwara Clan.
Nara Period: (710-794), moved capitals to Kyoto near the end of the period, Saicho establishes
Buddhist monasteries on Mount Hiei.
Heian Period: (764-1185), rise of the samurai class, Fujiwara Clan holds most of the power and
uses the emperor as a puppet.
Saicho: Heian Period, founded the Tendai school and Tendai Buddhism, trained on Mount Hiei
and founded various temples there.
Kukai: Heian Period, founded of Shingon Buddhism, enlightenment where he sees the sky and
sea become one.
Mappo: end of dharma, cannot be enlightened for ten thousand years
Samsara: represents the cycle of endless rebirth, six realms determine where one is
reincarnated based on their karma.
Esoteric/Exoteric Buddhism: esoteric refers to secret teachings, while exoteric is knowledge
that is accessible to the public. Esoteric Buddhism involves rituals and secret languages; any
text can be esoteric, anybody can reach enlightenment in their lifetime. Exoteric Buddhism says
that enlightenment takes more than one lifetime to achieve.
Mantra: involves chanting rituals or singing, sutras that connect humans with sp iritual bodies,
part of the Three Mysteries in Esoteric Buddhism.
Mandala: physical statue, normally like a picture, that symbolizes the potential of enlightenment,
attempts to copy physical movement to movement in the spiritual world, part of the Three
Mysteries in Esoteric Buddhism.
Mudra: hand gestures, ritual sign language to communicate with respective Buddhas, part of
the Three Mysteries in Esoteric Buddhism.
Shingon Buddhism: founded by Kukai on Mount Hiei, sect of esoteric Buddhism, founded
during the Heian Period, includes the Three Mysteries as taught by Kukai, includes the worship
Dainichi Nyorai: celestial Buddha (Mahavairocana), center of the Five Great Buddhas, core
concept in Shingon Buddhism.
Tendai Buddhism: founded by Saicho, ultimate expression of the dharma is the Lotus Sutra,
founded in the Heian Period.
Mount Hiei: founded by Saicho during the Heian Period, various temples and schools were built
here to study Buddhism.
Mount Koya: founded by Kukai during the Heian Period, known as the headquarters for
Shinbutsu Shugo: mixing of kami worship and Buddhism
Honji Suijaku: Buddhist deities reincarnate themselves as kami to lead Japanese people into
Amida Buddha: dominant figure in Pure Land Buddhism, faith in Amida would grant them