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Religious Studies
Mark Rowe

Gongen: power/authority with manifestation, kami are manifestations of Buddha (combination of Buddhism and kami worship) Prince Shotuku: (574-622) Asuka period, created Japan’s first constitution (17 Article Constitution), famous for commentaries on Buddhist texts, sage + virtue, part of the Soga Clan Soga Clan: Prince Shotuku, wanted to keep Buddhist traditions, Soga no Umako beats the Mononobe clan and allows Buddhism to flourish in Japan. Mononobe Clan: opposed Buddhist tradtions, led by the Mononobe no Moriya, lost to the Soga clan and failed to stop the spread of Buddhism. Nakatomi Clan: fought alongside with the Mononobe Clan, Nakatomi no Kamatari established the Fujiwara Clan. Nara Period: (710-794), moved capitals to Kyoto near the end of the period, Saicho establishes Buddhist monasteries on Mount Hiei. Heian Period: (764-1185), rise of the samurai class, Fujiwara Clan holds most of the power and uses the emperor as a puppet. Saicho: Heian Period, founded the Tendai school and Tendai Buddhism, trained on Mount Hiei and founded various temples there. Kukai: Heian Period, founded of Shingon Buddhism, enlightenment where he sees the sky and sea become one. Mappo: end of dharma, cannot be enlightened for ten thousand years Samsara: represents the cycle of endless rebirth, six realms determine where one is reincarnated based on their karma. Esoteric/Exoteric Buddhism: esoteric refers to secret teachings, while exoteric is knowledge that is accessible to the public. Esoteric Buddhism involves rituals and secret languages; any text can be esoteric, anybody can reach enlightenment in their lifetime. Exoteric Buddhism says that enlightenment takes more than one lifetime to achieve. Mantra: involves chanting rituals or singing, sutras that connect humans with sp iritual bodies, part of the Three Mysteries in Esoteric Buddhism. Mandala: physical statue, normally like a picture, that symbolizes the potential of enlightenment, attempts to copy physical movement to movement in the spiritual world, part of the Three Mysteries in Esoteric Buddhism. Mudra: hand gestures, ritual sign language to communicate with respective Buddhas, part of the Three Mysteries in Esoteric Buddhism. Shingon Buddhism: founded by Kukai on Mount Hiei, sect of esoteric Buddhism, founded during the Heian Period, includes the Three Mysteries as taught by Kukai, includes the worship of Mahavairocana. Dainichi Nyorai: celestial Buddha (Mahavairocana), center of the Five Great Buddhas, core concept in Shingon Buddhism. Tendai Buddhism: founded by Saicho, ultimate expression of the dharma is the Lotus Sutra, founded in the Heian Period. Mount Hiei: founded by Saicho during the Heian Period, various temples and schools were built here to study Buddhism. Mount Koya: founded by Kukai during the Heian Period, known as the headquarters for Shingon Buddhism. Shinbutsu Shugo: mixing of kami worship and Buddhism Honji Suijaku: Buddhist deities reincarnate themselves as kami to lead Japanese people into believing Buddhism. Amida Buddha: dominant figure in Pure Land Buddhism, faith in Amida would grant them
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