Religious Studies Review Sheet
1-Aaron- was the older brother of Moses, (Exodus 6:16-20, 7:7; Qur'an 28:34) and a prophet of God. He
represented the priestly functions of his tribe, becoming the first High Priest of the Israelites. There, Aaron gained
a name for eloquent and persuasive speech, so that when the time came for the demand upon the Pharaoh to
release Israel from captivity, Aaron became his brother’s nabi, or spokesman, to his own people
Abraham- is one of the biblical patriarchs and a major character in the epic of the Israelites In Jewish and Christian
tradition, Abraham is the father of the Israelites through his son Isaac.
Ai- was a Canaanite royal city. According to the Book of Joshuain the Hebrew Bible, it was conquered by the
Israelites on their second attempt.
Anthropomorphism - Anthropomorphism, also referred to as personification or prosopopeia, is the attribution of
human characteristics to inanimate objects, animals, forces of nature, and others.  Biblical anthropomorphism is
when human characteristics are projected on God.The Bible has examples of God referring to himself in
anthropomorphic terms and the biblical writers referring to God in anthropomorphic terms
Exodus 3:20 "So I will stretch out My hand and strike Egypt with all My miracles which I shall do in the midst of it;
and after that he will let you go.
Antiochus IV (Epiphanes) - ruled the Seleucid Empire from 175 BC until his death in 164 BC. He was a son of
King Antiochus III the Great. His original name was Mithridates, Sacking of Jerusalem and persecution of Jews
Assyria - During this period Israel and Judah were both small kingdoms giving support either to the Assyrians or the
Arameans (Syrians) and prospering or suffering according to the relative strength of these more major powers.
Israel in particular often used Assyrian power to retain independence from Damascus.
Babylon - The city itself was built upon the Euphrates
Balaam- is a diviner in theTorah, his story occurring towards the end of the Book of Numbers Every ancient
reference to Balaam considers him a non-Israelite, aprophet, and the son of Beor, though Beor is not so clearly
identified. Though other sources describe the apparently positive blessings he delivers upon the Israelites, he is
reviled as a "wicked man
Canaan- Canaan, according to the Book of Genesis in the Hebrew Bible, was a son of Ham and grandson of Noah,
and was the father of the Canaanites. He was the recipient of the so-called Curse of Ham.
Covenant- A biblical covenant is a religious covenant that is described in the Bible. All Abrahamic religions consider
biblical covenants important. Of these covenants, the Noahic Covenant is unique in applying to all humanity, while
the other covenants are principally agreements made between God and the biblical Israelites and
theirproselytes. Jeremiah 31:30–33 also mentions "a new covenant" that God would establish
with Israel andJudah.
David*- was a culture hero, and according to the Hebrew Bible and the Qur'an, the second king of theUnited
Kingdom of Israel
Deuteronomistic History- The Second Division of the Hebrew Bible: The Nevi'im
Further subdivided into Former & Latter Prophets
The Former Prophets: Joshua, Judges, Samuel, Kings cover the period from the conquest to the exiles.
written by the same author/redactor/school as the book of Deuteronomy: Emphasis on the Davidic covenant
David is idealized as greatest king,
God promises that his monarchy will be everlasting...
Documentary Hypothesis- sometimes called the Wellhausen hypothesis), holds that theTorah was derived from
originally independent, parallel and complete narratives, which were subsequently combined into the current form
by a series of redactors (editors). The number of these is usually set at four, but this is not an essential part of the
hypothesis. The hypothesis was developed in the 18th and 19th centuries from the attempt to reconcile
inconsistencies in the biblical text.
the Yahwist source ( J ) : written c. 950 BC in the southern Kingdom of Judah.
the Elohist source ( E ) : written c. 850 BC in the northern Kingdom of Israel.
the Deuteronomist ( D ) : written c. 600 BC in Jerusalem during a period of religious reform.
the Priestly source ( P ) : written c. 500 BC by Kohanim (Jewish priests) in exile in Babylon.
Ehud- is described in the biblical Book of Judges as a judge who was sent by God to deliver the Israelites
from Moabite domination.
Esau- in the Hebrew Bible, is the older son of Isaac. He is mentioned in the Book of Genesis,
Etiology- is the study of causation, or origination.
Exodus- is the story of the enslavement of the Israelites in Egypt following the death of Joseph, their departure
under the leadership of Moses, the revelations at Sinai, and their wanderings in the wilderness up to the borders
Gilgamesh - was the fifth king of Uruk Hagar- is a biblical person in the Book of Genesis Chapter 16. She was an Egyptian handmaid
of Sarai (Sarah), who gave her to Abram (Abraham) to bear a child.
Haustafeln- haustafeln”. This is the German word forhouse-tables or household codes; a word used since Luther’s
time to describe Biblical passages detailing family duties
Hexateuch- The Hexateuch ("six scrolls") is the first six books of the Hebrew Bible (the Torah or Pentateuch and
the book of Joshua). Some scholars propose that Joshua represents part of the northern Yahwist source (c 950 BC),
detached from JE document by the Deuteronomist (c 650-621) and incorporated into theDeuteronomic history,
with the books of Judges, Kings, and Samuel.
Hezekiah- was the son of Ahaz and the 14th king of Judah. Edwin Thiele has concluded that his reign was
between c. 715 and 686 BC. He is also one of the most prominent kings of Judah mentioned in the Hebrew
Isaac- as described in the Hebrew Bible, was the only son Abraham had with his wife Sarah, and was the father
ofJacob and Esau. Isaac was one of the three patriarchs of the Israelites. According to the Book of Genesis,
Abraham was 100 years old when Isaac was born, and Sarah was beyond childbearing years. Isaac was the only
biblical patriarch whose name was not changed, and the only one who did not leaveCanaan.
Isaiah- was a prophet who lived in the 8th-century BC Kingdom of Judah.
Ishmael- is a figure in the Hebrew Bible and the Qur'an, and wasAbraham's first son according
to Jews, Christians and Muslims. Ishmael was born of Abraham's marriage to Sarah's handmaiden Hagar (Genesis
Israel- The Jewish religious belief that the area is a God-given inheritance of the Jewish people is based on
Jacob- In the Hebrew Bible, he is the son of Isaac and Rebekah, the grandson of Abraham, Sarah and of Bethuel,
and the younger twin brother of Esau. Jacob had twelve sons and at least one daughter, by his two
wives,Leah and Rachel
Jael- is a character mentioned in the Book of Judges in the Hebrew Bible, as the heroine who killed Sisera to deliver
Israel from the troops of king Jabin. She was the wife of Heber the Kenite.
JEDP- In brief, the JEDP theory states that the first five books of the Bible, Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers,
and Deuteronomy, were not written entirely by Moses, who died in the 1400's B.C., but also by different
authors/compliers after Moses. The theory is based on the fact that different names for God are used in different
portions of the Pentateuch,
Jephthah- served as a judge over Israel for a period of six years (Judges 12:7) as the result of a rash vow,
he sacrificed his daughter after defeating the Ammonites. An alternative interpretation of the story is that his
daughter was subject to a chastity vow as a sacrifice.
Joshua- is a figure in theTorah, being one of the spies for Israel (Num 13–14) and in few passages as Moses'
assistant. He is the central character in the Hebrew Bible's Book of Joshua. He was one of the twelve spies of
Israel sent by Moses to explore the land of Canaan. (Numbers 1