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Religious Studies
Tristan Carter

Final Exam Review People Ba’al  Canaanite God, a warrior  A challenge to Israel’s God of t bible Astarte  Phoenician/Canaanite fertility goddess  The God of Israel can overcome infertility, barrenness, etc. Asherah  Goddess  Many inscriptions of Yahweh and Asherah have been found, leading some to speculate that she is the wife of god Pompey  Takes over Jerusalem 63 BCE  Defiles/desecrated the Temple, ordered the Temple to be cleansed and rituals resumed  Judea had to pay tribute to Romans Maccabees  Apocrypha book  Recounts the struggle of Jews against Antiochus and Jewish revolt  1 Maccabees records the resistance against Antiochus led by Judas Maccabeus and his Hasmonean family  2 Maccabees expands on first 7 chapters of 1 Maccabees; suffering of Jews, interpreted as a mark of righteousness and of God’s benevolence towards his people  Led to Jewish revolt under the family (consisted of Maccabeus)  Led to establishment of Jewish government  Power struggles among various factions of Jews allowed Romans to take control of the area Essenes  Sect of Judaism that thrived from 2 century BCE to 1 century CE  Speculated to be responsible for Dead Sea Scrolls Pharisees  Dominant teachers in the synagogue  Accepted written and oral law Seleucids  Took control of Palestine at 198 BCE  Led by Antiochus IV, they sought to destroy Judaism and impose a Hellenistic culture Sadducees  Priestly aristocracy of the Temple  Accepted written law only  Cooperated with Roman officials as a way of maintaining privileges Zealots  Similar view to Pharisees  Advocated and practiced armed resistance against the Roman occupation Josephusst  1 century Jewish-Roman Historian  Wrote about many important events, source of extra-biblical evidence  Works likely to be revised by a Christian redactor Antiochus Epiphanes  Invaded Jerusalem in 169 and outlawed the Jewish religion, imposing a universal Hellenistic culture  Established pagan worship at the Temple Ezra  Priest-scribe  Led a third group of exiles back to Jerusalem  Re-established the Torah as the authority of Jew in Judah, called Jews to reject mixed alliances Jesus Seminar  Group on the quest for the historical Jesus  Believed that he was wisdom teacher Herod the Great  Roman king at the time Jesus was born  Ordered for all young boys to be killed in attempt to kill Jesus  Undertook massive building program throughout his kingdom o Enhancements to the Temple, fortresses, fortifications in Jerusalem, artificial port at Caesarea Simon Peter  Disciple of Jesus  Jesus said he would build his church on Peter Pontius Pilate  Roman ruler after Herod the Great  Execution of Jesus Tacitus  Roman Historian nd  2 century evaluation of Christianity  There is a group, hated for their abominations, called Christians by the people. Christus, from whom the name comes, suffered the extreme penalty during the reign of Tiberius at the hands of one of our officials, Pontius Pilate. Suetonius  Roman Historian  2 century evaluation of Christianity  The Christians are a class of men given to a new and wicked superstition. Pliny the Younger  Governor of Bithynia  2 century evaluation of Christianity  It is their habit, on a fixed day, to assemble before daylight and to recite by turns a form of words to Christ as a God. The contagion of this perverse and extravagant superstition has penetrated not the cities only, but the villages and the country. Yet it seems possible to stop it and set it right. Messiah  High Messianic expectations ran high amongst Jews for a Saviour that would rescue them from unjust suffering and oppression  Christians believe that Jesus is the Messiah, distinguishes them from Jews to a new religion  Many false Messiahs appeared Son of Man  Have many different connotations o A Human Being: Mark 2:28, Matthew 8:20 o Jesus, especially concerning his death Mark 8:31 o The one from Heaven who ushers in the Kingdom of God Matthew 16:27, 24:30  Jesus is never clear that He understands himself to be this (Mat 26:63) Theudas  Messianic figure?  Magician  Told others he was a prophet and persuaded many people to follow him. Told them he could divide the Jordan river and people would be able to cross it. Judas the Galilean  Messianic figure?  Led people in a revolt Hezekiah  Judean king  Assyrian king Sennacherib siege of Judea  Hezekiah defended Jerusalem but lost some outer cities Places Antioch of Syria  Center of early Christianity  Evangelised by Peter, Paul, and Barnabas  First converts to be called Christians Masada  Part of the first Jewish War, recorded by Josephus Bethlehem  Birthplace of Jesus Jerusalem  Center if Judaism  Temple, place of worship for the Jews Hazor  One of the largest and richest archaeological sites in Israel  Many artifacts found (pottery) that give insight into dating and culture of people at that time Jericho  The Jews brought this city down by walking around it seven times. Galilee  Region in northern Israel  Home of Jesus and place of much of Jesus’ ministry Corinth  City where Christian church was located  Paul wrote letters to them concerning various things (marriage, relationship… Thessalonica  City where Christian church was located  Paul wrote letters to them concerning various things Things Rosetta Stone  Tablet that includes text in Greek, hieroglyphic, and demotic (an ancient Egyptian script)  Led to the translation/interpretation of Egyptian hieroglyphics Merneptah Stele  Inscription in hieroglyphics  First existing reference outside of the bible to Israel as a distinct people  Recording the victories of Pharaoh Merneptah: “Israel is laid waste and his seed is not.” Disputed Epistles  2 Thessalonians, Colossians, Ephesians, 1&2 Timothy, Titus, Hebrews  Style, vocabulary  Reduced expectation of Christ’s imminent return  More sophisticated, sacred view of marriage Pastoral Epistles  1&2 Timothy, Titus, Philemon  Handbooks for church administration  A major concern of the writings was to limit the role of women in the church  The Church as Hierarchical Household, The Church as Guardian of Doctrine, Prescription of Behaviour Haustafeln  Household code  Describe the relationships that exist between member of a Greco-Roman household o Husband and wife  Wife submit to husbands, love each other o Parent and children  Children to be obedient, honour father and mother o Master and slave  Slaves obey masters,  Colossians 3, Ephesians 5-6, 1 Peter2-3 Pseudonymity  Writing under a different name  Possibility for better credibility or authority  Paul’s disputed letters  More of an issue of authorship rather than authority Pater Familias  The m
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