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3FF3 Final Review.docx

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Religious Studies
Ann Pearson

Part 2 Definitions Sati -widow immolation (sati)à burning herself to death on husbands funeral pyre, occurred until 1800s, banned under the British, still happens now and again in India -sati: widows were cremated alive on their husbands‟ funeral pyres Sita -Sita: married to Rama, both of them have become Gods, start off as key characters in the Ramayana, Sita surrounded by fire -sita is the perfect wife, great act of obedience takes place when Rama is unjustly exiled to the forest for 13 years, she says no and is at his side no matter what, Sita captured by Ravana who lusts after her, becomes pretext for the great war, she has been chaste -Sita: ultimate role model for women in Hindu texts, in Ramayana, story of King Rama -what is praised is sacrificing strength and power of single minded devotion to husband -Sita able to call upon God of Fire, Agni witness her statement of truth, is called a truth vow, often women who make truth vows more often then men, certain formula in which they are uttered -was captive in home of Ravana for over a year, was never unchaste to husband Rama in thought, word, deed, fire bears witness to truth of that statement by not consuming her in the flames that she steps into -her chastity gives her the power to force the fire not to burn her Pongola -pongala ritual from non-Sankskritic tradition in Kerala, do not have written texts, texts are stories and poetry sung as songs (tottam), ritual practices, dances and drama offered as part of festival to Bhagavati -public cooking of rice, offering of food is ancient practice with deep ritual significance -ritual is empowering for themselves and that their offering was necessary to increase power (shakti) of Goddess and her capacity to help all her devotees -Pongola is offering of rice, boiled until thick white foams spills over top of pot, represents an overabundance, offered to fulfill woman‟s vow to Goddess, ingredients simple, any woman can afford to do it, rice is sweetened with jaggery th -ten day Pongola Festival begins in month of Kumbham (February-March), 9 day is Pongola Day -vows and fasts -rice-cooking ritual/festival dominated by women, dedicated to the „mother goddess„ (Attukal Amma/Bhadrakali/Kannaki) -mans primary responsibility was to sisters children, abolished -esp. popular in state of Kerala (South India), growing in popularity across castes/religions -associated with vows and fasting, songs and stories of the goddess -period of 4-10 days, month of Humbum, earth and pot, final day was February 26 th -use of pots all over India used to represent goddess -Vishnu and his various manifestations -Goddess often known as Devi meaning the goddess -she has multiple forms -some very benevolent, and others quite horrific (like Kali) -offers rice -biggest gathering of women anywhere in the world -women feed the goddess in order to increase their shakti Vrat -vrat, a form of religious observance, ritual vow, optional religious observance in the text, difference between precept and practice -Functions/Benefits of vrats A) Production of ritual art B) Opportunities for social cohesion and interaction (sing, play music, tell stories expressing of women„s concerns and dilemmas all night long, prepare special foods, get a break from the tedium of daily routine C) Vrat act as problem solvers D) Legitimate way in which women can gain access to religious merit and to the power associated with ascetics E) Expression and development of personal faith F) Woman who observes many vrats is respected and praised by the larger society (social status enhancement) Perpetua -writings -martyred in 203 in Carthage, give clear insight into extraordinary faith-inspired courage of some of these women -was nursing mother, begged by her family to worship the emperor and abandon Christianity to save her life but she refused, had vision -second vision made it clear she would die and enter paradise -increased her willingness to set aside social and familial norms as well as state rule because of her spiritual convictions Brit Milah -Jewish religious ceremony, performed on 8 day old infant males by mohel, followed by celebratory meal, circumcision -customary to be held at synagogue, can be held at home or other suitable location -days taken into account through Jewish calendar Niddah -end of niddah (separation of sexual intimacy between husband and wife for 10-15 days, in Rabbinic Hallakah sources) -niddah women enjoyed break from sex with husbands, one of duties of wife is to have sex with her husband -describes woman during menstruation, or woman who has menstruated but has not yet completed the associated requirement of immersion in mikveh (ritual bath) -sexual intercourse prohibited with niddah -she has to lay for 7 days -man who has sexual relations with niddah is ritually impure for 7 days Circumcision -Four types of cutting 1) Circumcision, removal of prepuce of clitoris 2) Cliteridectomy, removal of clitoris 3) Excision, removal of clitoris and all or part of labia minora 4) Infibulations, removal of clitory and most of labia (15% of genital cutting procedures in Africa) -Ghana was first country in the world to ban it in 1994 Uncircumsized women are -socially ostrasized -considered not marriageable -unable to partake in many family rites/ceremonies (bc she is not real woman) -blamed for problems in village, especially diseases -should not change body in fundamental way Aimee Semple McPhersonah -Canadian-American evangelist, founded Foursquare Church -believed US was nation founded and sustained by divine inspiration -began preaching career in 1913 -faith healing demonstrations -miraculous healings can sometimes be explained as result of hysteria or form of hypnosis -had some well publicized failures -tried hard to raise money to build church Eve -Eve„s secondary creation out of Adam„s ribs, often been interpreted as suggesting her inferior status -her acceptance of forbidden fruit from the serpent as symbol of women‟s natural sinfulness -some say because women were created last, they are the crown of creation -women and men shared at least equally in the fall of humanity from the Garden of Eden, for both ate fruit and Adam brought disharmony by blaming Eve -considered mother of all humanity, blamed for Christians fall from grace -Eve was first in Judeo-Christian-Muslim tradition to make a choice regarding her destiny, chose knowledge over obedience Bat mitzvah -son of the commandment is boys ceremony (daughter of the commandment) -ceremony for girls at the age of 12 or 13, girl expected to read from the Torah scroll, a special privilege -coming of age ceremony -celebrate in the same way as boys ceremony -must be minimum minyan or quorum of 10 people -deliver learned discourse or oration at the table before invited guests, who offer her presents, rabbi gives her blessing Navajo Nadleehi (and dilbaa):  The term two spirit has been a term that has been recently reclaimed in north american/ indian people  Born male but encompassing both male and female traits  People are honoured for the sexual traits rather than harassed  Matrilineal form of identity, name transferred through the female line  Our first nations neighbours identify themselves with their clan name and mother's clan name  Colonization in 16th century, the transgendered people were stigmatized by Europeans and Christians which almost lead to total erasers. People with both genitalia was almost completely erased.  Honouring group within the community by assigning them specific actions in the group  Few have been interested in the nadleehi winter dance because of the stigmatization. It takes time to learn all the oral traditions  There was a disagreement between spiritual roles between men and women where there was a separation between the two  Men, women, people born with both genitalia (nadleehi and dilbaa) which consists of 4 genders.  Nadleehi meaning a holy state of change  Verdash means a male prostitute. This activity was completely rejected by the Indians. The sexualization of the gender category  Negative gender sexualization terms such as the term mistress came to be a negative term for women  Masculine and feminine are constants Eight special rules: The Eight Special Rules Governing Nuns in the Sangha The following selection is from the earliest recorded account of the Buddha's establishment of an Order of Nuns. According to this sutra, the Buddha approved the bhiksuni-sangha only after three requests from his aunt, Mahaprajapati Gautama. However, he is reported to have added eight special rules which became the basis of the subordination of nuns in the Theravada tradition. “I am willing to allow Mahaprajapati Gautama to be initiated and ordained, but first I wish to make known the eight cardinal rules for nuns, which they should respect, esteem, honor, and venerate for as long as they live. They are like the steadfast banks of the great ocean, like a firm dike that people might build and that floodwaters cannot overflow.” What are these eight rules? 1. A nun, even one who has been ordained for a hundred years, must respectfully salute a monk, even one who has been ordained but a day. 2. Starting at age 18, a girl can request full ordination but she must first complete a two-year preliminary course of training in the precepts. Moreover, her full ordination must be obtained from the communities of both monks and nuns. 3. It is forbidden for nuns to criticize monks for real or nonexistent offenses; it is not forbidden for monks to criticize nuns for real offenses [though it is forbidden for nonexistent ones]. 4. Nuns should not receive food, beds, seats, or lodging ahead of monks. 5. A nun who violates a cardinal rule of conduct must undergo disciplinary penance for 15 days in the community of nuns and must seek restitution in front of the communities of both nuns and monks. 6. Every 15 days, the nuns should approach the community of monks and ask them for instruction. 7. It is not proper for nuns to enter upon a rain retreat in a residence where there are no monks. 8. Nuns who have finished the rain retreat should request a ceremony of forgiveness from both communities. Mikvah/Mikveh:  A bath used for the purpose of ritual immersion in Judaism. The word "mikveh", as used in the Hebrew Bible, literally means a "collection" – generally, a collection of water.  Was mentioned in class when we were discussing women’s Physiological Functions (Menarche/menstruation, Fertility, Maternity/ Childbirth, Menopause/aging) and Rituals around Life-Cycle events  It is discussed in the article Lived Regulations, Systemic Attributions: Menstrual Separation and Ritual Immersion in the Experience of Orthodox Jewish Women by Tova Hartman and Naomi Marmon. Who ask Jewish women about their experiences with the Niddah and Mikveh o Mikveh is a bath that makes a ritually impure person, pure  Quote from the article o “The basis for niddah practice is found in Leviticus (chap. 15, 18, 20). According to rabbinic tradition, a woman remains in niddah for a minimum of 12 days-5 for the period of the menstrual flow and 7 "clean" days thereafter. During this time, sexual intercourse and any physical intimacy is forbidden. At the end of the 7 clean days, a woman must immerse in the mikveh; husband and wife are then free to resume sexual relations.” Pg 393 Rab’ia: I’m not too sure about this one, is it referring to the first female Sufi saint from the city of Basra? YES. There is a section on her in the book. She was a sufi mystic who regarded love to be only for God, she was extreme and radical in her views about the love for God. The following is from another class. So I don’t think we need to go in this much detail for this. Take from it what you chose > most amazing mistik > she was full of Joy and Love > talks fro passion of God, or urning ( ishq= intoxicating Love) > became an orphanage ( born in 713) > stolen as a child and made into a slave > but because of her intense worship her master freed her > she never got married, because her heart had no room for anyone but God > alot of legends surounded her > she folowed a path of poverty and self denila > used to sleep on a brick and ppl came and asked her do you need anything > she transformed the view of mysticisim > she intruduced new mystical practiceses > the pur disintrested Love --> dont ask anything in return > the heart cant love any one but you of my lord > she didnt want any distance between her and God ( spiritual distant) Purusartha:  Refers to the endgoal of human existence in Hinduism. There are four purusathas o Dharma: (religious, social and/or moral) righteousness, both spiritual and ritual o Artha: (material and/or financial) prosperity as well as pursuit of meaning o Kama: (love, emotional, sexual) pleasure o Mokṣha: (spiritual) liberation; or renunciation as well as detachment  They originate from the teachings in Dharmashastra literature. Dharmashastra literature was to set down teachings, rules, guidelines about how Hindus ought to live their lives. It prescribes normative behaviour. o When discussing women it reveals views that are both quite misogynistic and extremely idealized. Household Codes: I couldn’t find this in my notes, so I googled, Is it in reference to the New Testament household codes? St. Catherine of Siena: - She is one of the two patron saints of Italy - At age 5 or 6 she had her first vision of Christ (blessed her) - Vowed of chastity at the age of seven - Fasted in a protest to not marry her older sisters husband (learned the power of fasting in close relationships) - Practiced devotion in seclusion - Died when she was only 33 o People of Siena loved her so much that they took her head back to their home town, but when stooped by the roman guards the bag has only red roses in it, and when the people of Siena were back in their home, the bag had the head of St. Catherine in it again  This is why she is usually pictured carrying a red rose - She fought for the purity of Christianity - Her spirit filled letters are still preserved - Due to her high mystic relationship with god, the church saw her and other mystic women as a threat and danger and regarded as a witch o Consorting with demons rather than communicating with God Fatimah - (daughter of Muhammad; wife of Ali) - Only surviving child and closest in to him after his death - She married the prophet‟s cousin Ali who became the fourth caliph - After khadija (Muhammad‟s first wife) death she was a great support to her father - Shared his aesthetic and compassionate nature - She is known to be a persuasive speaker that often left people in tears after a speech. - She was the longest-lived out of the prophet‟s daughters - She insured the continuation of his lineage by having two sons (Hassan and Husain) - Her legacy for Muslims is defined in her marriage, motherhood, victorious, altruism and life poverty - She is respected by both sects of the Islamic traditions (Sunni and Sh‟ia) but her ranking varies between the two, with Shi‟as seeing her as huge source of Islamic practices. Esther: - A story of a girl names Esther in a book called the book of Esther, in the Katuvim (third part of the Jewish Tankha) - Esther is known as a queen of the Persian Empire that stopped genocide against the Jewish people. - The significance of Esther is that she is the basis of the Jewish celebration known as the Purim (a holiday celebrating by feasting and rejoicing) - Ester was an orphan also known by the name Hadassah. She was adopted by her cosine Mordecai who was a Jew. Esther was presented to the king of the Persian Empire, Ahasuerus who made Esther his wife due to her radiant beauty. . - Esther‟s cousin Mordecai worked as the palace gatekeeper and kept his relationship to Esther a secret. They both hide their Jewish roots from the king. - Mordecai protected the King by informing Esther to inform the king of eunuchs that were plotting on killing the king. This information allowed the king t
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