John 18 Notes.docx

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Religious Studies
Stephen Westerholm

John 18 - Earliest piece of the NT found: a page of John 18, found in 125 AD - On this basis, John must have been written prior to the year 100 or thereabouts - John 17 – prayer of Jesus with disciples, final section is not for the disciples themselves but those who will believe in Jesus through the disciples, believers of all ages who come to faith in Jesus directly or indirectly through one or more removes based on the testimonies of the disciples of Jesus - Jesus tells the disciples they are to bear witness to him - Final request is that those who are his followers, Jesus desire they be with him in glory, he will be returning to the glory he had with the father before the world was created and he wants those who are his to be with him to share in his glory - Climax of the mission of the Son of God in John’s gospel - Purpose of coming of son of God into the world is to deliver people from darkness, from slavery of sin, enable them to know God and share in his glory - The last words of Jesus before the passion narrative show the direction, climax, and purpose of his mission  to redeem a people who can share in his glory eternally - John 18 and 19 = passion narratives  climax o Passion meaning the suffering of Jesus – arrest, trial, crucifixion How the Gospels Were Written - Gospels are imagined to have been written: Matthew or John decades after life of Jesus maybe they ought to write down what they remember o Scholars believe sayings of Jesus were passed on from the very beginning in the early church o Paul tells the Corinthians / reminds them of sayings of Jesus that he had passed onto him.. collections of sayings of Jesus in order to be passed on to those who bad become his followers; important they know what Jesus taught if they were going to be followers o At some point, people started collecting sayings and stories of Jesus o Earliest collection of stories of Jesus, earliest extended story was probably the passion narrative o Everything he had to say and do and everything the followers had believe would have come to nothing had the crucifixion been the end of the story  Because he was raised again that they believed he was who he said he was o The passion narrative and what happened demanded explanation – how and why it happened.. it was a scandal o Earliest pictoral representation by graffiti – donkey being crucified, man standing in front, quote “Alexander worships God” - seemed ridiculous to non-believers o Needed explanation for those who both opposed and believed it Agenda behind the passion narrative reflecting the situation by Early Christians 1) To show Jesus was innocent – on real reason for crucifying him 2) his was not an accident or a tragedy that overcame Jesus, but in fact a self-sacrifice, something he knew was coming and something he volunteered for (all gospels but mostly John) 3) Scripture is being fulfilled when this happens – not just the success of Jesus’ enemies but a fulfilment of the divine purpose all along; God’s will being performed even by those opposing Jesus (in all gospels) The passion narratives in all 4 gospels run along very similar lines  suspect there was a common source behind them, one gospel is using the other or a common source.. may be true in all of Matthew, Mark, and Luke, often not true with all 4 gospels, but it is the case for the passion narratives in specific - The Lord’s Supper is being abused in Corinth and Paul thought the best way of dealing with it is to recall the narrative of how it actually happened - Paul’s narrative is the closest to Luke’s - The Lord Jesus, on the night he was betrayed, said… etc - Recalling it to them as if they already know previously from another extended story they are familiar with The Arrest of Jesus (John 18: 1-11) - Within the walls of Jerusalem for this Last Supper, leave Jerusalem out the eastern side of the city and to the east is a valley and the mount of olives  John calls it a garden, synoptics call it ‘the place called gethsemane’  came to the garden of Gethsemane - Gethsemane = oil press / oil valley; people think the garden was an olive tree grove on the lower western slopes of the mount of olives - Night of Passover had to be spent in the boundaries of Jerusalem, Bethany where he resided at night was outside of Jerusalem - Jesus is the one who takes the initiative  “no one takes my life from me but I lay it down at my own accord” - He goes to meet the people who are going to arrest him, they ask for Jesus of Nazareth o Jesus replies “ I am”, or “I am He” o Could be saying that’s me, or words are also the same as the divine I am  ambiguity - Judas and all those with him fall to the ground  something about Jesus’ presence overcame them and they fell to the ground or the divine sense of his ‘I am’ made them fall to the ground - Jesus, in securing the release of his disciples, was fulfilling a word that he himself spoke earlier - Similar to times when the purpose of his words / actions was to fulfil that which was in scripture – here for the first time, it is Jesus’ own words that was being fulfilled  proves Jesus’ own words was divine on the level of sc
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