John 13 Notes.docx

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Religious Studies
Stephen Westerholm

John 13 Introduction - King Arthur – will lose his life if he does not return a year later with an answer to the question ‘What is it that women desire most’ - King Arthur travels the land to find the answer - Arthur comes upon the ugliest woman possible and she tells him she will give him the answer provided she is allowed to marry Sir Garway - Arthur agrees to this condition, Sir Garway agrees to marry her to save her life - Answer: what women desire most is- “their own way” - Woman – either beautiful at night ugly during the day or ugly at night beautiful during the day he says you choose – she decides to be beautiful during the day and night - What we want is FREEDOM.  the ability to do what we want without anyone else telling us what to do - New Hampshire state motto “Live free or die”  very American sense of independence - Want for freedom is universal to humankind and over the ages – mark of the ancient Greeks that prided themselves in their freedom, looked down at their slaves - They looked down at Persians for being slaves of their king but Greeks weren`t slaves to anyone not even their gods Parts of the NT - tell followers of Jesus that they must be slaves / servants of others - Counterintuitive, counter ethics, counter human nature, yet found throughout the NT - Seems to lie in the model that Jesus himself provided given that this was the way Jesus himself lived it is the way his disciples should live - Philippians 2: he was in the form of God and took the form of a slave in human likeness o Found in the synoptics and John - Jesus came not to be served but to serve – the way Jesus was portrayed was that he had come into the world to serve other sand be the slave of others - if his disciples were to truly be his disciples they were to pursue greatness in service rather than in demanding service of others - story in John 13 of Jesus washing his disciples feet shows this without explicitly saying it The Last Supper - common features between John’s account of the last supper and the synoptics but some interesting differences - difference: institution of Lord’s supper (distribution of bread as body and wine as blood) we fin din the synoptic gospels but not in John - John 6: allusion to the Eucharist (eat flesh drink blood) - Issues with chronology: o in all 4 gospels the last supper takes place on a thurday eve and Jesus is crucified on a Friday  day of the week is common throughout the gospels o day of the month is different in different gospels – day of Passover is diff o Nisan is the Jewish month for the Passover (our March/April) o 14 of Nisan – Passover lamb was to be slaughtered in the temple, to be eaten th that night within the boundaries of Jerusalem, and the 15 was the first night of the feast of unlevened bread o In the synoptic Gospels, Jesus’ last supper is a Passover meal  eating the th Passover meal on Thurs, Nisan 14 .. he’s arrested that night, tried and crucified the next day o In John’s Gospel, he eats his last supper also on a Thursday but appears to be th Nisan 13  John tells us it’s the night before the Passover not the night of Passover o Both Synoptics and John – last meal on the Thursday, arrested that night, crucified the next day o but Synoptics – Passover is Nisan 14 , in John’s gospel it’s the day before since the Passover meal will be eaten the next day o possible theological explanation: John wants us to see Jesus being crucified at the same time as the Passover lamb being slaughtered in the temple o last supper is the day before, and when Jesus is crucified, it is on the afternoon at the same time the lamb is slaughtered in the temple so Passover meal can be eaten that night o this allows people to see that Jesus is the Passover lamb (John 1:29) o Paul speaks of Jesus as the Passover Lamb (1 Cor. 5:7) o We aren`t sure if John altered the chronology to make this point Jesus Washes His Disciples’ Feet - First story of John 13, 3 clear meanings: 1) To be seen as an illustration of the love he has for his disciples which remains constant o Jesus knew his hour had come.. the hour of his glorification is the hour of his departure from the world – crucifixion is his glorification o The time when he draws all humankind to himself to atone for their sins o He loved them to the end .. in spite of their betrayal, to the bitter end.. his love for them remains faithful to the end o Devil had put it into the heart of Judas of Iscariot to betray him o He limits healings to 7 and we don’t find exorcisms (except of the ruler of this world) o Conflict between Jesus and Satan – but now the ruler will be cast out o Jesus knew he was going to God - juxtapose the glory that he had come from God and would be going to God o Contrast: this is the one who has come from God, achieving g the divine mission, and will return to God, yet he is the one taking on the role of a slave 2) Convey the point that anyone to be a follower of Jesus requires cleansing from sin that only Jesus can provide o Peter refuses to allow Jesus to wash his feet – misguided loyalty  In MM, Jesus tells his disciples they`re headed up to Jerusalem and what awaits them there (crucifixion) –at this point, Pete
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