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Social Sciences
Geraldine Voros

Wednesday, October 23, 2013 SocSci Lecture 6 Hurried Child: • cartoon joke - animal children of normal parents, annual convention picture --> 2 • too intense and invested in our children • parents and pressure on their children --> hurrying children - expected things that were not expected of us (detrimental of children - need to need how to contextualize them in this process) • hurried child and look at the pressures and meeting demands we will discover we hurry children because we as adults are hurried ourselves ways in which we as adults are hurried and in turn we hurry our children in thinking were • doing the right thing to make their life better • highly anxiety ridden children who are in a mind set that isnt the most productive • kids talk movie - adults expect too much - summarized how we hurry children and we expect too much • why do we expect too much? in a sense we were experiencing expect of ourselves too much • if we take a look at parents in contemporary society they dwell in a pressure cooker of competing demands themselves - promotions, conspicuous consumer consumption, transitions upward and downward, role changes, personal/professional uncertainties --> less control over our lives • promotions - what we see happened to ourself - the means justify the ends - we feel under pressured and perhaps were not doing things in ethical ways to get where we need to go --> this speaks to the issue are people honest about how they do their work? promotions for adults are very important and are doing anything to self promote • conspicuous consumer consumption --> always looking around at whats happening, want to feel like we belong somewhere - becomes something that hurries us and makes us anxiety ridden and living in fear; stats canada says were 1 to 3 paychecks of being homeless; need to make sure we dont feel transitions upward and downward --> living in Canada we are lucky as we have a safety net for • a lot of these transitions; close relative who have lost house/job (how many are ready to take them in); we have universal healthcare, welfare; but if we didnt have this how much higher would our anxiety be • role changes --> get up in the morning and were 1 person (go to work) then we are a mother/father, caregiver, picking up children - immense amount of responsibility in each role • personal and professional uncertainness - are we vulnerable to losing our profession; average of 3 different jobs over time; separation/divorce (in canada we are 1.5 marriages on average in society) • all pressures and competing demands • researchers tell us we as adults feel like we have less control over our lives - how do we resolve this? --> at least we are going to control things in our own home by controlling our children and making sure we know what to do to make things successful - whether its concious or unconscious this is what we begin to construct • encourage our children to grow up and mature rapidly - enrol in a lot of secondary agencies • rapidly encourage them to move forward • when parents push you to go into organize sports - not the most healthiest steps to take - what you need to do is also let the children have free play (being too directed in how to play instead of just letting them have fun which is "shrinking childhood") • can be harmful for children and they have their own way of feeling, thinking • learn politics of live by living their lives - make the rules, know how to regulate themselves and we as adults shouldn't be too embracive into this lifestyle • shouldn't substitute our way of thinking for their way of thinking • what we do as adults isnt correct - need to try to understand what were doing • we need to this because we can burn children out at a young age • 5 burn out stages: 1) the honeymoon 2) fuel shortage 3) chronic symptoms 4) crises 5) hitting the wall • the honeymoon stage - this begins with them looking towards things favourable --> going to school (happy with these expectations) • can hit the fuel shortage - endless demands were learning that our made upon us and happening in unsupporative environment you begin to feel you need to try to compete in a less than positive environment; energy resources that arent being replenished you can hit a fuel shortage --> when this happens you see some dissatisfaction (with regards to JK student) • a child who is going through lack of energy in fuel shortage you will find out they have poor work habits at home and school, sleep disturbances, bad behaviour - begin to see they are not themselves if we dont hit off fuel shortage and not plugged into children they can hit the chronic symptom • stage --> overt and covert response; their health is deteriorating, easily aggravative, accident prone, headaches, tummy aches, ulcers; these children can become aggressive and become bullies (dissatisfied with themselves are start to lash out) • covert systems - child gets very quiet, disdrawn, doing drugs, stealing alcohol from home (this is meaningful as we do see these things in society everyday) • ex: road rage comes in this chronic symptom stage • we can then hit the crises stage - stress bells going off and have failed to recognize it, overused all the energy we had; kids that want to stay home from school and if they go theyll do something to get expelled; become delinquent and rebellious if we don't pay attention to this stage; need a mental health day because we are tired from all the stress; want that time alone to relax • if we havent checked all the previous stages and we are still hurrying individuals we have hitting the wall stage - "check out lane"; individuals who cannot go any further (child run away, attempted suicide); suicide rates are highest in 9-10 yr olds for this stage • do children know whether or not they are hurried and whats going on? • ex: essay done by little girl - "please be patient god isnt finished with me yet" • types of parents - designer, dysfunctional and functional • functional parents - 10-15% of our parents are functional and 90-95% are dysfunctional --> varying degrees, spectrum is very wide • dual career families and what kind of parents we can categorize given the research in daycare centres different types of parents: • • accommodators --> most functional parents of children in daycare, do survive the slings and arrows of everyday life, know how strategize with regards to conflict, good cooperation between parents whether heter or homo, 1 spouse who is more accommodating then others which traditionally has been the female (holy mary); seen as most functional of dual career families • adversaries --> grunt and groan duo, what we see is that they run into conflict as both have high career aspirations and find them bickering between themselves, one feels the other isnt contributing, child seen as burden; child is being rushed "wheres your hat, boots", not comfortable for the child( allies --> slick parents, they cover for each other, great degree of flexibility, dont feel guilty • about things • acrobats --> loose cannons on the deck • researchers bring to our attention is what we have to learn as adults is that there are 2 cultures that we can look at: 1) materialism culture 2) nurturing - what kind of intrinsic values are we conveying to children, how are we socializing them • researchers tell us we focus a lot more on materialism culture and not enough on the nurturing culture - and this becomes our problem • tells us we have a lot to consider - if we focus on the 1 culture at expense of other • the tragedy of the lost self - can cost us dearly • need for children to play, find themselves, teach themselves in terms of life • book: thats hockey by David Bouchard - speaks to that rapport about let the children play, that free play --> children can organize themselves and strategize, the rules change and they all had fun • children have their own way of organizing themselves - children to continue to do this (something they need to nurture) • when we hurry them and dont let them do this free play - 5 things we can do • psuedo sophistication --> children know much more than they understand; what we hear children about (talk about space shuttles, talk about sex, crime, drugs) - how much of this knowledge is verbal and do they understand? begin to learn children know what they dont understand; children sound more knowledgeable than they are (due to media) and acquire this psuedo sophistication and advertise their social standings; this kind of recognition for self and placing one self in child cohort is a shallow criteria if were using materialistic things in order to define ourselves • we have the opportunity to teach children imaginary audience - when we hurry children and have material culture around then they do • this mental dress rehearsal against their own way of thinking; make an error (confuse what we are thinking with what other people are thinking); we as adults do the same thing (ex: cocktail party - what are we wearing); the way in which young people concentrate on themselves, thinking whats the other person thinking (belief that others are as concerned with us as we are with ourselves); we live to meet the expectations of the imaginary audience; is this something we can neutralize? • mr. rogers response --> he used to help neutralize or discharge the anxiety and negative emotions imaginary audience shouldn't be directing your life constantly • • achievement overload - academic, interpersonal and extra curricular achievements; we as adults have to have these children cutting edge of academics, interpersonal relationships and being involve in a lot of extra curriculars; we know that we want children to do well and achieve and have friends etc. but we can over do it - what we see is that when we look at the parents who hurry children (have to get As, where are all your good friends) we find that these parents are usually parents who want to hurry their children in success and want them to achieve what they never achieved --> this kind of hurrying happens largely amongst middle class families (those striving to be upper class) - this children become immeshed in achievement overload and these children are pushed to get ahead and it seems they want to keep pace with whoever at the head of the class; by the time their 8 they have done everything school hurrying children --> children have become more concerned with grades more so than • they know; dishonesty and cheating is something that has become a concern; we should be saying to our children "if you tried your best and got a B thats ok"; student, teacher and length of time their together --> if length of time is reasonable, if teacher has affection and passion for teaching and has some charisma then the length of time they are together and teacher employs this intelligence and charisma that child will learn; if we give this opportunity that children will learn (if we can maximize the learning time we can maximize the success of the child) • free floating anxiety --> if we keep pushing these kids and hurrying and you have that sleeper effect; for children that suffer chronic stress translates into free floating anxiety - child you might see in JK who sees restless, irritable and unable to concentrate; they dont know how to articulate they are sad, miserable, parents arent together... its not knowing how to articulate (need to have age approp. language); child acting out and maybe harming someone else; situation when that pressure can be added to children • we can add stress to children and push them over the edge • free floating - simple burnout of children - other things as well; parents will begin brag about children and live through their children so the child has to perform so the parent has something to say; child as status symbol • with these 5 categories --> all of these are outcomes of the hurrying that can damage children and put them at risk • movie- children that have lost sibling or parent and dont know how to cope; the way they drew their art you begin to see how the weather translates; through art therapy they could draw in age appropriate ways pictures that would help them begin to show how they felt; idea of giving them the colour wheel they had their own way of seeing, thinking and feeling; want to give them that freedom and dont want to appropriate their voice • when trauma happens to us - your psychological development is arrested in this area and until you go back and address this trauma you cant progress psychological and become mature functional adult • one of the most important moment in movie is when young boy is talking about dads funeral and cries, two girls hands kleenex over --> sees kleenex and takes it - very symbolic as he takes it without really knowing its there • there has to be resolution around issue of lost and greif - colour therapy is that mr. rogers approach - we try to neutralize the emotions and discharage the feelings; when the child starts to cry and you have someone listening all of this helps to less intensify the trauma • we see two boys who fathered prepared them before he dies on what to expect - gives them permission to move on • important to communicate on encompassing level so children learn and learn wisdom • we can do so much with and for children that make life so much easier if we just pay attention • life is not complex, its simple but what it takes is nurturing culture to make it what it can be in a functional way - have to be the attending hands and mindful mind th Wednesday, October 30 SocSci Lecture 7 What do We Want for the Children – Self Esteem: Toodles the Turkey: -toodles hates everything about herself -goes to cathy the cow and asks her for her moo but cathy says she cant have it -toodles goes to paris the pink and he denies her his oink -asks other animals for their voices and they all say no -goes to cousin Ralph and asks for his cockadoodledo -she gets a new voice saying doodoodoo -toodles then says she has to give her sound back to Ralph the rooster -owl tells toodles that she once wanted another voice -toodles hears a shreek sound at night and it was a hawk -toodles gobbled and the hawk flew awayàshe saved the little chicks and everyone loved her and she accepts her sound -we shouldn’t let people persuade us that who or what we are isn’t acceptable and that we should be something better (media) Self-Esteem: -children need: -inner confidence -a sense of purpose -involvement -meaningful constructive relationships -success at school -success at work -when we look at children, the uncertainties are how are we going to help them achieve goalsàneed to look at the concept of self (how they develop) and self esteem -fully functioning child can achieve all characteristics listed above -difference between fully functioning child and floundering child is how they view themselves and their degree of self esteem -high self esteem is NOT noisy conceit -noisy conceitàperson thinks they’re better than everyone -high self esteemàquiet sense of self respect. Don’t waste time or energy impressing others -self esteem is so important that it slates every child for success -we need to help youngsters affirm a cold hearted belief in themselves -2 basic needs for strong self respect: 1. I am lovableàindividual is able to tell themselves that they matter and have value because they exist 2. I am Worthwhileàcan handle yourself and your environment with competence. Something to offer others -when people can say these 2 statements, they can function fully -people who question if they are lovable and worthwhile are sliding of the podium -self esteem based on if the child feels loved -difference between being loved and feeling loved -self-esteem is not related to family, doesn’t depend on wealth, education is a non-factor, geographical location doesn’t matter, parents’ occupations is a non-factoràself esteem is dependent on quality of relationships between child and those who play a significant role in that child’s life -child is born with potential for psychological/social health and is facilitated with a healthy relationship and if the environment is nurturing Phenomenon of Mirrors: Self & Self Esteem A Reflection: -we are very sensitive to how people look at us -every child is born without a sense of self and acquires it with their interaction in their social life -feral child has no human contact and doesn’t have any human presentation of self -self-hood is achieved through social interaction and if we don’t live with others who help facilitate a good environment then we can be less than satisfactory in terms of development of self-hood -when child learns language, it becomes a phenomenal tool for them -Wordless Messagesàbefore child speaks, they are gathering general impressions about themselves from the way they are treated. Child is sensitive to whether they are lifted gently or jerked around. Know if the arms around them are close or if they are there with vague support; based on body language, and the children interpret it and respond to it. Researchers suggest the degree of warm responsiveness provides foundation of positive selfhood and when it is there, it tells them they are lovable. Wordless messages get a baby feeling high self esteem but if they are given unresponsiveness or cold efficiency, then you fail to give them the feeling of importance and will become an at-risk child. -Word Messagesàif grown ups keep showing children a pattern in words (peek-a-boo), then they will figure it out and know what’s coming. As a child is growing, words can be positive and negative to a child; must make sure we check ourselves for what we’re saying. Words can build a child or shred a child and we make that choice. Words have to match true feelings; if you have words you don’t need, kids detect that you’re phony; must be honest with the kids. If a child hears something negative on occasion, then these few times will be overcome. Treatment Defines Self Image: -when we see parent not reflecting in a positive way, it can have a power effect on growing edges of a child -we are mirroring to the children who they are and what they are capable of; caregiver can impact their self esteem if not treated well -as children grow older and get involved in secondary relationships, they are all additional mirrors that reflect back to the child -social scientists say “I am who I think you think I am”àexample of Patrick -attitudes of others towards a child’s capabilities are more important than the child’s possession of particular traits -if we give child to believe in themselves then they will achieve more -must give children opportunities to find themselves -self esteem built through parents and then everything else -A Positive Identity Hinges on Positive Lifeà diane esther did not live a positive life so she constantly had self-esteem issues. If we are confident, we are happier and outgoing. Try to reflect a picture to children of being accountable and we have faith in them and trust them. There is a price to pay if children looking through warped mirrorsàa reflection of self that isn’t really true (diane esther)àchildren do 1 of 3 things; 1. Erect defenses: put up defenses around weaknesses which is a weapon around anxiety and fear. 2. To submit: accept warped mirror of yourself and create a persona that would be acceptable to others (diane esther + chocolate syrup at lunch). 3. Withdrawal Polishing Parental Mirrors: -Inexperienceàas caregivers we try to inform ourselves on what to do. Hardest on eldest and youngest gets away with murder. -Borrow Standardsà allows us to act without thinking/experimenting. -Cultural Blueprintsà speaks to us about our society and materialism. -Hurrying Childrenà desireable goals in society and there is an achievement overload which gives child a warped mirror -3 types of parents that fit into these polishing parental mirrors category: 1. Hangover wishes parentsàthink their son is the next wayne gretzky. Parents want to live thrugh children and impose their desires on their children. 2. Current hunger parentsàhardworkers but they are in a bit of a drought and want their child to reflect glory that they believe they should have in order to feed their own needs. This child is an extension of these adult’s accomplishments. They want the child to polish the luster of their star. Want their child to shine as brightly as they do and will do everything they can in order to succeed 3. Unfinished Businessàexpectations for child that help parents finish unfinished business. If parents can’t go to opportunity but say to child that they have the opportunity to do so. Impact of Expectations on Self Esteem: -the tragedy of the lost selfàwarm expectations and warm belief is good for children to give an effort. Lending to the tragedy of lost self is the unconditional approval. Child’s confidence cant be who they are in someone else’s image. Children need to become themselves because their self-hood will be well defined. If we manipulate them then they will be a hollow person and will reject themselves. Fair Expectations -our ability to confirm our children hinders on our ability to confirm ourselves. Are we pleased with ourselves? How is a Child’s Self-Esteem Built -Genuine Encounteràfirst building block. We have focused attention and we are all here, mentally focused for child and nourishes self-respect. “give your presence, rather than presents”. Children need booster shots of encountering in the sense that each day we set time to be 1-on-1 with our children. -Trustàmust respect children for their ways. Build trust by keeping promises, avoid unpleasant surprises, support child on new ventures, avoid mixed messages. Adults can’t be overly permissive. -Non-judgmental -Being Cherished -Owning Feelings -Empathy -Unique Growing Wednesday, November 6th, 2013 SocSci Lecture 8 How Is it A Child's Self Esteem Built: • trust and 3 different types of mixed messages * • nonjudgemental in terms of building block for self esteem - speaks to making judgements when were dealing with children as opposed to reacting to them 1. esteem busting and 2. esteem building • important to know how to share feelings • negative judgements when you are speaking to children and render those you hold up negative mirror for children • to nurture children and build self esteem you have to switch to being a judge and making judgements to being a reactor and using "we" statements and avoiding "you are" statements ("your lazy" - negatively effects self esteem) • better to say "I don't like picking up after you" • when you use a you are statements its casting blame and its negative vs I is an observation/opinion and leads to negotiation • benefits from the I statement are tremendous when dealing with children - in an interdependence stage where they want to learn and stage so its an opportunity to being to exercise safety of non judgement • have to react and not judge • what works really well with children is that children are looking for praise and the experiments in praise show us if we can find something positive and have that discussion to negotiate order its far better than judgemental statement and negative reaction • praise works on more positive note • important difference when we praise children and use positive labels "good girl or good boy" --> this is applied to a person vs the activity they've done and how we refer to this "I like this" • you want to be careful in what your saying about the person and the act • praise is conditional on the work and your only worth something if the work is done • always treat the child unconditionally independent of the act • children cant develop a solid sense of personal worth if theres always the if of their performance • personal value is subject to cancellation with every mishap • what we need to be doing is presenting an environment with what is being mirrored to them - "i love you but i don't like what your doing" - child is independent of the act and if we can manage this their self esteem is in tact and what we negotiate/opinion about is the act and perfecting the act - positive and building partnership • its not what you say its how you say it to someone • being cherished - children survive on acceptance, when they feel accepted there willing and able and blossom when we are accepting of them • researchers say whats also necessary is the feeling about feeling cherished, valued and special • being to take child for granted and cherished element tarnishes • if we have child with life threatening disease - the value surges once again and we feel badly if we haven't said i love you to them that day • behaving in a negative kind of way - ex: parent will grab the child in public if child has acted out, shame the child in public - we as adults would never think of doing something like this to our friends yet what we see adults to not hesitate to do this to children • when we see this being done is children being treated as possession as opposed to little people • researchers tell us when you see a parent jerk a child what should you do? should you go over and say its abuse? - say parents sometimes make this error and it would be fitting of us just to say gently to the adult there are some days that are tougher than others and there aware thats something has happened and this will be enough of a wake up call to arrest the abusive behaviour • what we need to do is take a long hard look at ourselves or individual to understand where dysfunction comes from - "dysfunction" • is it because of our own lack of self esteem because someone did this dysfunctional response to us and pass it on to someone else • researchers say we need to look at our own selves and behaviours • in authoritative positions some parents have an attitude to perform - "do what i want or consequences are coming" instead of being a reactor and partner with the child • we need positive mirrors for children - need to look at ourselves to make sure we cherish ourselves and we treat others the way we prefer to be treated • cherished child knows behavioural error doesn't cancel out love ability - if they do something wrong a child knows they made a mistake - these children grow up and becoming accepting of others mistakes and dont judge others by the errors they make • illustrates our ability to socialize children in a way they understand they are cherished while we separate them from their behaviour - leaves children with self esteem in tact and being built • owning feelings • we need to be clinical about this - what does owning feelings mean - talking about freedom children should have to feel but not the feeling to act --> becomes important for us to understand • we check for acceptance with regards to difference and this is a corner stone to having a healthy society and inclusive society • an individuals way of seeing thinking and feeling is not the only way and may not address the whole pictures • its important for children to experience the world and see it and feel it in their own way first - may come home and may articulate a feeling which doesn't sit well with the parent ("I dont like somebody because their skin is a diff colour") - let them own it for the moment but say we need to talk about this because its a feeling they havent acted on and this is the moment we can diffuse it • important thing is that children are very clever • book: Wilfred Gordon McDonald Partrich --> did he really know what a memory was - for him that symbolized what people have told him, it was his feeling, he translated them into something he could use to help his elderly friend; age appro response to finding and collecting thing; found and helped her remember her memories • owing feelings is important for children and we have to be individuals to understand what those feelings are safety of empathy • • an empathetic person sets aside their world to be with you in your world in times of crisis - with you not you agree or disagree but to understand without judgment • attitudes and feelings are more important than facts - reading between the lines • when someone is speaking, how do we validate the facts and also understand and get the full message • empathetic people get the full feeling - listen with their hearts first and then with their head an attitude that accepts differences and respects the integrity of others makes it easy to be • impacted • research shows that one of the patterns found in the homes of the children with the highest self esteem - in those homes there are a great deal of free and easy talk - children own their feelings, feel cherished that they can speak • children socialized in positive way feel they can freely express their feelings and opinions and parents are empathetic • parents are as sincere about owning feelings, cherishing and being non judgmental as the child • safety of unique growing - we dont all grow at the same pace in our tender years • regression in growth • for children to develop and uniquely growth is much like a plant - when it comes to children we dont need to push them or forbid them we need to focus on the child and the positive climate • Abraham Maslow - noted that there is the safety of the known that we will comfortable with but also drawn to the attraction of the new and the unknown • for every bit of growth and exploration we need to leave the comfort of the known and take the risk • for children it sometimes scary for them - always safety first, children will grow and explore at their own pace (ex: learned helplessness) • retreat without dishonour - makes the child more likely to embrace the unknown by giving them the stability and option we encourage self esteem and before we know it there out there exploring again Diane Esther Analysis on Self Esteem: -she made reference to passage on page 22àthought she might be expecting a baby- dialogue with mom and says “a girl should tell her mother everything” and her mom says “are you sure youre telling the truth”………….... abandonment and shutting her down -she is being humiliated and her self esteem is being diminished (body shaking, etc) -says her mom keeps her tied to her and her mom teaches her to cry for her and that her feelings aren’t important. She puts herself last - manipulation from mother -diane has to unlearn so much behavior that she has learned to cause he low self esteem -pg 44àworthless no-good junk when describing herself - cant get much lower than that -once she starts to get better we see how she becomes a powerless child into a powerful adult - character assassination that went on when she was a kid are now stopped and are put out front in front of him and she now thrives - uncomfortable journey to endure Dorais: -boys are more reluctant than girls to report abuse -prejudice of boys where they should be able to protect themselves from abuse—Macho image -double constraint - feel guilty and bad at the same time -different types of abuse- most common abuse happened in intergenerational-intrafamilial (between generations + in family – father/son, etc)-->intergenerational/extrafamilial abuse is the next highest (in your generation + outside family i.e. coach and one of their players: theo fleury and Sheldon kennedy)à3 most common is intragenerational + intragenerational (within family and within same age i.e. cousin + cousin same age)àlast is intragenerational + extrafamilial -loss of identity is immense between father-son incest -now the son wonders if the father is his friend, lover, father etc. very confused -victim children are loners that are pushed aside from family; contain social awkwardness and are in need of fabrication. Any attention is good for them- the aggressor knows that they can contact these children very easily. Troubled family is a great contributor to abuse -where is reference point for these children- they don’t know how they are supposed to be treated if good people are being bad with them -petomorphic- men sometimes select same sex but opposite gender as a partner (young boy without hair and smooth skin seem like they are females) -the older and more powerful male takes advantage of the weaker petamorphic boy that is far more feminine in nature -how the abused boy interprets the behavior of the aggressor: 1. Unbrided sexuality-wife does not satisfy his needs 2. Sexual initiation – sees it as sexual education. 3. A situation of domination – child is denied liberty and integrity. 4. Planned revenge – feel that they have their virility again once they (the victim) does it to someone else. 5. A misunderstanding – change in mutual respect in society -60% of men in detox have been abused -victims of abuse have their lives center around their specific trauma and believe they have no identity -abuse is not the cause of homosexuality, but the sensation experienced during an act of sexual aggression may leave impression. -6 patterns emerge with regards to individuals who have been sexually abused: 1. The attitude that it is fate- speaks to the fact that being exploited is a part of life and these individuals put themselves in front of harm’s way constantly 2. Who will be next? (frontier runner strategy)àforbidden frontier that the boy has been taken over. The individual cant understand how it happened and by perpetrating it on someone else, he could understand why he went through, what he went through 3. Somebody has to pay for it (avenger strategy; frontier runner strategy gone ballistic),moves from victim to victor - selects a child who doesn’t resemble what he is. Usually is a promising a child (young and bright) that he destroys 4. Batman & Robin (rescuer strategy)àas a boy grows up and understand what happened to him he controls it. In order to understand it, he tries to rebuild emotional ties with an older male. Coaches, mentors. Helping children to come along with no intention to do anything bad to the children 5. Daredevil strategy- will become exhibitionists 6. Conformist strategy- denies what happened and tries to find ways to look and seem to be your average joe citizen Wednesday, November 13th, 2013 SocSci Lecture 9 Sovereignty of Consumerism: • customary for us to gift individuals in our society • can become saturated by consumerism • who is in charge of goods and services, whos setting the standards? - is the market the invisible hand that guides the economic institutions in our modern society or is it society (you and i) - its the former and not the latter (the market) Patina Orientation Vs. Fashion System: • society was originally built on the patina orientation (the antique road show) • goods that were well produced, endurance of time, goods passed for generation to generation, indicated family solidarity and power • we see that these things are not disposable (last for generations) and have a quality amongst them and they endure • Patina orientation lasted for a long time and eventually during Elizabethan period was eroded by the fashion system --> Elizabethan court • only the were well could afford these materials, the peasants wore burlap types of material (very easy to see who were the upper class) • we have a culturally lag thats attached back to this fashion system (red carpet) • ex: 10 best and worst dressed - has to be done tastefully and approved • conspicuous consumer consumption - stuff that we own • can become saturated and tie our identity to the bag were carrying (ex: coach bag) • up until the 19th to the early 20th there were no canadian manufactured toys in this country (manufactured in Britain, England) • 1990s - average 9 yr old had on average 100 toys per child in canadian society; the barbies would encircle the earth 3 and a half times, on average the female children in our society had 6 barbies on average each --> way to benchmark the consumerism in canadian society • fuelled by a number of things - competitive pricing, consumerism • products improve every single time, more user friendly and improved distribution of goods • today we see 22000 different commercials a year • book Out of the Garden - tries to express to us children very naturally played outside with what was in the environment generations ago and in utilized their imaginations - through commercialized goods we have taken them out of the garden and imagination is utilized on much lesser degree (outdoor activity to indoors) • need to take a look at the world of children and examine how this materialism has impacted them - may be necessary to push back against it • children's number 1 problem with manufacturing of toys limited imagination • a long time ago children were more self directed - extended family played a more important tole - humanist about the relationships • if we look at children now they are media junkies and they differ from their parents - children in their rooms and when you walk into their rooms today there cluttered with all sorts of things, toys, technologies and children are in this clutter • to them technology is far more important than a book on a shelf - operate within the clutter • children and the media and what it has to offer we shouldn't be surprised there has been shift in generation • questions researchers say that are important is understand the power of the media medium - how does it get it kids, how does it sell to kids and how does it get to kids • fascism system led us into the consumer consumption • media has over taken our lives and their live • if we look at the amount of left over meaningful time that adults spend with their children per time - 30 seconds per day (this is alarming) • impact of TV and noting by researchers it can be a good medium for education but the capitalists like disney it could have a positive effect and could have a negative effect - negative is that it can be an intrusive into family lives, has declined in terms of the cultural instance of children and had invaded their lives to educate them on avenue that isnt age appropriate • questionable in terms of what we should - do we limit the way people market goods, dictate what key instruments of culture should be and define how children should play • never have a balance • branding children through ads - children then have that brand on their mind a logo and thats what they want • advertising is seen as the vehicle • professional point a view -individuals working for these toy manufacturers develop a design process that imbues our culture with regularities of forms and patterns of meaning - ex: teddy bear - sophisticated initiative but has permuted our culture, wasn't a spurious creation, if we look at the history it happened in authentic and meaningful way; Roosevelt had this bear associated with him and his stance on forestation and linked to natural resource issues in the US - first marketed in 1906 by ideal toy company under licensing agreement with Roosevelt; symbolized his amicable disposition, going to sell bears to support conservative initiatives and agreed to endorse these products, going to make them and sell them today • process endured in our culture, represented the children's innocence, regularities of forms and patterns continue • by 1960 - 90% of homes had a TV and the average time spent watching it per time was 2 hours • ads thought that children didn't appear to be in the market of consumers of good - no purchasing power - people who were putting programs on found it difficult to find advertisers to sponsor their shows and it became difficult to get anything going until disney decided to try and put out Davey Crocket - American hero that tried to tame the Wild West, hats became popular and there was a demand and kids wanted to wear them and at this point realized children could be consumers • in 1965 disney put on a program specifically geared towards children - the Mickey Mouse club - first peer culture program put on TV • we reinvent and we sell • you've made the products and movies and have them hit the markets at the same time - best in the summertime when kids are free - you have the 4 Ps: you have the product (marketing strategy), price, place, promotion • goods are utilities and something to be used, goods are symbols of social standings, reflection of the persons choice of life time • engenders growing stress for the adults - have to struggle to keep up with growing fads and buy kids what they want to make them feel like they belong, sense of protecting them to give them what they need to look normal - marginalizes our happiness, out there working hard and earning money • this tells us that we need to look closer at what were doing • have to look at how children are developing in society • question we need to ask is whether or not they have the relevant consumer skills and the knowledge and understanding to evaluate whats really going on - can they critically think about this consumerism, and evaluate what they need and dont need -researchers say no and they dont have the critical thinking skills to understand • as parents we encourage it • if theres a special occasion we get them something they like and something they saw on TV • researchers tell us we have lost a quality of life through gift giving and quantity of time were using has ben editing as child is now off playing with toy in own world very rarely are we as adults to use our imagination to do something • • when we look at the research and we ask parents whats important for children - whats important is to read and write, to learn moral behaviour and interact with peer social groups, that children fit into society on functional level, to become imaginative and self expressive and yet if we take a look at the money that we spent on consumer consumption it would • believe that we ever came up with these points • have to let the children grow from the inside out - as oppose to materialism coveting them • if they have any toys it should be something useful they can learn from • ex: mennonites - wheelbarrow for toys which later is useful for future labour • what do we have for them? puzzles, lego set • stimulate socialization of toys in terms of mental development - do toys really help us develop our mentality two cultures --> the great greek philosophers and times during which they came up with great • thinking, few toys at that time, critical thinking became the way they played; if we looked at arabs that invented algebra they had few toys --> researchers tell us we have too much materialism and need to encourage natural, normal play • apartment vs house --> learn to play with something in the space thats given • bodily intelligence - children able to play in an environment that is wide and deep you will find the children that have the opportunity to walk, their boldly intelligence is much better vs. those contained in space have an awkward bodily movement • in nature, we can use things to make music • interpersonal - do you work well in teams; when your off playing it teaches you interpersonal skills • social psychological intelligence - children organizing themselves and getting work defined • all this real play that is self directed and employs 5 intelligence speaks to that imaginative play rather than mindless materialism mentality • you let people be themselves in the real play • children are always inventing really cant duplicate nature • • book: six differently pigs --> we could all be different and yet were all unique and special, shouldnt be trying to be something were not Children, Race, Prejudice and Discrimination: • a lot of the original research came from early 40s and 50s when we were trying to understand whether or not it was important to segregate in the west • are children born with racial feelings? • early part of 1900s people believed we were born with racial feelings • historically 80s or 90s years ago the social scientists maintained that racial, ethnic and religious prejudice was inborn - maintained that prejudices were inherent • you recognized and didn't like people who were different, considered natural to dislike those who were different from yourselves and to like people who were similar to you • over the past 6 yo 9 decades, research as refuted early theories - now believed children learn racial, ethnic and religious prejudges, they learn from those that are around them and are influenced by existent of patterns in the cultures in which they live • when we look at the students we began to research this problem of prejudice they found that they were faced with certain questions - if people aren't born with racial feelings, then what goes on • how and when do children learn to identify themselves with some people and differentiate from others? what conditions in the environment can foster the development of these racial attitudes and behaviour? (see slides) • racial attitudes occur early and they develop gradually • research shows us that part of the original research was done in NYC amongst JK children - indicated verbally they realized whether they were white or minority, aware of the social meaning and evaluation of racial preferences, showed clear preference for whites and rejection for blacks --> something going on here • children in tender years had racial awareness - learning about races and what race they belonged to, racial identification where they could self and other identify, they had learned in their society which race was preferred • when we look at experiments in the 40s done in US - try to evaluate extent of conciseness of skin colour in children ages 3-7 - researchers took these children and they were presented with 4 dolls, all made from same mold and all dolls dressed alike the only difference was 2 were brown and 2 were white - children were asked to choose in response to certain requests --> among 3 yr black children more than 75% of them showed they were conscious of the difference between white and coloured doll, same showed for white children --> this knowledge develops with stability and clarity and becomes a part of a child's knowledge; interracial children showed some hesitation • the correct racial identification amongst children occurs at a very young age • internalized societies definition of them - interracial children although they had white skin • how entrenched identity becomes given conceptualization in society - the children learn their racial awareness and learn it solidly • when we look along the lines of religion they parallel with some degree of racial awareness • religion involves more subtle and complex distinctions which requires a longer period of time • these experiments with children were done in 1940s - tested for catholic, protestants and jews - saw it was more difficult for children to know what religion - they were showed a picture with a cross, or Star of David --> only a minority of children between 5 and 8 black and white made stable and accurate identifications of themselves in terms of religions 5 to 8 yr olds have greater difficulty in understanding what religion they were --> learned that it takes children longer with abstract thinking • when 8 yr olds articulate better understanding and as they got older they would indicate religious awareness by making reference to certain practices - "had my first communion" • it takes a celebration and learning about the rites and passages which helps they identify their religious identity • children that were 7-8 began to say they had some ritual and this was part of their religion, began to saw "im jewish i go to synagogues" - they could differentiate in terms of awareness but it was learning the language that came along with this that made it concrete • it is possible that children as they mature can increase their awareness as theyve had contact with religious practices • when we take a look at racial identification we ask if a child can identify themselves in racial terms - older the child the more correct in choosing the right doll • problem of interracial children - are they black or white? what would they like to choose for themselves? begin to see how we can determine how children can racially identify and identify correctly • we see with regards to racial preference this is a more difficult situation - which is preferred by society? have to learn your place in a society and children gradually learned what status the society accorded thei
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