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Social Work
Stephanie Ross

Social Work Exam Review Mental Health • Always been there but we never bring awareness about mental health Medical Ideas on madness • Mental illness is caused by a defect • Caused by a biological force (genetic, chemical, hormonal) • Use DSM diagnosis, and that is always used as valid for detecting mental illness • It must be treated by mental professionals • Psychiatrists are always the best experts/authorities on mental illness Alternatives, no psychiatry? • Doesn’t reject the idea of interacting with the medical system but some people choose to interact with the medical system and some people choose not to, you get to value alternatives like what the individual wants Recovery • People with mental health, know whats best for them and can discover it. People have strength and therefore, it happens in the wider context of the community, recovery values peer support Mad Movement • Activists in the movement share collective identities, but views range in relation to psychiatric treatment. They campaign for people that are mentally ill to have more choice, better protection and advocacy and self determination against prejudice • They’re interconnected with other movements (ageism, classism etc) • Emerged in the 1970’s along with other social movements Mad PrideApproach • celebrates mad identities, communities and cultural including indiv. and collective strength Mentalism • Discrimination based on mental trait, condition or psychiatric treatment someone has Sanism • Privileging sanity, we see places like post secondary institutions who try to provide help for mentally ill but don’t do much when they try. Mad Students on campus are frequently.. • Medicalized • Experience discrimination • Feel isolated Advocacy and Rights • We need to think beyond the care & treatment of MAD people to understand and uphold their rights, we need to go beyond the individual level. Working with Children and Youth Ageism • Discrimination or oppression against an individual because of their age Adultcentrism • Tendencies of adults to view children and their problems from a biased adult perspective How are we adultcentric? • Children are not seen/heard • They used to be viewed as laborers (industrial revo), b/c of the children rights movement in the 19th century children are viewed as innocent and vulnerable • Cuteness factor- children require special treatment Social constructions • Social constructions are categorized, we create that some people are more privileged than others • These ideas become entrenched, because we don’t see other alternatives for treating children. Adultcentrism leads to... Paternalism and Protection • Think youth and children are vulnerable, we think they are always at risk and that adults always know best Innocence and dependence • We see children as innocent and dependent and therefore, we use this as justification to control their lives Lack of autonomy • Children don’t get to talk about how they are affected in terms of family issues etc, because adults choose not to share any family problems with them Youth seen as deviant and to be controlled • They don’t know what is best for them and they’re always trying to buck authority (that’s what adults think) How constructs impact social work • It plays into the notion of the child being innocent and vulnerable, social work getting lots of policies that benefit children • If everything is focused around benefitting children then it would be unfair (women w children get benefits & resources and women without children do not) • Child development theory- Social work set up stages of development for children & they move through stages in a certain way, centered around the fact that children are always moving Working with OlderAdults • Tendency to put an older person’s age first, there is now more resources for the elderly Why are we ageist against older adults? • Afraid of becoming older and what it will do to our bodies (we see ppl using aging cream) • Fear of illness, lack of capacity, less youth and less able • We see a decline of nursing homes, retirement centres • Fear of death-- death is planned in a spiritual, social and economic view Social Construction of Older Adults • Social constructions are categories that we create in which some categories are more privileged than others • Social construction of age is historically and socially contextual • These ideas become entrenched into our minds Ageism leads to.. Paternalism and protection • we try to make decisions for the elder because we feel as if we know best • Elder speak- the way that we talk to younger people • Overhelping/ needing to decide for them Poor quality of life • Not concerned with quality of life for the elder (i.e. world vision- they only use children for their advertising not elders) Lack of Autonomy • Less concerned with their autonomy, they get service values discounts etc • Mental health leads to being untreated because we think that those things come with old age. ElderAbuse • Abused by their own caregivers that have economic power over them • We see examples of movements like raging grannies-- they tried to show people that these stereotypes no longer exist, and they shouldnt. • **Refer to wells and taylor reading, waldman** Racism • Racism is discriminating someone based on their skin color, ethnicity or culture • When we are young we see this through someone not being treated properly, or we see forms of racism being portrayed throughout the media. • We learn about racism as an act as we can see it happens between the interaction of people, comments that we make, what we deem to be what is okay to say and what is not, and we see acts of hate/prejudice • What we don’t learn.. • Impacts of racism, we spend less time on the severity of the impacts Internalized racism • Internalized by people who exp. racism • This makes people hate themselves • Makes people of minorities feel inferior to others Moments in the history of Racism in Canada • 1840-1969 we see the church/gov partnership for residential schools • We see the Chinese head tax • Reluctant to allow jews to immigrate during and after WWII Enactment of racism • “Othering, the idea where we create a norm, (like being Canadian is taught as being a norm) and whoever does not fall into that norm is marginalized • Racialization Complicating anti racism • When we are young, we have to learn how to stop racism-- just like bullying, need to report • Multiculturalism • Color blindness- I don’t see your color, we are all the same ‘Whiteness’ • White people shaped by supremacy, creates a ‘norm’anyone who doesn’t fall into this category is marginalized • The overall privilege of growing up white is that we do not have to acknowledge one’s race • Peggy McIntosh talked about White Privilege, she doesnt believe that because you’re white you have privilege over african americans • Concept of white guilt- guilty because we get unearned privilege Stephen Harper Apology • Apologizing, realizing that the treatment was a sad chapter of their history • Seperated 150,000 children from their families and communities • Objectives of school was to remove and isolate children from influence of home families tradition and cultures and to assimilate them to dominant culture • Based on the thoughts that aboriginal culture was inferior and unequal • They were in every province except PEI, New Brunswick • All kids deprived from caring, nurturing and deprived from food, sexual abuse and neglect of helpless children • Aboriginal practices were prohibited, some kids died when attending these residential schools • Government recognizes that the Indian schools policy had a lasting and damaging impact onAboriginal culture, heritage and language, the consequences were profoundly negative and policy has had lasting impact on culture. Contributed to social problems that exist in many communities today. • The absence of an apology has been an impediment of healing and reconciliation for the Aboriginal peoples French Canadian Experiences • Pearl Mendonca spoke about her experiences dealing with racism • Bilinguism- ability to speak two languages, the frequent use of a community of two languages and political recognition of two languages (Canada recognizes French and English) Where are French people in Canada? • Rural Quebec • Acadian Francophone (PEI, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia)Acadian is the french who settled in other lands • New immigrants ** Refer to reading from Turner** says Acentral aspect of cultural and ethnic diversity is the language or languages spoken, written, and understood by a group's members”. This is evident when examining Quebec • 1980s they implemented language laws in Quebec-- gov strict about when and where English could be displayed, currently this has changed anglophones get their services in English and Francophones get their service in French • These language laws are significant bc they show examples of racism and colonialism • We see this as nationalism through the Quebec Referendum as they wanted to hold on to their culture and separate themselves from Canada What does it mean when one language is more dominant than another? 1. Turner answers: in her context, it means:  “WhenAnglophones are unable to understand or communicate in French, this leads to "English only" exchanges and contributes to assimilation.” 2. It also leads toAssimilation – eg: the Anglo dominance in our society - There are real reasons to fear that language and culture will be fettered out 3. Read in Turner thatAcadians deported from the land they were living on 4. Indigenous before them were removed from this land 5. See procesess of racism (lack of resources, access to power and to justice) happening in Canada 6. These all lead to a loss of voice and identity - Turner’s article is important for us as it points to how Citizenship is different for different people in terms of: 7. Participation 8. Access to services 9. Work and responsibilities of social workers who are bilingual Official Languages Policy- services must be accessible in both English and French - Why should we be thinking about the use of language? (not just in this specific case): 10. Turner says we should because:  minorities need to adjust and adapt to the majority's institutions, decision- making is carried out largely by the majority group members, and ethnic stratification reveals that more majority group members tend to hold elite positions of power. In other words: again we see power entrenched in institutions of society  Again , we see that citizenship – ability to enact our rights and participate in society – is unequal 11. Also – “[L]earning the language of another culture is one of the strongest commitments to learning about and understanding that culture. Because so much of what is described as culture is reflected in language,”  Ahallmark of cross-cultural competence is language learning. (Turner)  Context, history, identity, and unique ways of thinking are all communicated through language; to gain access to others through their language is to gain far more than a different vocabulary and grammar (Turner)  This Cultural competency is a principle of our work asAOP social workers 12. And - Turner well laid out why receiving service in another language other than your first language can be difficult and not effective  Miscommunication · Saw in Colour of Poverty report that language barriers are a real problem in terms of accessing services  Disenfranchisement from services  Produces small community in which can access service – so more likely to have conflict of interests, “everybody knows everyone’s business”  Increasing globalization it is important to critically examine language use, because of globalization we see that language is becoming centralizd, english is the dominant language but we see in places like Canada, they say they are multicultural but this isn’t real because everyone expected to speak English Documentary: The End of Immigration - Facts from the film: o During the extension of the subway lines in Vancouver, many Chinese immigrants and slaves were exploited o People came to Canada in search of a better life o In 2009, there were 650,000 temporary workers inAlberta o People don’t know how desperate some workers were to immigrate to Canada o Companies began sourcing out working from abroad  therefore need immigration  This is possible because Canada has lots of resources  Better quality of life  Underpopulated compared to other countries o Immigrants had to pay a large amount of money then were threatened by employers not to tell anyone or else they will be sent back home o Employers use the excuse of “paying for their plane tickets” as a way of taking advantage and manipulating - Analysis: o Level of desperation that contributes to the communities development Workers had no rules or regulations o That had to pay in order to be in Canada o Giving power to private sector and they are abusing their powers over immigrants o Immigrants are contributing to our economy, governments should be responsible to protect the foreign work
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