Sociology Exam Review: Terms
Chapter 17: Education
Assertive mating- occurs when marriage partners are selected so that
spouses are similar on various criteria of social rank
Credential inflation- occurs when it takes even more certificates or degrees
to qualify for a particular job
Cultural capital- is the stock of learning and skills that increases the chance of
securing a superior job
Educational achievement- is the actual learning of valuable skills and
Educational attainment- is the number of years of schooling successfully
completed, or for higher learning, the degrees or certificates earned
Imagined communities- are sentiments of solidarity and identification with
people who share particular cultural attributes
The hidden curriculum in school teaches obedience to authority and
conformity to cultural norms
The Logic of industrialism- is a specification by functionalists of
requirements that social institutions must satisfy before industrialism can be
achieved, such as an education system big enough to teach many people a
common cultural standard and rich enough to provide specialized scientific
and technical thinking
Meritocracy- is a social hierarchy in which rank corresponds to individual
capacities fairly tested against a common standard.
Nationalism- refers to sentiments emphasizing, or even favoring, the view
that humanity is divided into a limited number of populations defined by
common culture, territory, and continuity within the kin group.
Pedagogical violence- is Bourdieu’s term for the application by teachers of
punishments intended to discourage any deviation from the dominant
Professionalism- occurs to the degree that certain levels and types of
schooling are established as criteria for gaining access to an occupation
The reproduction of the existing stratification system- refers to processes
ensuring that children will continue in a rank or class similar to or identical
to that of their parents.
Social exclusion- is achieved by creating barriers that restrict certain
opportunities or positions to members of one group to the exclusion of
Chapter 18: The Mass Media
Cultural studies- is an increasingly popular interdisciplinary area of research.
In research on the mass media, it focuses not just on the cultural meanings
producers try to transmit but also on the way audiences filter and interpret
mass media messages in the context of their own interests, experiences and
values The mass media- are print, radio, television and other communication
technologies. The word mass implies that the media reach many people. The
word media signifies that communication does not take place directly
through face-to-face interaction
Media convergence- is the blending of the World Wide Web, television and
other communications media as new, hybrid media forms.
Media imperialism- is the domination of a mass medium by a single national
culture and the undermining of other national cultures.
The two-step flow of communication- between mass media and audience
members involves (1) respected people of high status and independent
judgment evaluating media messages and (2) other members of the
community being influences to varying degrees by these opinion leaders.
Because of the two-step flow of communication, opinion leaders filer media
Chapter 19: Health and Medicine
Environmental racism- is the tendency to heap environmental dangers on
Health- according to the WHO, is the ability of an individual to achieve his
(or her) potential and to respond positively to the challenges of the
The health care system is composed of nations clinics hospitals, and other
facilities for ensuing health and treating illness.
Holistic medicine- emphasizes disease prevention. Holistic practitioners
treat disease by taking into account the relationship between mind and
body and between the individual and his or her social and physical
Infant mortality is the number of deaths before the age of one for every
1000 live births in a population in one year
Life expectancy- is the average age at death of the members of the
The medicalization of deviance is the tendency for medical definitions of
deviant behaviour to become more prevalent over time.
Morbidity- refers to acute and chronic illness
The placebo effect is the positive influence on healing of a strong belief in
the effectiveness of a cure.
The public health system- comprises government-run program that
ensure access to clean drinking water, basic sewage and sanitation
services and inoculation against infectious diseases.
Playing the sick role- according to Talcott Parsons, involves the non-
deliberate suspension of routine responsibilities, wanting to be well,
seeking competent help, and cooperating with health care practitioners at
In countries with socialized medicine, the government (1) directly
controls the financing and organization of health services, (2) directly
pays providers, (3) guarantees equal access to health care and (4) allows some private care for individuals who are willing to pay for their medical
Chapter 20: Population & Urbanization
Census metropolitan area (CMA)- includes a large urban area (known as the
urban core_ along with adjacent urban and rural areas (urban and rural
fringes) that are highly integrated with the urban core
The Chicago school founded urban sociology in the United States in the first
decades of the twentieth century
In the theory of human ec