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Sociology Exam Review: Terms Chapter 17: Education  Assertive mating- occurs when marriage partners are selected so that spouses are similar on various criteria of social rank  Credential inflation- occurs when it takes even more certificates or degrees to qualify for a particular job  Cultural capital- is the stock of learning and skills that increases the chance of securing a superior job  Educational achievement- is the actual learning of valuable skills and knowledge.  Educational attainment- is the number of years of schooling successfully completed, or for higher learning, the degrees or certificates earned  Imagined communities- are sentiments of solidarity and identification with people who share particular cultural attributes  The hidden curriculum in school teaches obedience to authority and conformity to cultural norms  The Logic of industrialism- is a specification by functionalists of requirements that social institutions must satisfy before industrialism can be achieved, such as an education system big enough to teach many people a common cultural standard and rich enough to provide specialized scientific and technical thinking  Meritocracy- is a social hierarchy in which rank corresponds to individual capacities fairly tested against a common standard.  Nationalism- refers to sentiments emphasizing, or even favoring, the view that humanity is divided into a limited number of populations defined by common culture, territory, and continuity within the kin group.  Pedagogical violence- is Bourdieu’s term for the application by teachers of punishments intended to discourage any deviation from the dominant culture.  Professionalism- occurs to the degree that certain levels and types of schooling are established as criteria for gaining access to an occupation  The reproduction of the existing stratification system- refers to processes ensuring that children will continue in a rank or class similar to or identical to that of their parents.  Social exclusion- is achieved by creating barriers that restrict certain opportunities or positions to members of one group to the exclusion of others. Chapter 18: The Mass Media  Cultural studies- is an increasingly popular interdisciplinary area of research. In research on the mass media, it focuses not just on the cultural meanings producers try to transmit but also on the way audiences filter and interpret mass media messages in the context of their own interests, experiences and values  The mass media- are print, radio, television and other communication technologies. The word mass implies that the media reach many people. The word media signifies that communication does not take place directly through face-to-face interaction  Media convergence- is the blending of the World Wide Web, television and other communications media as new, hybrid media forms.  Media imperialism- is the domination of a mass medium by a single national culture and the undermining of other national cultures.  The two-step flow of communication- between mass media and audience members involves (1) respected people of high status and independent judgment evaluating media messages and (2) other members of the community being influences to varying degrees by these opinion leaders. Because of the two-step flow of communication, opinion leaders filer media messages. Chapter 19: Health and Medicine  Environmental racism- is the tendency to heap environmental dangers on the disadvantaged  Health- according to the WHO, is the ability of an individual to achieve his (or her) potential and to respond positively to the challenges of the environment  The health care system is composed of nations clinics hospitals, and other facilities for ensuing health and treating illness.  Holistic medicine- emphasizes disease prevention. Holistic practitioners treat disease by taking into account the relationship between mind and body and between the individual and his or her social and physical environment.  Infant mortality is the number of deaths before the age of one for every 1000 live births in a population in one year  Life expectancy- is the average age at death of the members of the population  The medicalization of deviance is the tendency for medical definitions of deviant behaviour to become more prevalent over time.  Morbidity- refers to acute and chronic illness  The placebo effect is the positive influence on healing of a strong belief in the effectiveness of a cure.  The public health system- comprises government-run program that ensure access to clean drinking water, basic sewage and sanitation services and inoculation against infectious diseases.  Playing the sick role- according to Talcott Parsons, involves the non- deliberate suspension of routine responsibilities, wanting to be well, seeking competent help, and cooperating with health care practitioners at all times.  In countries with socialized medicine, the government (1) directly controls the financing and organization of health services, (2) directly pays providers, (3) guarantees equal access to health care and (4) allows some private care for individuals who are willing to pay for their medical expenses Chapter 20: Population & Urbanization  Census metropolitan area (CMA)- includes a large urban area (known as the urban core_ along with adjacent urban and rural areas (urban and rural fringes) that are highly integrated with the urban core  The Chicago school founded urban sociology in the United States in the first decades of the twentieth century  In the theory of human ec
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