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McMaster University
Tina Fetner

SOCIOLOGY EXAM REVIEW- UP TO CHAPTER 6 chapter 1 • study of human society • religion/music/medicine • the study of what seems natural, but really it isn't • social institutions eg: legal system, university theological stage: people believed that society is the result of the actions of supernatural beings metaphysical stage: human behaviour is governed by natural biological instincts scientific stage: scientific approach to understanding society "theory and practice of society in america" -some girl • one of the earliest feminist sociologists "historical materialism" - karl marx • conflict between social classes that drove social change in our society • material living determines consciousness • material living comes first then our thinking max vipor- "economy in society" "the protestant ethic and the spirit of capitalism" • religious transformation laid groundwork for development of modern capitalism • studied calvinists • religion believed in predestination • came to value success and material possession • focused on individuals dakime?? -cohesion • understanding how societies are held together • focused on groups of people • "the division of labour in society" • studied suicides • studied the function of religion and saw that its not only about worshipping god, it is about being there with people who are same minded as you, gives a sense of belonging and identity, escape from problem • functionalism: simplistic, everything is there to serve a function conflict theory • focus on conflicts • feminist theory: form of conflict theory • whenever there are 2 people together, there is always a conflict symbolic interactionism • focused on how face to face interactions create the social world • about individuals, not a group • canadian sociologist- ervin goffman: • uses theatre terms • everything we do is for selfish reasons • if something doesn't bring us benefit, why bother doing it • motivation behind any sort of social action chapter 2 quantitative: deals with numbers, something you can count qualitative: ways of collecting information that doesn't deal with numbers ways to research: deductive: theory- hypothesis- collect data- analyze data- confirm/reject theory inductive: collect data- work your way up to make a theory opposite causality: when a change in one variable directly causes a change in another • one causes another • difficult to prove • so many variables that could explain something correlation/association: two things are related • simoultaneous relation in variables • does not mean causation • easier to use this in sociology research 3 factors needed to establish causation • correlation • time order/chronology • non spurious explanations - rule out alternative explanations spurious explanations- false assumptions free verse causality: when you believe A is causing B, but its really the other way: B is causing A dependent/independent variables hypothesis: proposed relationship between two variables, usually tells a direction operationalization: you have to define the term (e.g.: what long hours of driving mean) null hypothesis: no relationship- trying to disprove alternative hypothesis: there is a relationship- trying to prove moderating variables: affects the relationship between the dependent and independent variables eg: parental education is associated with children's likelihood of living in poverty as adults independent: parental education moderating variables: race, family structure mediating variables: variable that comes between dependent and independent variables, but do not interact or affect their relationship eg: test scores/childrens education validity: measures what you want it to measure reliability: you can do the study again and get the same result, can be repeated generalizability: focus on a small subset within a big population and generalize it and your finding is applicable to the wider population sample: subset of population in which the data is drawn from case study: in dept look at a phenomenon in a social setting experimental effects: as a researcher, you always have an effect on the relationship you are studying flexivity?: analyzing the effects the researcher has on research power: we are not all equal, we need to be aware of the roll power plays in the research process feminist methodology: promotes independence of women participant observation: observing those actions in practice • very time consuming • personally demanding • only method for certain topics open ended interviews/ closed ended interviews survey research historical methods: written documents When conducting research: • no harm rule: don't hurt participants • voluntary participation: they can withdraw • protected population (jails, mental institutions): get additional approval • make research available to the public chapter 3 Culture: human - nature • superior man vs. inferior man • the pursuit of knowledge through material gains Non material cultures: religion etc Material culture: technology etc Race, Gender, Class, Inequality, Ideology Ideology: promote and understanding of cause and effect High culture: Van Gogh painting etc Low culture: graffiti etc High and low= very subjective Cultural relativisim: take into account differences across cultures without passing judgements Cultural scripts: not natural e.g.: gender Symbolic culture: cultural practice can take on a symbolic meaning besides the actual action itself e.g.: baseball Subculture: some social practices are not mainstream but part of subculture, often marginalized Culture shapes our values, moral beliefs, norms transmitted to us through socialization Reflection theory: culture is a projection of social structures and relationships into the public sphere e.g.: rappers are often perceived as being violent, but according to this theory they are just telling things as they are Criticisms: • doesn't explain why some cultural products have longer staying power than others • does not explain why some cultural products change their meaning over time e.g.: Shakespeare's plays were not high culture, now they are • unidirectional: accepts that culture has not effect on society Media: • vehicles that carry, represent, or communicate information • hegemony: process in which a dominant group exercises moral and intellectual leadership within a a society by winning voluntary consent • domination: something that you're forced to do- don't have freedom to express your view against it chapter 4 • socialization begins the day we are born and continues through to adulthood • males and females are socialized into gender specific roles socialization: the process by which individuals internalize the values, beliefs, and norms of a society and learn to function as a member of that society limitation: people are not blank slates onto which society puts its norms and values, people have agencies: we function within the limits that are not our own making but we do have choices which we can think and have an influence on • we are largely shaped by interaction with others • eg: Anna from textbook- no human contact theories of socialization: Charles Horton Cooley: The Looking Glass Self • refers to how we use the perception of how we think others perceive us to revise our self concept • how we think other people perceive
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