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McMaster University
Sandra Colavecchia

1Sociology 1A06Term 1 of 2Dr Colavecchia1 The Sociological Imagination and Sociological TheoriesNew Society GlossaryAltruistic Suicide occurs in the setting that exhibit high levels of social solidarity according to DurkheimResults from norms very tightly governing behaviourAnomic Suicide occurs in the settings that exhibit low levels of social solidarity Results from vaguely defined norms governing social behaviourConflict Theory generally focuses on large macro level structures such as the relationship between or among classes It shows how major patterns of inequality in society produce social stability in some circumstances and social change in others It stresses how members of privileged groups try to maintain their advantages while subordinate groups struggle to increase theirs And it typically leads to the suggestion that eliminating privileges will lower the level of conflict and increase the sum total of human welfareDysfunctional consequence are effects of social structures that create social instabilityEgoistic Suicide results from a lack of integration of the individual into society because of weak social ties to othersEthnomethodology is the study of how people make sense of what others do and say in terms of norms that exist independently of individual social actorsFeminist Theory Claims that patriarchy is at least as important as class inequality in determining a persons opportunities in life It holds that male domination and female subordination are determined not by biological necessity but by structures of power and social convention It examines the operation pf patriarchy in both micro and macro settings And it contends that existing patterns of gender inequality can and should be charged for the benefit of all members of societyFunctionalist theory stresses that human behaviour is governed by relatively stable social structures It underlines how social structures maintain or undermine social stability It emphasizes that social structures are based mainly on shared values or preferences And it suggests that reestablishing equilibrium can best solve most social problems Global structures are patterns of social relations that lie outside and above the national level They include international organizations patterns worldwide travel and communication and the economic relations between and among countriesGlobalization the process by which formerly separates economies states and culture are becoming tied together and people are becoming increasingly aware of their growing interdependence Industrial revolution 1780s shift to industrial workLatent functions are invisible and unintended effects of social structuresMacrostructures are overarching patterns of social relations that lie outside and above ones circle of intimates and acquaintances Include classes bureaucracies power systems patriarchyManifest functions are visible and intended effects of social structuresMicrostructures are patterns of relatively intimate social relations formed during facetoface interactions Families friendship circles peersPatriarchy is the traditional system of economic and political inequality between men and womenPostindustrial revolution tech driven shift from manufacturing to service industryththProtestant ethics 1617 century protestant belief that religious doubts can be reduced and a state of grace ensured if people work diligently and live ascetically According to Weber the protestant ethic had the unintended effects of increasing savings and investments and thus stimulating capitalist growthResearch the process of systematically observing reality to assess the validity of a theory2Scientific RevolutionSocial Solidarity refers 1 to the degree to which group members share beliefs and values and 2 the intensity and frequency of their actionsSocial structures stable patterns of social relationsSociological imagination the quality of the mind that enables a person to see connections between personal troubles and social structuresSociology systematic study of human behaviour in social contextSymbolic Interactionism focuses on face to face communications or interactions in micro level social setting It emphasizes that an adequate explanation of social behaviour requires understanding the subjective meanings people attach to their social circumstances It stresses that people help to create their social circumstances and do not merely react to them And by underscoring the subjective meanings people create in small social settings symbolic interactionism validates unpopular and nonofficial viewpoints This increases our understanding and tolerance of people who may be different from usTheory tentative explanation of some aspect of social life that states how and why certain facts are relatedValues ideas about what is right and wrong Summary Durkheims showed that even nonsocial and antisocial actions are influenced by social structures Specifically showing how levels of social solidarity affect suicide rates because of the rise in youth suicide the patterns of suicide rates in Canada today is not exactly the same as Durkheims France but his theory explains the contemporary Canadian pattern well Sociologist analyzes the connection between personal troubles and social structures Sociologist analyze the influence of three levels of social structure micro macro global Values suggest which sociological research questions are worth asking and how the parts of society fit together Values underlie sociological theories A theory is a tentative explanation of some aspect of social life It states how and why specific facts are connected Research is the process of carefully observing social reality to access the validity of a theory There are four main theories FUNCTIONALISM analyzes how social order is supported by macro structure CONFLICT analyzes how social inequality is maintained and challenged SYMBOLIC INTERACTIONISM analyzes how meaning is created when people communicate in micro level settings FEMINISM focuses on the social sources of patriarchy in both micromacro settingsRise of sociology stimulated by Scientific Industrial and Democratic revolutions The causes and consequences of post industrialism and globalization form the great sociological puzzle of our time The tension between autonomy and constraint prosperity and inequality and diversity and uniformity are among chief interests of sociology today Lecture note ReviewSociological imagination C Wrightmills born from three revolutions therefore forced to think about society in different ways Individual experience connected to a social context Example unemployment understand relationship between social structures and private troublesOrder vs Change Theory Order theories support status quo social norms common most popular in society Change theories change and revolutionMicro vs Macro Macro society shapes us Micro we shape societySTRUCTURAL FUNCTIONALISM Order theoryemphasis on order and stablitlity Macro level Everything serves a function and is interrelated human body which creates stability society in a state of equilibrium consensus among society Talcott Parsons nuclear family is the most ideal if collapse society would fall apart because of the importance of family and their roles within society Believed In strict sexual
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