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Sociology Terms Since Midterm

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McMaster University
Tina Fetner

1 race a group of people that share a set of characteristics –typically, but not always physical ones – and are said to share a common bloodline 2 racism the belief that members of separate races possess different and unequal traits 3 scientific racism nineteenth century theories of race that characterize a period of feverish investigation into the origins, explanations and classifications of race 4 ethnocentrism the belief that one‘s own culture or group is superior to others, and the tendency to view other cultures from the perspective of one ‗sown 5 ontological equality the notion that everyone is created equal in God‘s eyes 6 social Darwinism the application of Darwinism ideas to society, namely, the evolutionary ―survival of the fittest‖ 7 eugenics literally meaning ―well born,‖ the theory of controlling the fertility of populations to influence inheritable traits passed on from generation to generation 8 nativism movement to protect and preserve indigenous land or culture from the so—called dangerous polluting effects of new immigration 9 one-drop rule the belief that ―one-drop‖ of black blood makes a person black, a concept that evolved in the U .S. laws forbidding miscegenation 10 miscegenation the technical term for multiracial marriage: literally meaning ―a mixing of two kinds‖: it politically and historically charged – sociologists generally prefer exogamy or out-marriage 11 racialization the formation of a new racial identity, in which new ideological boundaries of difference are drawn around a formally unnoticed group of people 12 ethnicity one‘s ethnic quality or affiliation, it is voluntary, self-defined, non-hierarchical, fluid, and multiple, and based on cultural differences, not physical ones per se. 13 symbolic ethnicity a nationality, not in the sense of carrying the rights and duties of citizenship but identifying with a past of future nationality. For later generations, of white ethnics, something not constraining but easily expressed, with no risks of stigma and all the pleasures of feeling like an individual 14 study line assimilation Robert Park‘s 1920 universal and linear model for how immigrants assimilate, first thing they arrive, the settle in, and achieve full assimilation in a newly homogenous country 15 Primordialism Clifford Geertz‘s term to explain the persistence of ethnic ties because they are fixed in deeply felt or primordial ties to one‘s homeland culture 16 pluralism the presence and engaged coexistence of numerous distinct group of one society 17 segregation the legal or social practice of separating people on the basis of their race or ethnicity 18 genocide the mass killing of a group of people 19 subaltern describes subordinate, oppressed groups of people 20 collective resistance an organized effort to change a power hierarchy on the part of a less-powerful group in a society 21 prejudice thoughts and feelings about an ethnic or racial group 22 discrimination harmful or negative acts (not mere thoughts) against people deemed inferior on the basis of their racial category without regard to their individual merit 23 female circumcision the removal of a woman's sexually sensitive clitoris 24 feminism an intellectual, consciousness-raising movement to get people to understand that gender is an organizing principle of life. The underlying belief is that women and men should be accorded equal opportunities and respect 25 sex the biological differences that distinguish male from female 26 sexuality refers to the desire, sexual preference, sexual identity and behaviour 27 gender denotes a social position, the set of social arrangements, that are built around sex categories 28 essentialism line of thought that explains social phenomena in terms of natural ones 29 biological determinism a line of thought that explains social behaviour in terms of biological givens 30 hegemonic masculinity dominant and privileged if invisible, category of men 31 gender roles set of behavioural norms assumed to accompany one's status as male or female 32 patriarchy a nearly universal system involving the subordination of femininity to masculinity 33 structural functionalism theoretical tradition claiming that ever society has a certain structures(the family, division of labour, or gender) which exists in order to fulfill some set of functions(reproduction of the species, production of goods, etc.) 34 Sex role theory Talcott Parsons‘ theory that men and women perform their sex roles as breadwinners and wives and mothers, respectively, because the nuclear family is the ideal arrangement in modern societies, fulfilling the function of reproducing workers. 35 homosexual the social identity of a person who has sexual attraction to and/or relations with other persons of the same sex 36 sexism occurs when a person's sex or gender is the basis for judgment, discrimination, and hatred against him or her 37 sexual harassment an illegal form of discrimination, involving everything from inappropriate jokes on the job to outright sexual assault to sexual "barter" - uncomfortable and unwelcome, particularly on the job 38 glass ceiling an invisible limit on women's climb up the occupational ladder 39 glass escalator the promotional ride men take to the top of a work organization, especially feminized jobs 40 culture of poverty the argument that poor people adopt certain practices that differ from those of middle-class, "mainstream" society in order to adapt and survive in difficult economic circumstances 41 underclass the notion, building on the culture of poverty argument, that the poor not only are different from mainstream society in their inability to take advantage of what mainstream society has to offer but also are increasingly deviant and even dangerous to the rest of us 42 perverse incentives reward structures that lead to sub-optimal outcomes by stimulating counter-productive behaviour; for example, welfare -- to the extent that it discourages work efforts is argued to have perverse incentives 43 absolute poverty the point at which a household's income falls below the necessary level to purchase food to physically sustain its members 44 relative poverty a measurement poverty based on a percentage of the median income in a given location 45 parenting stress hypothesis A paradigm in which the psychological aspects of poverty exacerbate household stress levels: this stress, in turn, leads to detrimental parenting practices such as yelling, shouting, and hitting, which are not conducive to healthy child development 46 endogamy marriage to someone within one's social group 47 exogamy marriage to someone outside one's social group 48 monogamy the practice of having only one sexual partner or spouse 49 polygamy the practice of having more than one sexual partner or spouse at the time 50 polyandry the practice of having multiple husbands simultaneously 51 polygyny the practice of having multiple wives simultaneously 52 nuclear family familial form consisting of a father, mother and their children 53 extended family kin networks that extend outside or beyond the nuclear family 54 cohabitation living together in an intimate relationship without formal or religious sanctioning 55 kinship networks strings of relationships between people related by blood and co-residence (marriage) 56 cult of domesticity the notion that true womanhood centres on domestic responsibility and child rearing 57 second shift women's responsibility for housework and child care - everything from cooking doing laundry, bathing children, reading bedtime stories, and sewing Halloween costumes 58 child unions legally recognized unions explicitly intended to offer similar state-provided legal rights and benefits as marriage 59 domestic partnership legally recognized unions that guarantee only select rights to same-sex couples 60 miscegenation The technical term for multi-racial marriage, literally meaning "a mixing of kinds"; it is politically and historically charged and sociologists generally prefer exogamy or out marriage. 61 education the process through which academic, social and cultural ideas and tools, both general and specific, are developed 62 hidden curriculum the non-academic socialization and training that take place in the schooling system 63 social capital any relationship between people that can facilitate the actions of others 64 tracking a way of diving students into different classes by ability or future plans 65 credentials an overemphasis on credentials for signaling social status or qualifications for a job 66 affirmation action a set of policies that grant preferential treatment to a number of particular subgroups within the population - typically, women and historically disadvantaged racial minorities 67 social class/socio-economic status (SES) an individual's position in a stratified social order 68 culture capital symbolic and interactional resources that people use to their advantage in various situations
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