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Final Lectures for Sociology Exam Studying.docx

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Sandra Colavecchia

Final Lectures for Sociology Exam Studying #1: Work and The Economy- February 6 th Chapter 21- SIQ- Brym: Understanding strikes in Canada - Pre-1986: strikes impacted business cycle - Post-1986: changes that have weakened workers and unions - Can we predict and explain strikes? Circumstances when they happen. - Unemployment rate and strike rate-> until 1986 strikes were associated with unemployment, when umemployment goes up there are fewer strikes and when it falls there are more strikes-> when economy faces tough times -> workers are less likely to go on strikes because they recognize hat there are no profits for their demands, better times then workers have leverage where they can demand better qualities and employers want to settle strikes. Less risk going out on strike-> these patterns hold until 1986: after there is little correlation with unemployment and strike because union and workers weakened by government and shaped by corporate interest - Examples: passing of NAFTA-> unions lots bargaining leverage, asking employers to pay more for their workers-> cuts to employment insurance benefits and social assistance-> these cuts make workers less easier to survive and they don’t want to strike and be on employment insurance which is less than what they may have received. - Cuts to salary of public sector in 1990’s-> harder to fight for harder wages-> legislative changes-> definitions of essential workers changed and broadened-> those who are deemed essential cannot go on strike.-> more recently more workers are deemed essential-> no leverage. - Canada-> overall decline in strikes, decline in union density, legislative changes weakened unions and government cut backs - 3 adverse trends that might impact you post-graduation from McMaster - Chapter 11 NS-> Sandy Welsch - Trends because of Globalization and Deindustrialization-> decline of manufacturing and goods production and expansion of service sector. - Decline in the well paying and standardized jobs - Increased bad jobs_. Job pay, security, benefits, opportunity for advancement - Stratified service jobs-> bottom retail and food and top in business education and health - Deindustrialization-> globally affected increasing unemployment and greater income inequality-> gap between rich and poor - Strikers-> casualized Mc jobs loosing their benefits and security-> McMaster service strike-> not guaranteed set work hours with minimum wage. - Work is polarized-> good and bad jobs Trends Post Grad 1. The expansion of contact work-> not getting a permanent job, contract job-> all fields. -> no job security, hard to plan for future, no borrowing money, no medical benefits, no parental leave benefits 2. The disappearance of company sponsored pension plans-> less likely to offer for a company pension plan -> RRSP’s, hard to find money for these RRSP’s. 3. Corporate downsizing-> major recessions-> impacting low skilled shop workers, as well as middle management and executives are wiped out-> workers in 40’s and 50’s with high levels of education, investing many years with 1 company and then loosing job-> impossible to find a comparable job-> ageism Theories Structural Functionalism - Davis and Moore-> inequality is functional for society, it ensures that most talented people end up in most important jobs - Labour market is highest salaries to most important jobs. - Financial Rewards linked to Importance of job - Critique: What about intrinsic rewards? - Educational inequalities-> cannot pursue these good high paying jobs based on missed opportunities because of family etc. - NS->most important is people you are working with treat you with respect - Many people pursue for self fulfillment and not pay - Credentialism-> positions is determined by education which is not the same as parents Symbolic Interactionism - Donald Roy (1909-1980) - “Banana Time”-> highly cited, ethnographic articles and fieldwork, garment factor in NY how workers interact with each other and managers and long hours, interpersonal interactions were important and allowed them to survive and handle their monotonous work, experienced alienation but how interactions with one another helped them to cope. - Daily interaction, daily ritual-> point in the day where someone would steal a banana from the workers lunchbox and work together to try and find the missing banana-> hugely important, took place each day and when it didn’t, the workers felt different in how their work day would carry out, gave meaning. How they psychologically coped with boring work and alienation. - Worker camaraderie helps to overcome alienation - Looking at micro level interactions, symbols - Workplace setting Conflict or Marxist Theory - worker alienation and exploitation by capitalist - Done so by: 1. Alienation from products-> no control over production or the products 2. No control over production process-> broken into many parts and Durkheim call this the advanced division of labour, order to do things and how fast they must work 3. No creativity-> no leeway to express themselves, disallow creativity we alienate people from their sense of self 4. Alienated from co-workers->isolation-> 1 meter rule-> beneficial for employers, talking about bad things in the workplace and your wages-> worker revolt, unionization-> individual level response - New approaches to management that try to address issues of alienation-> Japanese style, careful attention to workers to make them feel valued, solicit and feedback from workers, teamwork - Critics: new style of management, workers input is not truly valued. Feminist Theory - Occupational sex segregation-> vertical and horizontal - Sexual harassment-> hostile environment - Discrimination-> overt discrimination - Glass ceiling- women in male dominated workplaces - Glass escalator- men in female dominant workplaces who get better advantages - Maternal wall-> barriers women face when they have families - Gender disparities in earnings-> women tend to learn less and gap is greater for married women - Wage penalty-> female dominated profession, earns less then in male dominated profession - Lens on gender relation - Gender based inequalities - Hostile environments - Explicit discrimination - Women have less authority in the workplace-> surpervisory capacity will only supervise women. Fredrick Taylor (1856-1915) - Industrial Scientific management - Management “stop watch” control over production - Minimize “soldiering” - Labour process into tiny pieces, understanding it, and using it for owners/ capitalists - Efficient to cut labour costs - Workers paid in hourly wage, make more in that hour then they can make more - Stopwatch to study every aspect of labour process - If managers and owners have this information, they can maximize productivity - Wasting time- soldering -> if management didn’t understand how long work takes you can’t trust workers to maximize productivity. - Any mental labour should be held by managers not workers. - Overlap with Henry Ford Fordism (1863-1947) - Henry Ford - Use of industrial scientific method through technology and the use of the assembly line production. - Historically automobile construction done by skilled professionals - People on the line do one thing in the system - Alientate - Separate workers body from minds - Relationships between workers and managers divisive. Marx Weber - Modern bureaucracies - Rationalization - Hierarchy - Formal protocol - Companies and organizations organize themselves hierarchally which is complex and if you work for this bureaucracies you must follow very formal protocol with no latitude, workers must follow very specific rules - No creativity or discretion. - Caught in red tape-> client or customer of a big organization if you don’t follow protocol it will impact how they deal with you as a customer - Irrationality of bureaucratic behavior-> accessing departments-> feeling you are immobilized and you cannot get anything done. MC Question Which of the following statements contradicts Weber’s views on bureaucracy? a. Bureaucracies are the most efficient form for reaching the goals of capitalism b. Bureaucracies involve a complex division of labour c. Bureaucracies involve a clear hierarchy of authority d. In bureaucracies, routine situations are handles by clint-oriented workers who have a wide latitude of discretion e. None (all of the above support Weber’s views) - You have no discretion/ no latitude Michel Foucault - Worker surveillance ( Have you experienced surveillance at work? Have you engaged in self- monitoring? - Physical to non-physical means of discipline - More and more workers have greater control of work because of surveillance - Early stages of capitalism could use discipline to punish workers-> physical abuse-> preindustrial families sending sons out and daughters at home because of abuse-> historical physical punishment and overtime it was replaced by non physical means, workers are monitored so much that over time it is almost as though they won’t need to be monitoring because we get so fearful we monitor ourselves - Fearful of being watched. - Electronic monitoring of computers Ritzer - culture and globalization, mcdonalization - efficiency, calculability, predictability, control - contemporary society has undergone mcdonalization - the worker is being controlled and the customer is also controlled. - This model is applied to funeral industry-> death and dying Globalization Part 2: February 1 st Anti-Globalization - Bottom-up Globalization, Alternative globalization, global social justice movement-> broad range of projects-> diverse and different people who wish to protest and address problematic issues-> injustices and inequalities which need to be remedied-> greater equality and sustainability - Democracy, equality, economic and environmental sustainability, critique of American hegemony-> American culture, military, economic - CAMP-> Anti Neoliberal economic policy-> criticism of neoliberal economic policy, 3 sisters, world bank, IMF-> severe dependency on poor countries and affluent country-> Structural adjustment policies-> set by world bank and IMF and loan repayment force countries to cut domestic spending-> adversely affects people living in countries, lowers quality of life, income inequality increasing-> Jamaica: end up spending so much money on interest of debt.-> media attention, celebrities trying to get them to fix their policies-> Life and Debt-> documentary. Violence, poverty, civil unrest - Fair trade -> activists to sweat shop labour in 1990’s-> paying kids very low wages to work in factories with hazardous conditions-> eliminating sweat shops and exploitation of foreign workers. Fair trade coffee, move towards consumer awareness so we buy products in which workers are paid fairly for their work - Economic and environmental sustainability - Antiestablishment (democratic deficit) - Anti-consumerism Anti-Globalization - Bottom-up Globalization, Alternative globalization, Global Social Justice movement - It is more so about democracy, equality, economic and environmental sustainability, critique of American hegemony (culture, military, economic) - Broad range of projects, people seeking to protest to the problematic aspects of globalization - There are some injustices and inequalities that need to be remedied Anti Neoliberal Economic Policy o Criticism of the three sister she spoke about last time World Trade Organization Bank stuff, and neoliberalism o Not treating countries fair when they are not great countries o The main criticism is structural adjustment policies are set by the World Bank, these loan repayment schemes make them cut things o Like health care, and social services Life and Debt: Structural Adjustment Policies and Jamaica - it lowers peoples quality of life - government can’t give the support that they need - so income inequality increases - structural adjustment policies, the countries end up paying so much money on interest and they are always in debt and don’t come close to paying debts - this issue of debt has gotten a lot of media attention, celebrities have pressured these institutions to change their stuff - DOCUMENTARY: Life and Debt within Jamaica, impact on policy by these institutions by Jamaica - What’s cool about these documents is the former prime minster of Jamaica who was the one who signed off and said “I have no choice, we were having problems, no money, oil thing ruined us, I could not agree with what the companies were saying” - They cut many things that made it worse for them, social welfare, and things that are extremely important to them and debt has grown and paying a lot of interest on their debt - The Jamaica that we see is not the same as what we see when we are on vacation there Fair Trade - 1990s activists draw attention to sweat shop labour - companies are going into poor places to work in their factories, hazardous conditions and low prices - exploitation of foreign workers - Fair Trade coffee - A move towards greater consumer awareness in working and living conditions - Fair Trade is when us, as individuals buy products where workers are paid things where they can make their basic needs  slightly more expensive - Consumers: Us, are politically aware and going to pay more because are supportive of this movement, and we want people to know that these workers are earning a decent wage Economic and Environmental Sustainability - not only poor countries of the world to experience economic sust, like wealthier countries and poor groups within those countries that are being marginalized - places to be green, focus on the over exploitation of natural resources, fossil fuels - and the Three Sisters are criticized for having policies that are bad Anti-Establishment (Democratic Deficit) - more democracy, arguing that economic and political elites should listen to the concerns of every day like us - no economic power and political power, but we are negatively impacted by globalization - critics of globalization: we have experienced a democratic “deficit” - they also say because of the increasing influence of multi-national companies and organizations, you have a situation where individual national governments hold very little power - not only do national governments hold less power, but they are less likely to listen to the political will of their own people (people who voted them into the office) - but they are listening to the heads of multi-national corporations - because of globalization, governments are less likely to listen to “the people” Anti-Consumerism - key idea is that consumerism is problematic for the environment, but also because it reinforces capitalism - in the West, our focus on consumerism is environmentally unsustainable - textbook: 20% of the worlds population that live in the industrialized developed world consume 2/3 of the worlds resources and create 75% of all waste and pollution - what would the impact be if the 80% of the population consumed the way that we do? Can our planet sustain that? - As a result of these environmental concerns, we’ve seen a growth in the anti- consumer movement Culture Jamming - the term used by anti-globalization groups - it’s a term that’s applied to different activities that challenge globalizations and our political consciousness - ex: art work, where the artist and activist challenges mainstream corporate advertising and branding - challenge our ideas of what is school, and the brainwashing of branding - reconfiguring popular images - Ronald McDonald reconfigured - Camel Cartoon figure reconfigured - Ron English has changed it, and made a billboard to the right - “Joe Chemo” - they want to get a reaction, emotionally and politically Multiple Choice Question - Culture Jamming: C) Challenges mainstream corporate advertising Culture Jamming: Anti-Consumerism: AdBusters - Subvertisements: parodies and critiques of mainstream corporate advertising - So often there is a sexual objectification of women - Extends on the use of stuff, wide range of activities, intended to create some kind of opposition - Some cultural jammers pay for billboard space (not breaking the law) - Although some deface billboards - Sculling: faces of the models on the billboards are made into skulls - Sculling started within Toronto, he was critiquing consumerism - Feminist Jammers have used this graffiti to critique this image, anorexic model - In defacing these stuff, feminist jammers argue that the emphasize on being thin is killing women - Sculling is killing women AdBusters Buy Nothing Day - well known cultural jamming promotion - created 2 decades ago by two Canadians from BC - they are not for profit, anti-consumerist - they are against capitalists and consumerism - and globalization - textbook: rebel rousing organization is what they are called - known for their magazine AdBusters - it is supported by the readers and not advertising - the message of the magazine is questioning the environment - launched a number of campaigns: TV Turn off Week, Digital Detox Week, Buy Nothing Day (get North American’s to reduce and stop their consumerism) - thinks making consumerism looking like pigs is beneficial - this is celebrated in 65 countries around the world - Buy Nothing Day: o these people are not understanding the consequences over their consumption, it is in some sense the problem of our environmental problem o every purchase has an impact on the problem, 86% of the goods are being purchased in the global market, and 14% is leaving for the 5 billion people on the other planet. Buy Nothing? o Destroy American economy, it will destroy it in the short term, but not in the long term, we have climate change, running out of oil, fish are leaving, salad runs are drying up, we are living off the backs of our own children and next generations o After the second world war, we consume 3x more since then, and it’s over 300% o Happiness has not gone up due to this - Questions she asks to the class: Who is more convincing? Woman or the man?  doesn’t answer - He is talking there that consumerism is a connection to other problems, environment, global income equality and animosity towards the west (terrorism) - Jonah Perrety and Nike: cultural jammer Jonah went online to Nike’s website, and ordered custom made shoes by Nike o The problem was that he requested the word “Sweat shopped” be placed in the Nike symbol o He made it public, and the exchange is available online o It stirred up a lot of public debate about anti-globalization around the world - She (cultural jammer person says): Exploitation of workers in North America, in largely the service industry  McJob, low paying job that have poor hours, no benefits and high amounts of stress - Companies are using their size to limit their choices, Wal-Mart, Starbucks  same goal: market share, we have little true choice in what we buy and what we shop Anti-Globalization - “People can wear a Che Guevera T-shirt while reading AdBusters and listening to Public Enemy on an iPod.” (page 464-5) - Previous edition of the textbook it wasn’t Public Enemy, it was: Rage Against the Machine - The meaning of this sentence: Public Enemy, they are known for “Fight the Power”, this song, they are known for their criticism of the media, talking issues and social problems facing African-American’s in the US - Rage Against the Machine: they’re known fro politically subversive and radical lyrics, highly against government, domestic and foreign policy, they think it’s great for social activism. - Expressing their dissatisfaction with the status quo The Most Famous Photograph in the World - Have you seen this picture? Che Guevera - Story: o Many individuals have seen it but don’t know the story o he was executed in 1967 at the age of 39 by Bolivian forces, it was an execution supported and taken by the CIA o it was for his political and social activism, true Marxist, social revolution o medical student, travelled through Latin-America o The Motorcycle Diaries is about him o He witnessed profound poverty, this got him away from being a doctor and become an activism o Political revolt, went to Cuba and was with Fidel Castro, and over threw the previous Dictator that had been backed up byt the US o And he created the Socialist Cuba that we know today o Then he went everywhere, important historical figure, the significance of Che lies in what he represents o This image is being popularized on T-Shirts and Posters o His image is apart of popular culture, the fact that his image has been used to sell products (t-shirts, posters) is the opposite of what he stood for o Ironically now his image is used to sell products o Themes: in the face of heavy criticism, big companies have to respond, what they have done is solicit the help of market and advertising experts, to challenge any kind of political process o They use these images to sell more products, using this image or other anti-establishment images is a smart way to stop awareness raising about becoming politically radical o Smart companies have found ways to make profit about this - Take a glance at Global North and Global South Majority World - majority of the worlds population who are poor and don’t have acces to basic things Minority World - we generally have access to all of these things, food, housing, health care, etc. - sociologists use this to point out that not all Canadian’s have access to these things, they have less access to these basic requirements - the privilege minority of wealthy people living in poor countries - they live in the poor countries, but they have money so have access to health care and many things Fourth World - fact that there is a large number of people within the world that are so poor, they are not apart of the Global Economic system - they are deemed to be “irrelevant” for the functioning of globalization - they are like this because they don’t have money to be consumers, too poor Digital Divide, Table 19.1 - social groups are differently impacted by socialization - we have internet, cell phones, etc. - most of the worlds population does not have access to these things - this represents the digital divide, who has access to the internet - in contrast, 74% of North American’s have access to the internet Globalization and Food - Local food movement (locavore): low carbon diet, 100 mile diet, locally grown food diet - Local purchasing movement (local economy movement) - Hamburger: symbol of globalization, caputres the symbol of commodity change, by a burger here but with stuff from al over the world (beef, ketchup and all over the place) - If it’s a McDonald’s hamburger, it is an example of American cultural imperialism - The travel time of the hamburger: food kilometres, this is a measure of the distance of production to consumption  foot print, amount of fossil fuels to not only produce but to package and to transport food  environmentalists say the travel time of hamburgers will be a lot, we should eat locally grown food  referred to “low carbon diet, 100 mile diet, locally grown food diet), they are called locavores - In 2007, two Canadian’s wrote this book: The 100 Mile Diet, based on their own personal experiment: they ate only locally grown food for 1 year, do you think they were able to find locally grown food in their locally grovery store? o They could not find food in their local grocery store, so they went to farmers markets and local farms o This coincided with the locavore movement o This social movement is about efforts to build food economies that are locally based and based on economic and environmental sustainability o And it is apart of another social movement, local economy movement o Where people try to barter goods and services that are local o These are examples of bottom up globalization What did we learn about globalization and food? a) The Hamburger symbolizes globalization, global commodity chains, and American cultural imperialism b) Food kilometres are a measure of the distance from production to consumption c) Smith and MacKinnon were not able to find locally grown food at their neighbourhood grocery story d) The locavore or local food movement is connected to the local purchasing or local economy movement e) All of the above 03/04/2013 Sociology and the Environment Chapter 26 – SIQ - ‘Climate Change: Analysis and Prospects” (Intergovernmental Panel on climate Change) - Climate change and its impact - Policy measures - Barriers to implantation - Q: Which groups might be more adversely impacted by climate change? How do sociologists look at climate change? - One of the way is that we try to understand how it adversely consequences certain groups of people - Q: Which groups might be more adversely impacted by climate change? o Agriculture  most directly impacted o Poor people  around world, especially in global south  If we put this two things together – agricultural workers and poor people we know that a greater proportion of the world’s agriculture workers are female and a greater proportion of the world’s poor people are female  Therefore climate change disproportionately impacts females  Women are more vulnerable than men to climate change, natural disasters o One of the reasons to this is due to our socially constructed roles  Ex. Hurricane Katrina  more women died. Why? o Women not being taught how to swim o Sari’s made it difficult to swim o Lack of access to vehicles to escape quickly o Responsibility for caregiving (elderly, children, and disabled) which prevented women to escape quickly  2007, Cyclone Sidr, that hit Bangladesh killed mainly women  Women lived in remote areas  meaning they were shut out from the public  They didn’t hear about the warning at all or they did but was too late to escape  They didn’t go to the emergency shelters that were built, why? o Because these shelters were constructed with only one public toilet and the public morals of Bangladesh are that women are not to use public toilets which prevented a lot of women going to or staying at these shelters Sociology and the Environment 1. Attitudes and Behaviours - Broadly Base Hypothesis  this says that the concern for the environment is going to increase and eventually spread to all social groups - Measuring Attitudes o Q: Would you be willing to vote for legislation protecting the environment if it meant that thousands of Canadians would lose their jobs during the recession? o Q: Would you be willing to vote for legislation protecting the environment if it meant that companies would relocate out of Canada and we would lose jobs and tax revenue? o Economic contingency hypothesis  says yes we’re going to see a broadening base for the environment but it’s going to depend on economic.  When economic conditions are bad (like during the global recession) people are going to be more focused on the economy - Attitudes o Stable attitudes from 1970s to 1990s  Sociologists are also really interested in whether or not people who view themselves to be environmentalists are environmentalists across all issues o Q: Do people tend to be environmentalists across all issues? o Answer: No, concerns tend to be very subject-specific  Ex. People who are concerned about fishing may not be concerned about other issues  Subjects also tend to be very much tied to where a person is socially located o Example: debate about power plant in Oakville, Ontario - Questions o Q: Does concern about the environment vary by sociodemographic variables? (Yes or No?)  YES  We know that certain groups of people are more likely to be concerned about the environment o Which group (s) are more likely to express concern about the environment? a. More highly educated individuals b. Young people c. Politically liberal individuals d. Urban residents e. All of the above * - Questions o Do you:  Recycle?  Compost?  Attended protests?  Belong to an environmental advocacy group?  Fundraise or donate money to an environmental cause?  Have you written a litter to government or industry?  Is there a difference between your attitudes and your actual practices? 2. The Environmental Movement o Early 1900s o Formerly upper to middle classes o New middle class (professions) - David Suzuki and Al Gore both very related to the environmental movement - Why don’t people get involved? a. They’re too busy with work and family b. They believe authority figures who tell them that they’re not at risk c. Pride associated with home ownership d. All of the above * 3. The Political Economy of the Environment - Political and economic forces impact policies - Sustainable Development o United Nations definition: development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs (p.407) - Unsustainable Impoverishment o Impoverished populations in Global South o Engaging in environmentally damaging practices that are necessary for immediate subsistence 4. Environmental Risk - Organizational basis of risk o Idea of this is that if we look at the major environmental catastrophes we often find the root cause is organizational or structural in nature o These disasters aren’t typically about one person making a mistake, they’re usually about entire systems breaking down  Normal Accidents are what they use to explain this break down o Government also fail to act to protect citizens  Ex. Hurricane Katrina, Exxon Valdese Oil Spill, Bhopal Disaster, Chernobyl Nuclear Explosion  These disasters aren’t about one person making a mistake but about entire systems breaking down o Normal Accidents  “rather than being anomalies, such technological accidents are the normal consequence of profit-driven high-risk systems” (p.402)  What do you think? Are normal accidents to be expected and accepted?  Ex. Walkerton  They faced contamination of their water supply with E.coli  People were getting sick/showing symptoms of E.coli, almost 7 people died but they kept saying the water was safe to drink  A lot of people would have survived and wouldn’t have gotten sick if they had been honest about the water  2500 became ill  Mike Harris (guy in charge at the time) did what most Politian’s do and that is blame the previous government o He announced public inquiry and what they found was fault with Mike Harris due to his cutbacks towards water safety - Community perceptions of risk - Social distribution of risk o Marginal groups face disproportionate environmental hazards BECAUSE of their marginal status (because they lack the resources)  Ex. Aboriginals  What are the hazards?  They’re more likely to live near hazardous areas like toxic dumps, factories that pollute, power plants etc.  Some residents of peripheral communities (areas that are geographically remote) also face greater risks  Ex. Mercury Poisoning of the Ojibwa o Reed plant in Dryden Ontario dumped tones of mercury in the water. Consequence: Minimata disease o “Risk decisions are not based entirely on ‘objective’ technical and scientific criteria but are influenced by sociological factors related to inequality and power. This represents an important addition to public policy debates on the dynamics of risk, which have tended to treat risk allocation as something that takes place outside the normal working of society” (p.404) o Environmental racism o Environmental classism 05/04/2013 MC QUESTION: Identify the CORRECT answer a. Sociologists studying risk usually emphasize the organization basis of risk, the community perception of risk, and the social distribution of risk b. Normal accidents refer to the inevitable failures of high-risk technologies, such as nuclear power facilities c. The modern environmental movement is largely a creation of the poor and working classes as they are most affected by environmental pollution d. Environmental hazards impact all social groups equally e. A and B only * MC QUESTION: What do we know about trends over time in attitudes towards the environment? a. Data through the 1970s and 1990s shows a stable level of concern for the environment * b. Data through the 1970s and 1990s shows an increasing concern for the environment c. Data through the 1970s and 1990s shows a decline in concern for the environment d. Data through the 1970s and 1990s show a decline in concern in the environment, but from 1990-2010 we have seen a sharp increase in concern for the environment e. None of the above MC QUESTION: Identify the CORRECT answer a. Concern about the environment varies by sociodemographic characteristics * b. Concern about the environment does NOT vary by sociodemographic characteristics c. Less highly educated individuals and older individuals are more likely to express concern about the environment d. A and C only e. B and C only - Younger, more highly educated individuals are more likely to express concern about the environment MC QUESTION: According to Usitalo’s research, support for measures to help the environment a. Declined when they required any change of personal habits* b. Were increased with personal experience from environmental problems c. Depends on their practicality d. Increased if people were paid to change their opinions e. Increased among those who spent time in nature MC QUESTION: All of the following are elements of what Cotgrove labels the ‘dominant paradigm’ in relation to the environment, except one. Which is the exception? a. Confidence in science and technology b. Preference for large-scale, centralized society c. Belief in law and order d. Material-wealth creation e. The preservation of nature * Population and Urbanization – March 15 and March 20 , 2013 th Two announcements - course evaluation surveys, one from the university and it’s online - and one from sociology course, and it’s comprehensive, opportunity to give her feedback to change and improve the classes - because it’s long and takes time to complete, she will give 2 marks out of final 100 marks of the course to complete it - avenue up for a couple weeks or two Population and Urbanization - Applying the 4 paradigms to population and urbanization - Structural Functionalism - Durkheim: urban environments = anomie (collapse of social norms) - Cities were characterized by an absence of social solidarity Functionalism - functionalists see society as made up as a bunch of parts that are all interrelated and interdependent on one another for the well being of society - Durkheim: he lived in the early faces of industrialiations, and cities were growing and people were moving
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