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PSYCH 1XX3 Exam Notes.docx

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McMaster University
Joe Kim

PSYCH 1XX3 EXAM FALLWINTER 2012 Multiple Levels of Analysis Development geneenvironment interactions across an individuals lifespan Evolution geneenvironment interactions across the evolutionary history of a speciesNeuroscience the study of the nervous systemDevelopmentDevelopment changes and continuities that occur within the individual between conception and death Maturation the biologicallytimed unfolding of changes within the individual according to their genes Learning permanent change in our thoughts behaviours and feelings as a result of our experiencesCan become automatic through practice Interactionist perspective maturation and learning interact during developmentMaturation affects learning essential systems must be in place before learning proceedsLearning affects maturation without minimal input from environment maturation will be absent or delayed eg isolating child in a dark room will stunt development of visionMeasuring Abilities in Infants1 Habituation A decrease in the responsiveness heart rate breathing physiological to a stimulus following repeated presentation of the stimulusDishabituation an increase in the responsiveness to a stimulus that is different from the habituated stimulusDetermines if an infant can detect the difference between two stimuli as infants are most interested in novel stimuli2Eventrelated potentials a measure of the brain electrical activity evoked by the presentation of stimuliCap with electrodes placed in scalp which detect changes in electric activity across neurons in the brainChanges in occipital lobe for visual stimuliChanges in temporal lobe for auditory stimuli3 Highamplitude sucking method infants control sucking behaviour that is measured by a special pacifierMeasure baseline sucking rate in absence of stimuliSucking at a faster ratecontrols the continual presence of the stimulus Will keep sucking if they enjoy it to sustain its presence 4 Preference methodInfant is put in a looking chamber to simultaneously look at two different stimuli Researcher measures the direction where the infant is lookingInfants prefer big patterns with black and white contrast CompetencePerformance Distinction an individual may fail a task not because they lack those cognitive abilities but because they are unable to demonstrate those abilitiesFailure to perform a task can indicate that the infant doesnt have the ability to or doesnt have the ability to show that they can complete the taskPSYCH 1XX3 EXAM FALLWINTER 2012 Developmental Research Designs Developmental psychologists are interested on tracking the target of study as a person ages repeated measures over time 1 Longitudinal Design same individuals are studied repeatedly over some subset of their lifespanUsed to find patterns that are common to all peopleDisadvantages o Expensive o Timeconsuming o Selective attrition loss of participants in a study such that the sample ends up being nonresponsive of the population as a whole o Practice effects changes in participants responses due to repeated testing2 CrossSectional Design individuals from different age groups are studied at the same point in timeAdvantageso Can examine differences in performance between age groups without tracking the same group over time o Less expensive o Less timeconsumingDisadvantageso Cannot distinguish age effects from generational effects differences in experience due to generation changeso Cannot assess developmental change not tracking how an individual changes but just differences between group dataHereditary Transmission Sperm penetrates ovum forming a zygote which contains 46 chromosomesZygote rapidly divides into an embryoAny couple could produce 64 trillion genetically distinct offspringMonozygotic twins come from same sperm and ovum that formed one zygote which split into two separate zygotesDizygotic twins not more similar than regular siblings because they come from two sperm and two ova starting off as two different zygotes share 50 of genesFather determines the sex of the child can either pass on X or Y chromosomeGenetic Expression1 Simple dominantrecessive inheritanceHomozygous two alleles have the same affect on a phenotypeHeterozygous two alleles have a different affect on a phenotypePedigree Chart2 Polygenetic inheritance when multiple genes are involved in the expression of a trait 3 Codominance two dominant alleles are both fully and equally expressed to produce a phenotype that is a compromise between the two genes eg blood type flower colour 4 Sexlinked inheritance genes expressed on the X chromosome females are often carriers but rarely express the disorder PSYCH 1XX3 EXAM FALLWINTER 2012The Interactionist PerspectiveThe Environment Influences the Expression of Your GenesCanalization Principle genotype restricts the phenotype to a small number of possible developmental outcomes RangeofReaction Principle an individual genotype establishes a range of possible responses to different kinds of life experiencesGeneenvironment interactionsEg height final height is determined by environmental factors including sleep nutrition and exercise However the potential range of your height regardless of environmental conditions is determined by your genesYour Genes Influence the Type of Environment That You Seek OutPassive GenotypeEnvironmental Correlation the environment that your parents choose to raise you in was influence by their own genes so this environment will likely complement your genesInfluence declines throughout lifespan Evocative GenotypeEnvironmental Correlations the traits that we have inherited affect how others react to and behave toward us as natural temperament influences how others behave toward youInfluence remains same throughout lifespan Active GenotypeEnvironment Correlations your genotype influences the kinds of environments that you seekInfluence increases throughout lifespanTwin StudiesMonozygotic twins raised apart have a higher correlation for intelligence than dizygotic twins raised togetherGenetic factors may play larger role than environmental factors for intelligence Critical PeriodsCritical Period a window of opportunity within an individual development in which a particular environmental stimulation is necessary in order to see permanent changes in specific abilities after this period the same stimulation will not have the same benefitEg visual deprivation in kittens visually deprived during the first four to six weeks of life causes permanent damage to visual pathway while visual deprivation after four weeks of age causes no damage to visual pathwayEg rats raised in enriched environment with toys and social stimulation have more connections between neurons than rats raised in deprived environmentLeap in Thinking leads to overstimulation before birth implications for adoption affects public policy on how and when we should intervene in a childs developmentProblems with critical period evidence probably witnessing the effects of deprived environments rather than enriched environments perhaps minimal amount of input is necessary for normal development instead of overstimulation
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