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Sandra Colavecchia

SEPTEMBER 10 , 2013 THE “SOCIOLOGICAL IMAGINATION”  Sociological imagination: individual experiences connected to a social context  Sociology: linking individual situation to broader social context, public, global  Ex: divorce is caused by:: stigma surrounded divorce has declined over time, sex has been commoditized, unshared labor forces within household, conflict and relationship issues, external forces that no longer exist/ forcing couple to stay in marriage, unfaithful/abusive, financial issues (mostly individual explanations)  Some were sociological explanations that can account for divorce over time  Individual factors would be why particular couple would get divorced where as sociological would be why we see increase in divorce rates over decade  Reasons for increase in divorce:  People living longer: increased life expectancy = more time being married together  Legal changes: reform on divorce legislation, no fault divorce, makes getting divorce easier from legal point of view  Declining stigma: no longer a barrier from getting divorce  Increasing secularism: we are less religious = fewer religious constraints  Women’s labor force participation: women have financial means to live independently and seek divorce  Higher expectations: what we want from out partners  Shifting ideas about gender and unequal sharing of housework  Inadequate supports for working parents which lead to marital conflict  Greater diversity in families and intimate relationships, including greater acceptance of remaining single, cohabiting, and advocacy and social change for gays and lesbians  Sociological imagination allows people to understand the relationship between public or social issues and private troubles  If we apply sociological imagination to the problem of divorce, we can link divorce rates to changes in divorce legislation and social attitudes towards divorce (FOCUS ON SOCIETAL LEVEL)  Beckers first grad seminar on writing, he asked students to describe their practical writing habits, he found: students approach writing process with anxiety and apprehension EMILE DURKHEIM  The more strongly anchored or attached a person is to society (through their social relationships, such as marriage), (HIGH SOLIDARITY) the less likely they are to commit suicide  He did a study on suicide to find why rates of suicide varied among groups  Varied by religion (protestant vs. Judaism and Catholicism = doesn’t promote as much inclusion and interaction), gender, marital status  Solidarity: frequency of interaction/ level of shared beliefs  Low/way too high solidarity: SUICIDE WILL INCREASE  HOW CAN WE USE HIS THEORY TO EXPLAIN WHY MEN OR WOMEN WILL SUICIDE MORE?  Women are anchored to society through their caregiving roles, more emotionally connections  Statement that reflects Durkheim’s views on suicide: societies characterized by low social solidarity will have high rates of suicide and suicide is connected to social relationships SEPTEMBER 13 , 2013 SOCIOLOGICAL THEORIES  Order theories: support status-quo  Change theories: social change/social revolution  Macro-sociology: society shapes us/aggregate level  Micro-sociology: we make society/ each one of us in our everyday interactions have an input in society  SOC1A06: macro level: operating at mac, micro level: its going to enfold as we attend lectures and decide what its going to be STRUCTURAL FUNCTIONALISM (ORDER, MACRO)  Stability, equilibrium  Everything in society serves a function  Society is characterized by consensus, agreement  We’re all agreeing on what’s important, view of society that focuses on social order and stability  Analogy to human body  Interrelated parts if one part breaks down impacts other parts negatively  Functionality of parts (institutions such as social =family, educational = McMaster, economic = international monetary fund)  All parts of society are working smoothly  Social inequality: some of us have lots of money, some are poor = is functional for society because without we couldn’t motivate people to undertake training necessary to fill more important jobs  Davis and Moore: some jobs are more important for society than other jobs, some people are doing more important work therefore need more money  CRITISISM: emphasizes social order and neglects inequality and conflict, being criticized for reinforcing status quo CONFLICT THEORY (CHANGE THEORY, MACRO)  Rooted in the work of Karl Max  Basic feature of society is social class inequality: different social classes  Under capitalism, divisions between working class  Basic division between people working for their wages and ruling/elite class  Society is characterized by basic conflict between social classes  KM argued that members of working class need to develop class consciousness: understanding that everyone else working with you for minimum wage, share same interest, different than people who own business and pay you  If working class can develop class consciousness and not have divisions and see themselves as holistic unit, they can use this to protest and overthrow capitalism  Predicts capitalism will be replaced by socialism  Our economic conditions of life: how much money we have, material conditions of life, shape how we think, ideas that we hold  Fish analogy: small fish: no justice in world, working/poor class, problematic material conditions of life, medium fish: some justice in world, middle class, big fish: the world is just, elite class  CRITICISM: focuses on one kind of inequality, class based inequality, overlooks other kinds of inequalities people experience such as gender, racial, ethnic, sexual orientation, age, religion, disability SYMBOLIC INTERACTIONISM (CHANGE, MICRO)  Don’t view society as external social structure that is imposed on us, instead viewed as ongoing creation, created by our micro level interactions such as verbal communication, non-verbal, symbolic communication  INTERESTED IN COMMUNICATION  Focus on each persons own subjectivity, personal view of interaction  Seek to understand subjectivity and how it shapes social interactions which further create society  No such external thing as family, but what members of family decide and create sense of family, like on thanksgiving, people themselves constitute what and who is family  CRITICISM: places too much emphasis on micro level interactions and neglects how larger social structures shape our interactions FEMINIST THEORIES (CHANGE, MICRO)  Examine gender based inequalities  Focus on women and understanding their social reality  Unpaid labor for women  CRITICISM: patriarchy: male domination over women, problematic as not all men dominate all women who are considered as passive victims  Focuses on gender based inequalities and neglects others  Criticisms of sociological theory include: feminist perspectives that rely on concept of patriarchy fail to recognize that not all men dominate all women  OLYMPICS:  Structural functional: games are functional for society, help to foster world unity, solidarity, national pride, help to advance sport in host country and elsewhere, advance funding for amateur support, for host country: help develop infrastructure that will benefit the host city long after games have ended, tourism is beneficial  Conflict Theory: athletic success is about economic resources rather than sheer talent, money is needed for training facilities  Symbolic Interactionism: examine variation of symbols and how they are understood, flags, mascot, study how athletes prepare themselves physically and mentally before competition, interested in subjectivities of athletes in their brains before they race, superstitious behavior helps them win  Feminist Theory: look at gender based inequalities in funding/media coverage between women and men  Sociological paradigm to Olympics that is incorrect: structural functionalist would interpret role of superstitious behavior practiced by others  FUNERALS:  Structural Functionalism: would examine function, purpose of funerals, how they serve important unction of providing public social support to grieving individuals, in creating public space f support increases social solidarity, community is created, provide closure for grieving individuals, highlight role of religious service, religion is functional for society, a book of rules establishes order, funerals are functional for helping people who have lost someone, for someone who doesn’t have family: civil servant and poet come together for those dying alone, act of having a formal funeral serves function of wider society SEPTEMBER 17 , 2013*  Conflict Theory: Religion is means of destroying working class, carl Marx: religion is the opiate of the masses, acts to pacify the working class, prevents them form developing a class consciousness, you are like other working class people and u share their interests, prevents them from organizing against elite, redirects attention away from materials and more towards spiritual side  Symbolic Interactionism: how people give and receive support, how people show their grief, consider role of symbols and material objects, religious symbols in relation to funeral service, flowers, boxes of Kleenex tissues all over the place  Feminist Theory: focus is gender, gender differences in how people grieve, display of emotion, males vs. females how they provide support, look at gender socialization: how we are socialized to be male or female in our society, females are socialized to be emotional, expressive, relational, men tend to be socialized to be emotional stoic, reserved Tracy Chapman: revolution, poor people are going rise up and take what is theirs, conflict theory, sings about welfare and salvation lines, talks specifically about the poor people, Marx argued capitalists benefit from having high unemployment, as it keeps labor costs low, as everyone is scared of being replaced, Marx’s predictions of working class come true through what Tracy sings Aretha Franklin: my country tis of thee, structural functionalism, she is creating a sense of social solidarity, creates sense of patriotism, promotes social consensus, everyone agrees on love of country, helps to reinforce social order, helps maintain equilibrium James Blunt: cry, symbolic interactionism, symbols of life, death, breath, all about emotion, communication, interaction, “do you see the truth through all of their lies?” Verbal cues form lie teller, and respondents both interest symbolic interactionists, interested in micro level interactions/negotiation’s, fluid, actively created for each one of us, “do you see the world through troubled eyes”, demonstrates subjectivity, how you view the world, sees world through particular lens, “lie here on the floor and cry here on my shoulder”, is interested in verbal interactions, giving support, “I am a friend”, how do people construct friendship and our different understandings and experiences of friendship, here he defines friendship, crying on shoulder, how is this an ongoing fluid orientation, gender differences in definition of friendship, “I’ve seen birth, I’ve seen death, live to see a lovers final breath”, how meanings are constructed through symbols Gary Jules: mad world, non-verbal communication, actively creating bodies, creating structure/society, their bodies are coming together visually, symbolic interaction, interested in meaning of physical posture, conveyed by movement of bodies, “ worn out faces, worn out places”, interested in how people express themselves, “tears filling up glasses”, interested in how emotion is conveyed, “ no expression, no expression”, interested in facial expressions, blank face says you’re tired, bored, “look right through me, look right through me”, person you’re interacting with can see right through you or you’re not being heard or understood, very fascinated by micro level interactions Beyoncé: if I were a boy, feminist theory, differences in interactions b/w males and females, gender roles in society, double standards, different perspectives how both respond to each others behavior, role reversals suggests double standards, suggests men can be more carefree, women most likely to be confronted, women cannot be as carefree as their appearance, appropriate sexual behavior, “id put myself first”, femininity = nurturing, women should put other members first SEPTEMBER 20 , 2013* Research methods  Experiments  Surveys: self administered questionnaires, interviews  Observatory studies: participant observation, ethnography  Secondary data analysis: documentary analysis, historical sociology, use of official statistics Biker gangs: participant observation, how couples manage their family finances: interviews followed by self-administered questionnaire, impact of television violence on aggression: experiment, sexual history of an individual: survey, household structure in Canada through the 20 century: secondary data analysis (census data) Quantitative vs. Qualitative research  Quantitative: availability of numerical data  Social phenomena captured nicely by stats  Qualitative: focus on process (how, why); giving voice to participants  Which type of research is superior  Example: children of divorced parents Cross-sectional vs. longitudinal  Cross-sectional: data taken at one point in time  Longitudinal: study done at more than one point in time  Example: study of adolescent mothers Limitations of experiments  Artificial environments  Validity  Hawthorne effect  Not applicable to all things that sociologists want to study  Replicating a positivist approach to research (not conductive to rapport building: subject rather than participant) Limitations of surveys  Designing food questions is difficult (mutually exclusive, exhaustive categories)  Dishonesty  Forgetfulness (memory fade and telescoping)  Requires literacy  Data is limited to what is on paper  Low response rates TH SEPTEMBER 24 , 2013*  Confidentiality/Anonymity  Confidentiality: identity not revealed to public  The researcher IS ABLE to identify a given person's responses with that person  Anonymity: identity not revealed to public  The researcher IS NOT ABLE to identify a given person's responses with that person  Critical for the ideal behavior  Consent Letter  Purpose of the study  Procedures involved in the research  Potential harms  Potential benefits (honorariums)  How will you provide confidentiality  Participation and withdrawal  Questions about the study  Research Ethics  Philip Zimbardo (Ch. 3 SIQ)  Stanley Milgram  Laud Humphreys  Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment  Stanley Milgram (1961)  Psychological experiment  Emotional harm, deception  Nazi war crimes, Adolf Eichmann  Authority trumps morality  Laud Humphreys (1970)  Sociological participant observation study  Tearoom trade, where gay men met secretly and sexually interacted with each other  Deception, potential for great harm  Found most of them were regular men, had children, regular class men  Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment  1932-72 US government  Deception  Vulnerable social group  Harm and death SEPTEMBER 27 , 2013 : ESSAY HELP 1) Becker suggests that students: TEND TO WRITE IN A VERBOSE WAY, USING EXCESSIVE WORDS, VAGUE LANGUAGE, AND ADVANCED VOCABULARY 2) Becker attributes poor and unclear writing among graduate students to: THE PROCESS OF PROFESSIONALIZATION WHEREBY POOR WRITING IS MODELLED TO THEM 3) In chapter 2 Rosanna Hertz suggests that complicated hard to read academic writing: IS INTENTIONAL. IT IS MEANT TO MAINTAIN DISTANCE BETWEEN ACADEMICS AND NON-ACADEMICS 4)Becker suggests that many students: believe that there is only ONE RIGHT WAY to write each paper, that academics get their writing right the first time, view writing a paper as a test and view making revisions as failure, don’t realize that professional writers do a lot of re-writing and have editors help them out OCTOBER 1 , 2013 CULTURE  Culture: sociologists define culture broadly as all the socially transmitted ideas, practices, and material objects that people create to deal with real life problems  Objects and ideas  Superstitious beliefs: culture in action , how we deal with real life anxiety provoking situations, some athletes like Gretzky have very ritualized behaviors to help them with competition, as a means of living with life’s stresses  Albas and albas, interviewed university students if they performed any superstitious behavior to ace an exam  Cultural universals: exist in all cultures, ex. Bodily adornment, sports, gift giving, social institutions (family), dancing,  Cultural surprises: surprising rituals and practices of another culture  Best way to understand culture is not to be exactly immersed in it but not too far removed so visiting another country or talking to someone is good vantage point  Gelato example: parents even big kids at 12 am  Point of contrast to Canadian society. Issue of how we immerse of fail to do so in our everyday lives, anecdotal impressions Italian kids seem to be more immersed in nightlife  Public vs. private self: seem to be fewer boundaries among Italian parents  Canadians tend to differentiate our public self  Italian parents have greater flexibility as opposed to Canadians who are more strictly structured  Social norms around parenting: vary cross-culturally  Ethnocentrism: one’s own practices/beliefs are superior; tendency t o judge other cultures exclusively by the standards of our own  Cultural Relativism: all cultural practices have equal value, opposite of ethnocentrism  IDEAL VS REAL CULTURE: ideal is set of beliefs we say we agree to and real culture involves our actual practices  A gap exists between what we say we believe in and what we actually do (ideology and action)  Environmentalism: our behaviors fall short of our beliefs, people recycle but not everyone composts  Consumption of alcohol: people underestimated their alcohol consumption because it is culturally undesirable  CONTEMPORARY CULTURE  Globalization:  Political interconnectedness: increased interconnectivity between nations as seen by UN  Economic interconnectedness ex. EU  Travel and Migration: more people are migrating, not permanently leaving their country of origin, more people moving back and forth to two countries and remaining strong ties to both = transnationalism  Communication: advances in technology  Work/Occupations: McDonaldization of society = example of rationalization = concept developed by Max Weber, one way we can look at the modern world and bureaucracy that every process within it is standardized and uniformed, no creativity  McDonalds empire has features that are true of all McDonalds you step foot in but are also applying to other institutions, their business model is being applied everywhere in our prisons, hospitals, schools  4 FEATURES ARE: efficiency, calculability: quantity vs. quality, predictability: consistent food and service, control: workers, customers as well: constrained by what is available to you, example you get in line, pay for it, take it to table, clean up for yourself, uncomfortable seats to limit time that you’re there, customers doing labor that was once done by an employee, bank machines, self-pumps  Benefits: increased convenience, familiarity, uniform quality, lowered costs  Limitations: less variety, lower quality, negative impact on workers, people being replaced by technology, dehumanized society  Sometimes bureaucracies can sometimes be so irrational, as worker has to follow specific protocol, because you cant deviate from it, no exceptions  Diaspora: migration of a group of people who share national and ethnic identity even into their new country Postmodernism:  Reflects broad range of projects, theories, ideas, emergence of sociology in 1980s  Concept that has influenced academic discipline but extended beyond to include architecture, music  Caused by/response to changes in society that were brought about globalization, emergence of multi national organizations, collapse of communist state, emergence of political, social movements that challenged rights of people who usually had been discriminated against  Knowledge and truth is fluid and shaped and reshaped through discourse depending on whose version of the truth it is, example medical, academic, political  No singular theory or truth, knowledge is situation specific, also truth which is always contested and fluid  Truth reflects power relations as powerful people propose own version of truth  Rejection of single explanatory frameworks  Discourses we are imposed to impacts how we live our lives, how we see ourselves in relation to society  Challenges traditional theories: all these theories are problematic as they are premised on class conflict, social order for structural functionalism, micro-level interactions, symbolic interactionism, gender based inequalities feminism  No singular suggested framework  Reject idea of one objective truth, depends on who is holding the power  Mixing of elements from different times and places, post-modern music = music that breaks rules of past, challenges boundaries between sounds and music rules from past and present, lots of different styles, references to cultures, plural approach, not separated from society, considers technology and deeply implicated in production of music, explored fragmentation, contradiction, discontinuity, rejects formulaic music, presents multiple meanings, locates meaning in listens, more than in artist  Architecture: modern is minimalistic, simplistic, lack of ornamentation, consistent, less is more, focus on clean lines  Post modernism would be diversity, eclecticism, willingness to be experimental, experimentation, collision of styles, less is a bore, borrowing from the past and reinterpreting it, many different meanings and interpretations, aesthetics, ornamentation, beauty, consistency with geographical and social context  Religion and spirituality: Biby: religion a la carte, most Canadians have eclectic approach to religion, people are going to lots of different areas, Canadians might blend different aspects, mixing of elements from different times and places OCTOBER 4 , 2013  Second feature: decline in authority: political authority: we feel about political process: longitudinal research on Canadians suggests we have become increasingly distrustful and differential to others in positions of authority  We’re more willing to challenge, question, critique  Doctors: decline in deference, trust, generational differences  Younger generations more likely to challenge notions of truth, taking a critical stance against power  Third feature: decline in consensus/agreement about core values:  Fewer and fewer of us agree about what constitutes core values: family, voting, sex, less agreement  Shifts overtime in peoples value: less adherence on an individual basis to life time core values  Voting: greater probability grandparents generation to have loyalty to one particular party  Less consensus about core values Consumerism:  Defining ourselves by what we buy  Sociologists talk about sub cultures (smaller group within larger group which might hold distinct values and beliefs and engage in behaviors unique to that group) and counter cultures (kind of sub culture, opposes and rejects values of larger society)  Biker gangs: outlaw biker gang, opposed dominant values of society  Music: heavy metal and hip-hop provided critique of main street society, reflected rejection of dominant values in society, articulated dissent of society, critique of capitalism, status quo, inequalities, hip hop= racial  Changed overtime as both genres have felt absolute pressure of consumerism  Dissent of these artists has become commoditized, music is used to sell stuff  Juliet Schor: Born to Buy: overspent American: why we want what we don’t need  Commercialization of childhood: impact on children, unprecedented, sophisticated, powerful advertising  Kind of marketing and advertising exposed to kids is indifferent to those in previous generations  Objects they get tackled with are powerful and sophisticated, use of researchers, psychologists, sociologists  Cradle to grave, brand loyalty for life  Nagging research: different ways to  Captive audiences, habit formation, children’s well being impacted  Discussion of some company going into school and putting something in, fear that no safe places free of marketing for children  Obesity is impacted by advertising of junk food, adversely affecting emotional well being, psychologically  Pierre Bourdieu: o Link understanding of culture to social inequality o Provocative/controversial ideas o Cultural capital: knowledge of the world extending beyond academia that will allow person to get ahead, can be promoted and enhanced by parents ex. Educational qualifications, fine culture, cultural and linguistic strengths o Social capital: having family, networks and connections that help people get ahead in life, upper Canada college example, social network of friends of children o Middle class kids more likely to receive these forms of capital, economic capital will be converted to social or cultural capital to benefit your kid o Economic capital: having money or property o Explains intergenerational reproduction of social class: if parents are poor, you’re going to end up poor, between generations SOCIALIZATION  Nature versus nurture: to what extend do our genes determine who we are as opposed to socialization  Socialization: social process whereby people undergo development by interacting with the people around them  We need social interaction for: brain, intellectual, social, and physical development (fine and gross motor development)  Sociology does not refute importance of biology  Historical and contemporary studies of feral and neglected children  Children who have been deprived of interaction, abused, neglected, isolated, have permanently arrested development, don’t develop all competencies = Genie Wiley: spent 13 years of life in one room strapped to toilet, never developed language skills despite massive amounts of intervention  Studies of identical twins who have been raised apart: one way to disentangle impact of genes and biology and social experiences  Birth to birth, self-concept develops in relation to others, skill set (physical, mental, emotional, social skills), agents of socialization such as family, school, peers, media impacts us no matter where we are  Presence/absence of religion  Camp has huge impact on kids lives  Includes explicit learning vs. subtle/nuanced learning  Cross cultural variation  You should wave if someone gives you lane, not in drivers book but informal learning  Escalator etiquette OCTOBER 8 , 2013 Socialization  Primary  Childhood: family is most important agent of socialization  Media and television are very important agents as well  Secondary  Occurs after childhood, throughout adulthood  Gender  Socially constructed, begins from birth, process where we learn how to be male or female in society  Learning how to be masculine or feminine  Socially constructed gender roles are more significant than biological roles  Explicit (baby girl told she cant behave like a boy) or nuanced (different bathroom etiquette for men and women)  Informs our ideas and behavior and opinions  Men historically expected to be emotionally stoic ‘  Welsh and Baker: Sexual Harassment in Canadian Workplace: early gender socialization is significant in terms of later life experiences, it teaches men to be dominant and powerful; teaches men to view women as sexual object, and teaches women to accept unwanted sexual attention and be non-confrontational when it happens  Prevents women from accurately labeling this behavior as sexual harassment and blame themselves when it happens  Argue that gender socialization is not only useful way to understand work place sexual harassment, another big factor is workplace culture + existence of support services for victims, education and support can mediate harassment so women can start to identify these experiences as what they truly are  Children’s books: females underrepresented and portrayed in a stereotypical way  Weitzman et al.: examined prestigious books were all but invisible in the books they examined  1 female: 95 male animals  Girls portrayed din dull like ornamental passive roles, men were active and adventurous, women trying to please someone or the other, men engaging in tasks requiring self confidence and independence  Recent studies showed while female appear in same number as male books but portrayal of females is still the same and problematic  Authors trying to challenge stereotypes through fairytale fracturing: changing genders of known fairytales to try to counteract stereotypes or offering new endings that suggest wider range of possibilities  I.e. paper bag princess: female character goes on adventure to save her prince, in the end prince shows very little appreciation and criticizes her for being disheveled, she replies you are a “bum”  Anticipatory: McMaster university: we’re being socialized into our future social roles  Sociologists studying transition to adult take quantifiable markers into adulthood such as age of schooling, childbearing age, noticed its taking our generation longer to reach adulthood  Increasing credentials instigates lengthening of education = responsible for delays seen through markers => youth unemployment  Life course sequencing has changed, our parents’ life trajectory was continuous, school, work, marriage, child, where as for us, that wont be the case  We will experience discontinuous sequencing, back and forth no real structure  Charles Cooley: early 19002, looking-glass self, interested in how people develop a self concept, our self concept is intricately tied to how we think other people view us  Reactions of others that help us see ourselves, therefore we cant learn about ourselves in isolation from other people  Our interpretation of how others react to us is most important How do we apply this concept of looking glass self to experience being overweight or having acne? o Watch what they eat in public o Modification of behavior in accordance with peoples reactions o Wear makeup to cover acne, we imagine others are evaluating us o Person is cognizant of that o Others think they don’t have self-control, person lacks judgment when it comes to living active healthy lifestyle, lazy not a go getter o Acne associated with poor lifestyle, habits, diet  George Herbert Mead, informed symbolic interactionism, writing in early 1900s  Taking role of the other: ability to interpret or understand another persons perspective  Involves 3 stages:  Imitative Stage: very young kids, 2 and under who don’t know how to take role of the other  Play Stage: children are learning to play roles of other people, learning to imagine how others are responding to them not just imitating, children unable to understand their own position in relation to larger social group i.e. soccer in team setting  Game Stage: person has progressed to understand themselves in relation to other people, see where they are, their actions are determined by actions of others  Generalized other: overtime, as part of our socialization, we understand how other people in general might respond or react to us, including people we don’t even know  We have learned values of society and internalized these values and beliefs  i.e. doing something really embarrassing in a group of strangers, we’d feel embarrassed because we’ve internalized values and beliefs which tell us we should be embarrassed  Anticipatory socialization involves taking on the behaviors of social roles you have not yet accomplished OCTOBER 11 , 2013  Despite variation over time, there is a fair degree of consensus surrounding what is more appropriate for a man or a woman  Deborah Tannen: participant observation of workplaces and why a glass ceiling exists for women  Not because women were overtly discriminated against, important gender differences in how men and women were interacting within workplace  These differences stem from gender socialization  Females are socialized to focus on interpersonal relationships, be nurturing, modest in accomplishments, men are socialized to be opposite, women are not very quick to take credit for success and give credit to entire working group  Women were saying the word we rather than I  Impression that men did better therefore hire more men  Who the male and female employees were having lunch with i.e. senior professionals, men more likely to lunch with bosses, disadvantageous for women in workplace  Women are socialized to interact with others in ways that are counterproductive  Peer influence: agent of socialization, peer influence is stronger through adolescence  Gender differences: women spend more time talking with friends as opposed to engaging in shared activities, self-disclosure important to women, females have less extensive but more intensive friendship networks  Women = face to face = verbal intimacy  Men = side by side = shared activities Recent research challenges these notions says greater similarities in men’s and women’s friendships than differences as earlier studies didn’t understand friendships well  Gender socialization key in explaining differences in how men and women express themselves and “do” intimacy  Both men and women rank talk as most important, shared activities second  Both men and women view friends as source of help and new ideas  Gender socialization teaches boys to “do intimacy” differently  Boundaries are important as homophobia prevents men from expression affection o Resocialization (voluntary i.e. AA/involuntary i.e. prison), happens in adulthood o Erving Goffman: involuntary resocialization taking place in “total institutions” like military, prison o Persons original sense of self is eroded and new identity is created after being subjected to pain, humiliation, routine, rituals, i.e. residential schools forced to attend by aboriginal children o Educational Institutions: o Formal knowledge taught in universities, teaching society’s values, preparation for future work roles, professional skills o Hidden Curriculum: schools teach soft skills, interpersonal skills, professional skills like meeting deadlines, pretending to be interested in a meeting o Produce good workers which enhances social solidarity (Structural Functionalism) o Create obedient workers and reproduce social inequality (Conflict Theory) o Reproduce gender inequalities (Feminist Theory) FAMILIES  Bridges of Madison County: affair between married woman and photographer  Decades later her grown children learn of her affair, as she leaves letters and journals explaining this  Profound unhappiness at giving up her rewarding teaching career to be home wife in farm, affair allowed her to open up more rewarding, wants to leave with him but stays as she has to sacrifice her happiness for family, fear of public shame for family  Grown daughter is really sad: because she stayed in a very unhappy marriage  Sociology provides insights into motivation behind intimate relationships  Sociological conclusions highlight different landscapes for different groups of people Defining Families  Definitions of family shape government social policy and inform the decisions we make about how to live our lives  Historically governments exclude some types of families which doesn’t allow them to get social assistance/ government benefits  i.e. Compassionate Care Program: provides Canadians with governments benefits to care for gravely ill family member: in 2004 only including father, mother, their respective partners, your wife/husband, your child or child of your partner of at least one year  Excludes grand parents, siblings, same-sex partners, in laws, uncles, aunts, unconventional family members; now the list has been revise  Osap: eligibility criteria is based on parental income: implicit assumption that parents will support, high incomes don’t count  Government making assumptions about how families operate, filial responsibility laws: adult children to provide financially for elderly parent in dire financial need, legal action can be taken by parents Social Policy  Policies that assume financial support  Policies can deter relationship formation: women may decide not to pursue relationship in fear of losing government benefits  Single-parent households (black families in west)= increase in these was created by government social policy, welfare policy weakened black families as they used to be fluid and multi-generational, made them two generational single households, prohibited them from living with possible providers  Defining marriage: government imposes relationships; inter-faith and inter- racial marriages were prohibited  Common law marriages: cohabitants: not recognized in government definitions, thus these partners were denied benefits  Cohabiting spouses may have to face prohibition periods for medical benefits  Relationship disillusion: cohabiting spouses don’t have same laws as legally married couples such as matrimonial property laws = equal division of financial assets after divorce  Cohabiting couples need some kind of legal protection, without this particularly vulnerable women following breakdown of their relationships  Same sex marriage: important for benefits + symbolically important for gays and lesbians  Polygamy: man with multiple wives; most notably in BC = Mormons  Shaper our personal definitions, change over time  Lucy: 97 raised in Canada: had sister only two options available in terms of life, get married or join a convent -> generational change Women on social assistance with children, assumption that if she has a boyfriend living with her -> he will provide her, which becomes problematic = Man in the House welfare eligibility rules OCTOBER 18 , 2013  Families are socially constructed and change over time and place  Inclusive definitions emphasizing social reproduction (caring work (physical like shoveling snow, mental like planning grocery list or emotional like worrying about them): we need definitions showing what families actually do Structural Functionalism: society and human body, inter-related parts with unique functions + needed to make equilibrium, family important for overall function of society (Talcott Parsons)  Heterosexual nuclear family; sexual division of labour (BEST FOR SOCIETY): men and women are doing different things, breadwinner vs. homemaker -> men and women are inter-dependent, what keeps marriage together  Husbands: instrumental role  Wives: expressive role  Families provide clear functions for members in society: reproduction, socialization, emotional support, economic cooperation and regulating sexual activity; scope of families is smaller This model justifies gender-based inequalities: shared interests not mentioning conflicts, decline of functionalism as feminist scholarship rises  Only reflects patriarchal ideology and reinforcing male privilege Conflict Theory  Impact of industrialization: families were no longer units of production (making everything you need to live i.e. agricultural/artisan shops), but units of consumption (using wages to buy stuff)  Middle to upper classes: women don’t need to work anymore -> juxtaposing home with workplace and suggesting that home is haven factories are horrible, home is a sanctuary and women are guardians of this “women’s place is in the home”, not applied to color, poor, working class women  Production shifter from small stuff into large, scale-sized factories causing families to rely on waged work and difference between public vs. private sphere  Societies economic mode of production shapes families: carl Marx  Frederick Engels: emergence of private property resulted in control over women’s fidelity  Monogamy: vital for nuclear family: woman only has sex with her husband  Men want to ensure that their property and health is receiving their wealth, thus by having strict control over women’s sexuality  Capitalists need families because they help grow workers,  Criticism: not enough attention to what happens within families, social relations that structure unpaid work in home, neglecting gender based inequalities only looking at class differences  Women’s unpaid labour at home supported capitalists  Meg Luxton: capitalism would collapse without women’s unpaid labour  Oakley: studied woman’s housework  DeVault: studied meals and feeding the family  Walzer: parenthood and new parents Key differences between feminists and structural functionalism  Families are seen as perfect and harmonious for sf  Feminists see families as conflicted, in equal, family violence  Feminists disagree with only one universal nuclear family, diversity must be embraced Criticisms: patriarchy: concept is limited because it doesn’t explain women’s agency  Early feminists scholars were privileged women + studying and writing about marginalized group of people SYMBOLIC INTERACTONISM  Operating at micro level, how people create families in every day interactions  Made up of all little interactions, symbols, rituals we use to create family for people  New mothers experienced profound change in sense of self( all of women spend more time thinking about baby’s needs when they weren’t with them) Criticism: deemphasizing impact of social structure ND OCTOBER 22 , 2013 Hunting and Gathering Society  Non-privatized households  Fluid gender roles: everyone’s contributions were valued  Families are socially constructed as they are shaped by larger forces  Overtime we start to settle: pre-industrial families: household composition determined by labour needs  No focus on love of family but survival  No clear separation between public and private sphere  Kids were viewed as differently: as economic liability, if their labour was not needed then they would be sent to live in others peoples home and work for them Industrial Society  Separation of public and private spheres, replacement of little artisan shops  New ideologies emerge among more affluent classes  Preference to keep daughters at home: domestic labour = time intensive + factories horrible and dangerous places with workers subject to abuse, potential for sexual abuse with daughters  Son could earn higher wage than daughter anyway  Women’s place is in home: they’re more nurturing than men  Intensive mothering: exclusive care by mothers for long-term psychological well being; kids who don’t get it -> end up maladjusted, have mental health issues, have problems with delinquency – made women feel guilty, afraid, kept women in the home  Kids who were working = economic productive value  Middle class people: kids require economic investment from parents; training, education, costly -> families start to shrink in size  1950s: economic affluence promoted family life i.e. Early marriage, large families -> strange and weird decade because people needed healing from second world war; perhaps family as a way to heal, north America saw tremendous economic growth  Perfect time for men to get high paying jobs who had no education/skills that would pay you a family wage + support everyone at home  Economic prosperity = early marriage + child bearing + expansion of suburbs  Families no as happy as they appeared to be/substance/prescription drug use 1960s and beyond: economic recessions impact families  Disappearance of nice jobs, only way family can cope is of wife starts to work and make up men’s shortfall  Manufacturing section declining/ good jobs  Service sector starts to expand: lower paying part time jobs, pink collar ghetto: women working with low wages no pension, no medical benefits but giving wives some wages that they can try to use for survival  Women have always been economic providers for their families MARRIAGE  Married-couple families most common but declining  More people postponing or foregoing marriage to pursue educational/career goals  Canadians want to remain single, live alone cohabit, couple living apart due to jobs in different cities, same sex marriages  School longer = delayed marriages  Economic security especially for women allows them to live independently DIVORCE  Increased through 1960s-1980s  Blended families  Research on the impact of divorce on children  Result in changes of divorce laws, made it easier  Byproduct of decline of good manufacturing sector jobs, economic squeeze, women getting into paid employment = offers women financial means to exit marriage  In absence of sufficient societal support -> strain and conflict between couples  Marriage disillusion, one point main cause was death of spouse now its divorce  Lone-parent families: women face poverty, low incomes  Divorce led to blended/reconstituted families where one of the spouses has been previously divorced  Kids most adversely affected by conflict between parents + disruption in their daily routines as they thrive on predictability  Not divorce that’s the problem but the disruption to children’s every day routines -> most single parent families headed by women, experience decline in income = cascading effect, change of environment  Increasing cohabitation  High in Quebec because increasing rejection of Catholicism, provincial family policies quite generous i.e. cheap daycare  Fertility is declining: smaller families because contraception is decriminalized, legalization of abortion, increase credentialism, professional careers, uncoupling of marriage and fertility  Increase in voluntarily childless marriage  Increase in single-person households  Delayed home-leaving increasing: cluttered nest: living on your own and going back to live with parents = boomerangs because they want to upgrade education, broken relations, emotional + financial support, assistance with childcare  Sandwich generation: squeezed between taking care of your kids and your parents OCTOBER 25 , 2013 TRANSNATIONAL FAMILIES  Astronaut families: where head of household lives and works in one country and remaining family members live in another i.e. shalaka’s family  Parachute kids: older teenagers live in host country while parents remain working in family’s country of origin i.e. choji  Multi-family and intergenerational households: more than one nuclear family, sometimes influenced by financial pressures  Newcomers choosing these to preserve religion, language, heritage  Increase in unconventional families: friends/ siblings living together or raising kids together, heterosexual couple who would invite friend to come live with them SOCIAL MOVEMENTS  Civil rights movement: biracial children more acceptable  Women’s movement: women had to fight for right to higher education, more power + economic power; supported sexual revolution: giving women legal + political right to have sex outside of marriage  Radical feminism: looking at sex, violence, abuse in relationships, pushing for concrete supports for women – no shelters/crisis lines back then  Gay and lesbian advocacy: relationships and acceptance of homosexuality  Kids raised by same-sex parents: not adversely impacted, child psychological well being, academic outcomes all ok  Religious secularism: unsupportive of divorce and same sex relationships, people moved away from religion and feel less constrained + open to making different choices  At one point people were really motivated by familial obligations  Now personal happiness is prioritized = high expectations from partners = more likely to break up IDEALOGICAL CHANGE  Increasing secularism  Declining social stigma of non-traditional choices  Increasing individualism FAMILY SOCIAL POLICIES: laws about marriage + divorce + income security programs  Lower benefit levels  Stricter eligibility criteria (mandating recent labor force participation among mothers)  Lack of universal childcare  INCOME SUPPORT  Universal Childcare Benefit  Canada Child Tax benefit  Family Supplement (EI)  Parental leave benefits Some people say families are the responsibility of everyone yet some believe they are the responsibility of that family alone  Cash transfers to families can be direct payments to families or tax deductions  Maternity + parental leave benefits + maintenance payments: kids whose parents have divorced and non-custodial is not paying any financial support  Benefit levels lower than European countries + eligibility criteria is stricter than in most countries + our benefits here are taxed  System in Canada fails many children Maternity and Parental Leave  Provide job protection + allows them to care for their babies  Maternity 15-18 weeks, mothers only  Parental 35-52 weeks, mothers and fathers, many European countries provide longer leaves + both paid and longer unpaid leave allowing parent to stay at home for 2-3 years with job protection  Some take it or leave it leaves for men: pull + encourage men into caregiving  Most women take this leave because of income disparities; gender  Some Canadians receive top up = most privileged Canadian employees = two tier system, people who are already advantaged get topped up Eligibility criteria forces women to return to work sooner so they can have the second or third baby or forego benefits all together to have a child, unlike benefits in other countries who are more family friendly  In our country, we lie saying we’re sick to take care of a sick child where as other cou
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