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Todd Alway

Study Sheet – Know everything on this 12/13/2013 12:58:00 PM Sociological imagination  C. Wright Mills (1959) – individuals experiences connected to a social context Order Theory – supports status quo Change Theory – social change/ social revolution Sociological theories / paradigms  Structural functionalism (order theory; marco) o Functionality of parts  Society is characterized by consensus over shared values. Human body analogy – if one part breaks the rest of the body is effected, apply to society.  Conflict theory (change theory; marco) o The basic feature of society is social class inequality and capitalism  Members of the working class need to develop a class consensus. Class conscious: working together with those in the oppressed class of society to revolt against the bourgeoisie and capitalism – fish example (big fish – small fish perspectives on the world) o Criticism: focus on class based inequality  Symbolic interactions (change theory; marco and mirco) o Interactions create society  Interpersonal communication  Subjectivity – subject understanding of interactions in society  Members of the family define what‟s family o Criticisms – places too much emphasis on Micro interactions.  Feminist theory (change theory: micro) o analyzes the status of women and men in society with the purpose of using that knowledge to better women's lives. Feminist theorists have also started to question the differences between women, including how race, class, ethnicity, and age intersect with gender. Feminist theory is most concerned with giving a voice to women and highlighting the various ways women have contributed to society. o Criticism – Feminist theory is over taken with patriarchy  Male domiance – excludes other archtypes of female oppression. Examples of application  Olympics o Structural Functionalism – national pride, national unity, advance sport, revenue o Conflict Theory – money is needed to participate in the Olympics, financial inequality o Symbolic Interactions – subjective of athletes o Feminist Perspective – media coverage, funding  Funerals o Structural functionalism - public social support, creates social solidarity, religious archetypes  The Lonely Funeral – essential quality, serves the wider society o Conflict Theory – Role of Religion, a means to distract the working class from their class exploitation  “Religion is the opit of the masses”  Direct peoples attention away from their material possessions of life. How do these theories explain society, what are they‟re criticisms, applications Research methods and ethics What are the strength and limitations of research method?  Experiments – use of tests and trials  Limitations of experiments o Artificial Environments  Holding experiments in the university and out of the child‟s actual comfort zone o Validity  Are you understanding what your studying, kid hitting a truck on the table is different from kid hitting another kid with it o Hawthorne Effect  When you know your being watched by others o Not applicable to all things that sociologists want to study  Bike gang coming into a lab to be studied o Replicating a positivist approach to research  “subject” rather than participant because the researcher was assumed to hold all of the knowledge and expertise  Tradition approach to research, white lab coat scientist  Surveys - (Self-administered questionnaires, interviews) o Ex. Teen mom 1980s, most kept there babies and some didn‟t  So skip patterns were used because of inapplicability of some of the questions  Limitations of Surveys o Designing “good” questions is difficult (mutually exclusive, exhaustive categories)  Mutually exclusive- ex. 0-99, 100-199  Exhaustive categories- o Dishonestly o Forgetfulness (memory fade and telescoping)  Telescoping- remember something closer than it was  Memory fade- forgetting things that happened not too long ago o Requires literacy o Data is limited to what is on paper o Low response rates  Observatory Study (participant observation, ethnography) o Ethnography – description of an ethnic group  Limitations of Observatory Study o Low reliability o Generalizability o Hawthorne effect  People behavior differently when there being watched o Ethnocentrism  Conviction of own cultural superiority  Secondary data Analysis (documentary analysis, historical sociology, us of official statistics) “A set of data you didn‟t collect” o Statistic Canada- Criminal justice system  Sentencing of offenders?  Limitations of Secondary data Analysis o Incomplete Date o Accuracy of data o Biases of original creators Quantitative (Quantity) vs. Qualitative (Quality)  Quantitative: availability of numerical data o Social phenomena captured nicely by stats  Qualitative: Focus on process (how, why); giving voice to “participants”  Which types of research superior? o This will vary depending on what your researching Cross-sectional (data taken at one point in time) vs. Longitudinal research (data taken over time)  Cross-sectional: data taken at one point in time o Interview on teen moms up until 6 months after giving birth  Longitudinal: Study done at more than one point in time o Interview on teen moms up until 6 years after giving birth Research Ethics  Submit an Ethics Application, needs to get approval  Informed consent letter for participants o Informed Consent - Participants have the right to know:  That they are participating in a study  The nature of the study Consent Letter Contains  Purpose of the study  Procedures involved in the research  Potential Harms  Potential Benefits (honorariums)  How you will provide confidentiality  Participation and withdrawal  Questions about the study Confidentiality - Identity not revealed to public  The researcher is able to identify a given person‟s responses Anonymity - Identity not revealed  The researcher is not able to identify a given person‟s responses Research Ethics  Philip Zimbardo (CH 3 SIQ)  Stanley Milgram  Laud Humphreys  Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment Zimbardo Experiment (Chapter 6 SIQ) The Stanford Prison experiment (SPE)  SPE was a study of the psychological effects of becoming a prisoner or prison guard. The experiment was conducted at Stanford University  The results of the experiment favor situational attribution of behavior rather than dispositional attribution. In other words, it seemed that the situation, rather than their individual personalities, caused the participants' behavior. Ethical issue  The guards and prisoners adapted to their roles more than they were expected, stepping beyond the boundaries of what had been predicted, leading to dangerous and psychologically damaging situations. One-third of the guards were judged to have exhibited "genuine sadistic tendencies", while many prisoners were emotionally traumatized, as two of them had to be removed from the experiment early.  Caused emotional harm, physical harm, with participants who are coerced by money Stanley Milgram (1961) Ethical Shock Experiment  Psychological experiment o Emotional harm, deception  Authority trumps morality ? o Nazi war crimes, Adolf Eichmann Laud Humphreys (1970) Look out for Gay Men  Sociological participant observation study  Tearoom Trade / Observation of homosexual activity in public washrooms Ethical Issues  Humphreys' study has been criticized by sociologists on ethical grounds in that he observed acts of homosexuality by masquerading as a voyeur, "did not get his subjects‟ consent, tracked down names and addresses through license plate numbers and interviewed the men in their homes in disguise and under false pretenses. o Deception, potential for great harm Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment  Clinical study conducted between 1932 and 1972 by the U.S. Public Health Service to study the natural progression of untreated syphilis in rural African American men who thought they were receiving free health care from the U.S. government Ethical Issues  researchers knowingly failed to treat patients appropriately after the 1940s validation of penicillin as an effective cure for the disease they were studying. The victims of the study included numerous men who died of syphilis, wives who contracted the disease, and children born with congenital syphilis. Culture What is culture?  All the socially transmitted ideas, practices, and material objects that people create to deal with real-life problems. Like superstitious beliefs What is / are cultural universals?  Cultural universals are cultural practices which occur universally o Bodily adornment (tattoos and piercing), sports (different styles of dance), gift giving (an actual object vs. money), social institutions (family) Cultural surprises – surprised by the practices of beliefs of a different culture  Italian Gelato example – the issue of how we introduce or fail to introduce life Ethnocentrism vs Cultural relativism  Ethnocentrism: judging other cultures exclusive by the standards of your own.  Cultural Relativism: recognize all cultural practices have equal value Ideal (what we say we believe in) vs real culture (what we actually do)  A gap existing between what we say and what we do (ideology and action) Contemporary culture defined by processes of  Globalization o Increasing connectedness political (UN) o Economic interconnectedness (EU, FreeTrade) o Travel and migration of countries cultural diversification  Volume of migration  More people aren‟t permanently settling in a countries – transnationalism  Diaspora- migration of a group of people to a new country that maintain an national ethic identity o Communication o Work / occupations  Ritzer: The McDonalization of Society – The mcdonalization of society is an example of rationalization  Ritzer argues that  Efficiency – quick and convenient  Calculability - Quantity over than quality  Predictability – food and service is predictable  Control – Workers, and customers are controlled in what they do dress and say  Interactions with modern bureaucracy are standardized and uniform.  Criticism – the modern bureaucracy isn‟t rational in dealing with individual persons  Post modernism – is a mixing of elements from different times and places because their is no singular explanatory theory or “truth” and realization of this creates a decline in authority, and in decline of core values o “truth” is situation specific, and is shaped by discourse  Discourse is knowledge, and how that knowledge is communicated – discourse impacts how we view ourselves and live our lives.  Rejects the four paradigms of sociology because of its generalization  Consumerism – defines ourselves by what we buy Subculture  is a smaller group within a larger culture that hold distinct values Counterculture  Specific type of culture that reject the dominant ideas of society o Consumerist took over this countercultures like old hip-hop, and heavy metal groups by “selling out” there initial rejection of societal ideals to sell products Pierre Bourdieu Theory of Capital  Culture capital o Things you learn outside of school o Dependence on parents to acquire this knowledge  Social Capital o Family, networks/ having connections o Most of us achieve the same social class as our parents CH8 SIQ, Bauman “Movies and Society”  In the short term children and teens who watch violent films become physically aggressive. Socialization  Sociology doesn‟t reject the Nature vs. nurture debate o Studies on feral (Untamed) children, neglected children, and twin studies prove that primary socialization is vital to development, and cannot be made up after the primary stage has passed.  Genie Wiley – Child found trapped in a basement of an American home couldn‟t properly speak or use he motor skills, even with profession help  What is socialization? - It is active and involves interacting with others to develop a sense of self in relation to others. o Explicit learning vs. subtle / nuanced learning  Agents of Socialization o Types:  Primary – through childhood learning: Family and media  Secondary – through adulthood: university, workplace, parenthood  transition to adulthood is lengthier and discontinuous  Anticipatory socialization - involves taking on the behaviours of social roles you have not yet accomplished. Ex. Parenting books, university pathway  Gender – begins from birth and is the informal process of learning the socially constructed gender rules of being masculine and feminine  Children‟s books, gender descriptive languages, fairytale fracturing, emotional expression  Resocialization (voluntary/involuntary) – Occurs in adulthood: adoption of a new identity voluntarily or involuntarily. Ex. Problem drinker (voluntary) or a Prisoner (involuntary)  Charles Cooley‟s: “looking-glass self” – The way we see ourselves‟ in correlation to how we think others view us. o Fat and Acne idea: these aspects becomes your identity and are companied with derivations of the root cause of why you are fat or have acne.  George Herbert Mead: “taking the role of the other” – the ability to understand the other persons perspective o Imitative Stage – Young children (2 and under) Don‟t know how to take the role of others o Play stage – learning to play roles of other people, child are unable to understanding where they fit into there social surroundings o Game Stage – when a person understands other people, and can manipulate circumstances using prior experience  Generalized other – over time you learn how people think of you, and gain a generalized sense of other people  Deborah Tannen‟s research on the glass ceiling – the gender differences and interactions creates the glass ceiling o Focus on interpersonal relationships o Modesty, and sharing recognition  Common language differences between Men (I thought…) and Women (We thought…) o Promotion is based on familiarity not gender but, women are offered less opportunities to become familiar with corporate superior Mc Question Ch 16 SIQ Weish and Baker, “Sexual Harassment in the Canadian Workplace” – Gender Socialization  Research finds that gender socialization, workplace culture, authority of the harasser, and the citizenship status of the women are important in terms of whether a woman defines their experience as sexual harassment  Debates: are there gender differences in friendships? o Men and women act out there friendships differently but there is no difference, women connect easier with each other by sharing verbally while men connect with other men though doing the same things, men have more restrictions on relationships due to homophobia but they also have more friends. Women have less friends but are closer to there friends.  Erving Goofman, o Studied involuntary resocialization - prison, residential schools  “total institutions” – original self identity is eroded  Hidden curriculum o The informal lessons learned in schools,  Structural functionalist – it enhances social solidarity by producing good citizens and workers  Conflict Theory – Creates obedient workers and reproduce social inequality  Feminist Theory - Reproduces gender inequalities Families  Families: sets of intimate social relationships that people create to share resources to ensure their welfare and that of their dependents.  Fox and Luxton‟s definition families o Family IS the set of relationship that bring people together daily to share resources for the sake of caring for children and each o
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