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ALL Sociology Tutorial Notes + Exam Review

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Sandra Colavecchia

Tutorial 1 – 2014-01-10 True/False • True or False: Porter's vertical mosaic regress to how the economic elite of Canada were primarily of British origin --> TRUE? • True or False: Recent Canadian research on multiculturalism and the labour market has revealed that ethnicity is no longer a factor in occupation segregation --> FALSE • Recent Canadian research on multiculturalism and the labour market has revealed that race has less of an effect for immigrants than it does for native-born Canadians --> FALSE • The basis of Canada's current immigration strategy is that those most in need of coming to Canada are given priority over others --> FALSE (as long as you offer something to the country you are given priority) • in Chapter 12 of SIQ Laulard and Guppy argue that given that ethnicities and occupations are defined over time, it is o a) impossible to use census data to track changes in occupational stratification o impossible to use census data to track changes in occupational stratification on the basis of ethnicity o impossible to use census data to track changes in occupational stratification on the basis of sex o all of the above o none of the above*** (even though categories change you can manipulate them to be equal) • which statement comes closest to capturing a sociological view on race and ethnicity o race and ethnicity are ascribed statuses (maybe could be this one too) o race is biologically based o race can be critiqued as a biological myth ** o race is fixed o ethnicity is fixed Tutorial 2 – 2014-01-17 Personal - consequences for you as a person (ex/ mental health, life satisfaction, values & morals) Individual-centred Interpersonal – how you interact or orient yourself with other people (ex/ compassion for other people) Structure-centred True/False • research finds a positive association between religious affiliation and mental health/life satisfaction (has to do with personal) --> FALSE --> small relationship but when you control social status, age, etc, the effect of religion is almost nonexistent • research finds that individuals with a religious affiliation are more likely to be compassionate towards others --> FALSE --> corresponds with less compassionate attitudes (people who are very involved in religion are more compassionate, one's who aren't as involved are less compassionate); non religious people are more than the people are aren't as involved but are around the same as those who are extremely involved • religion has a unique interpersonal consequence in the area of sexuality --> TRUE --> religious groups impose innovation (change) on morality issues (issues like abortion, pornography) • sociologists who study religion empirically examine the supernatural claims made by various religions --> FALSE --> you can't do research on a supernatural claim, you can't prove it true/false that's what makes is supernatural; sociologists realize that people do believe this and they try to see how it affects them in life, who they associate with, and what they do; they can't say anything about the claims but can look at the consequences of them • Marx and Weber were interested in whether or not the religious claims made by religions are true or false --> FALSE --> sociologists can't argue truth claims of religion because the supernatural cannot be deemed true or false • two competing structure-centred explanations of religion are the secularization thesis and the persistence thesis --> TRUE --> secularization means losing religiosity; idea is that back in time religion was very important but as the natural science became institutionalized and progressed, religion was less important and wasn't needed to explain things because science could; Weber argued this, called it disentrancement; as things get explained they become disenchanted; persistence theory says in contemporary society religion is less used but people are left with nothing to believe in and are not happy and because of that people are turning to religion for sense of social support and solidarity and that is why religion will persist • an organizational analysis of religious groups reveals that all religions are essentially the same --> TRUE/FALSE --> religions are essentially organized in the same way (have hierarchical body and then a following; all have truth claims or claims to supernatural, all have certain goals, norms, sanctions, all have some form of success; they all have these organizations but they differ from each other?; membership in one organization is different than another; how they get money (certain religions) is different, how they define spiritual growth etc is also all different; all have some success it is just very different M/C • identify the statement that is correct o religious commitment and mental health are positively associated o religious commitment and mental health are negatively associated o religious commitment and mental health are not correlated when we consider other important factors --> TRUE --> consider age and stuff then it makes no difference o religious commitment improves mental health only among individuals of certain religious denominations • what does sociological research on religion reveal o religious Canadians are more compassionate as compared to non religious Canadians o non religious Canadians are more compassionate as compared to religious Canadians o only certain religious denominations are more compassionate as compared to non religious Canadians o religious Canadians are no more compassionate than non-religious Canadians; however they are less accepting of pre-marital sex and same sex marriage Tutorial 3 – 2014-01-24 • thesis statements characteristics o clear o not making argument, identifying an issue or controversy and analyzing it o ex/ research has shown that watching teen mom has negative effects on teen pregnancy; this paper will investigate xyz... just look at facts o present facts and use them to pick out problems; why is it important; what does it mean o too general o deals with evidence, talks of what you will address in the paper  example: Globalization has negative consequences for workers in developing countries, and large corporations should be forced to pay workers higher wages (argumentative, too broad (what consequences, what workers etc), and personal) --> INCORRECT  CORRECT: this essay will examine sociological research on the topic of globalization and manufacturing which has identified a number of negative consequences on workers in both developed and developing countries. Negative consequences on workers in developed countries include lower wages, high rates of unemployment, and less job security. Negative consequences for workers in developing countries include poor/unsafe working conditions the use of child labour, and increased income inequality  ex/ The internet is now widely used across the globe and will help anti=capitalist movements in their fight against large corporations (What are large corporations doing, why are they fighting, what are anti capitalists, too general because Internet is not used widely across the globe --> digital divide) --> INCORRECT  CORRECT: this essay will examine how the internet is being used by anti-globalization movements across the globe (so general, just go to the next line). More specifically, it will examine the following ways the Internet is being used; [list the ways it is being used]. This essay will also highlight factors that limit the impact of the internet as a tool in the anti-globalization movement – the digital divide and the democratic deficit Tutorial 4 – 2014-01-31 Globalization • idea that culture, people, money, ideas are globally interconnected and can move rapidly around the country from person to person • can look at globalization in two ways o top-down – globalization comes from the top; comes down from global institutions that push Western neo-liberal globalization  three major institutions (sometimes called the sisters) • International Monetary Fund – body that controls global currency • World Bank – give loans to countries but only give one if you agree to take on certain political reforms (ex/ neo liberal style, want countries to deregulate their economy and privatize everything, or open their borders to international trade); this is how the bank pushes globalization; this is bad for poor countries because they can build their own national economy • World Trade Organization – monitor labour policies globally; specify a minimum standard; labour conditions bad in third world cities, and the WTO doesn't have much power to change that; export processing zones – area within these countries that are free of labour standards, laws etc (where you find sweatshops and such); any country can open a export zone whenever they want so not really effective o from below (positive connotation) – globalization starting with people; tied in with social justice movements or climate change activism; idea is people/groups previously had no contact with other likeminded groups; globalization has given them these channels to communicate and get together to form these global movements; activist groups hijack globalization and uses it for their own purposes in a sense Concepts/Processes Related to Globalization Neo-Liberalism Digital Divide – lots of areas that still have no Internet access Democratic Deficit – because governance is being sublimated to bug huge corporations and institutions like MIF; idea is that national governments or states increasingly have less power over what they do and have to conform to the global neo-liberal structure and people within these countries have no say in terms of how that is formed; idea that people in countries are losing ability to democratically control what their government does and how their society is structured Cultural Imperialism – imperialism back in the day Europe went to look for the new world and found Africa and imperialized; idea that Western culture is being forced upon other countries that don't have our culture; this is happening because globalization is essentially a Western concept, o the spread of globalization is also like the spread of the Western lifestyle Outsourcing – companies spread out production or other stuff to other countries (usually less developed) because labour laws are money relaxed, work days are longer, and labour is cheaper Consumerism – idea that consumerism is a way of life; idea that our lives are built around consumption (because we live in a culture of neo liberalism); idea is our values are essentially what we own and our lives are centred around getting things and that is pretty much all we do; you are still consumerist even if you buy something that isn't brand name because there is such a big following so you are seen as non mainstream Time/Space Compression – rather than taking a ship for a month of a half to get to somewhere you can use a plane; Skype over mail; idea that globalization makes the world seem much smaller (communication much less difficult etc) Your friend tells you about a large, multinational company in their home town that closes its factory and moves production to a low wage country. The closure means that 500 people will lose their jobs. You say this is an example of: • globalization from below • top-down globalization • neo-liberalism • the MacDonalization of work • b and c T/F The era of globalization is characterized by increased government ownership of the means of production and increased regulation of economies --> False • Neo Liberalism is about deregulating, privatizing and shrinking the government T/F the logic of global accumulation results in the commodification of almost all the necessities of life (the logic of globalization is the logic of commodification (tied in with consumerism; ex/ water is commodified, relationships are commodified (friends with someone as long as you get something out of it))?; (neo liberalism allows you to be the best you can and accumulate more within your country) --> TRUE • for a government to get involved is inefficient; neo liberals say it is not logical to spend tax money and get involved to give it back to the people when you can just let the market do its own thing T/F Sociologists define development to include less concentration in political power, and a more equitable distribution of wealth --> TRUE • idea is that if you have an undeveloped state the power is centralized in a small group of people who have all the wealth; sociologists argue that when they become developed a the government becomes more democratic, power becomes decentralized and because of that wealth is spread out in a more even fashion Tutorial 5 – 2014-03-21 Work in the Economy You are asked to come up with a list of 3 things that best reflect major Canadian and international trends in work and the economy. Of the lists provided which best highlights the major changes in work and the economy • non standard employment, deindustrialization, increasing unionization • non standard employment, deindustrialization, declining unionization • non standard employment, polarization of goods and bad jobs, shorter school to work transitions • polarization of good and bad jobs, more continuous life course paths, shorter work to retirement transitions • polarization of good and bad jobs, more discontinuous life course paths, shorter school to work transitions The idea that increasingly workers come to monitor their own behaviour for fear there are being watched is consistent with • Marx – against capitalism; talked of class • Weber – talked of class, status, power, bureaucracy • ritzer – McDonaldization • foucault – talks of power and being watched and calls it biopower • Taylor – scientifically engineering workers; breaking their movements into short discreet things The service economy in Canada: • has been more vulnerable to recessions than the manufacturing sector – manufacturing is more vulnerable • is characterized by "bad" jobs – WRONG: in service economy everyone thinks it involves retailers etc, but service industry includes lawyers, doctors, etc. • is another term for the knowledge economy • has created mostly standard jobs – not true because a lot of the jobs are fast food etc • none of the above The type of job that you end up in (whether it is good or bad) is a result of • your individual characteristics • your occupational choices • the sector in which your job is located • the internal labour market associated with your job – (ex/ ethnic ghettos in job markets (idea that taxi drivers are stereotypically brown, men are doctor/women nurse) – these are internal labour markets • all of the above The primary predictors of job satisfaction • salary and benefits • work and organizational characteristics – people happiest when they have autonomy and able to do complex tasks; able to start something and finish it through to the end where you don't always have someone on top of you • the sector (service or manufacturing) of the job • gender and age • co-workers Politics and Social Movements • true or false --> in a brokerage system political party platforms are based primarily on ideological ideas (NOW: all parties are centralized; no party has ideological basis anymore and try to broker for whatever they think people want them to believe in) • T/F --> a brokerage system enhances democracy (WHEN: parties engage in brokerage politics, tend to water down the feedback from people so they can get the most support they can possibly get; so anyone who wants something that strays from mainstream will not get support because they will lose the support of the people with major interests) • T/F --> the results of the 2011 federal election confirms the fact that brokerage politics still exists in Canada (TRUE: data table shows percentages supporting parties widely changes; IF THEY PARTIES were ideological then the parties would not lose people because their platform would be pretty much the same) • a friend tells you that the brokerage interest political system is good because it balances the interests among groups in society. your friend most likely subscribes to o elite theory o pluralist theory – everyone kind of has a say; debates and arguments; come out with a compromise o Marxist theory o state-centric theory – state is only concerned with their own survival and power and doesn't care what citizens want; kind of like an authoritarian o none of the above Deviance and Crime • in examining the racial profiling debate in Canada, Wortley and Tanner o conclude that racial differences in police contact cannot be explained by the differences in social class, education, and other demographic variables (social class and age protects white Canadian) o find no evidence of racial profiling o find that both age and social class protect whites and blacks from police contact o find that when criminal activity, drug use and gang membership are statistically controlled, the relationship between race and police contact disappears opportunity theory – criminals have to have a motive but won't do one unless they have the opportunity (crimes committed against people with strict routines etc) status conflict theory – Durkheim and solidarity; when your ties to the conventional world is weak (natural disaster, or social upheaval) people are more likely to commit crimes; status as law abiding employee etc. gets strained so they take the opportunity and commit crimes strain theory – society has these goals that everyone is socialized to want (success, money) but also prevents people from realizing those goals so people feel a strain from expected to get this success but they can't; in order to compensate for that they turn to crime social learning theory – if people grow up in a world of crime they will commit them because that is what they are socialized to do differential association theory – people don't always grow up in complete non-crime/crime (ex/ family is good people but the friends you have are criminals --> whoever you spend more time with will see if you commit crime or not) • an individual stars selling drugs to make money. They imagine becoming rich and decide to go this route because they don't have the educational credentials to get a high paying job. which theory offers the best explanation of the individual --> STRAIN THEORY • T/F: crime rate in Canada is rising • T/F: Ontario and Quebec have the highest crime rate --> highest in the West where there are Aboriginal peoples who tend to be overrepresented in the criminal system • T/F: sociologists use police records to estimate crime rate (sociologists use victim surveys?) • T/F: Aboriginal and black Canadian's rank high in the public's perception of criminal villains • T/F: the press is typically involved in the production and circulation of official narratives and "regimes of truth --> (foucault) that define the limits and forms of what might be said • T/F: newspapers reporting on corporate crimes tend to present "views from below"—that is, views of the families of the victims, co-workers, as well as the "views from above"- experts' opinions (NEWSPAPER: looked at views from above and talk to professionals/corporations/official representatives) Tutorial 6 – 2014-03-28 • demographic transition theory state that the death rate typically falls before the birth rate falls --> TRUE o BR increases, DR increases (olden times needed lots of children to do stuff, but lots of them died) o BR increases, DR decreases (industrial revolution came and technology gets better, sanitation and medical treatments are better) o BR decreases, DR decreases (people realize they don't need as many children, women more empowered and educated, birth rate and death rate falls; one Br and DR are equal then the population starts to stabilize and age more) • in the developing world poverty rates are higher in urban areas than they are in rural areas --> FALSE o people migrate on mass to cities because they are living in poverty in rural areas; poverty is everywhere but it is worse in rural area so that is why the migrate • a edge city is an unauthorized housing (ex/ tents) community set up by homeless people on vacant city lots --> FALSE o homeless people setting up on vacant lots is called "squatting" o edge city: deals with post modern city (there is also multi and dual city's) • one of the main trends of post-modern city is decreased ethnic diversity --> FALSE o actually increased o post modernism is the idea that borders become less important and have no morality, barriers break down, the whole world is one big social community o edge city: smaller city on the outskirts of a large central city, but has its own economy, business, transportation etc (ex/ Kanata, Ontario o dual city: idea that within one city there are two types of urban dwellers, one that is upper middle class with knowledge based jobs and make a lot of money and gather in their own gentrified neighbourhoods (people come from the outsides and transform slums), other people are the lower earning people work unstable substandard jobs and live in ghettos) ex/ Stoney Creek o multi ethnic city: cities tend to have increasing ethnic mixing • people actively choose where to live --> TRUE o idea that if you are going to be moving somewhere you try to pick a place that fits your lifestyle, culture, values etc o are stuff that prevents you to pick a place to live (ex/ costs) o these is called environmental opportunity theory: actively seek a place to live that fits your lifestyle Health and Aging • medicalization occurs when: o when medical vocabulary is used to define a problem (occurs when someone acts weird and you call them crazy you are medicalizing them, also when you make a treatment for something and then label a disease like it after) o when organizations adopt a medical approach to treating a problem o at the level of doctor-patient interaction, when a problem is defined as medical and medical treatments occurs o all of the above  has a lot of labels of power/social control (like when you label someone deviant), criminals do this when pedophiles say they are sick, A.D.D has become medicalized Apocalyptic demography  aging is a social problem  all old people are stereotyped as being the same ("old geezers")  increased numbers of seniors are the reason for government debt or overuse of social programs  seniors are receiving more than their fair-share of the country's resources  all of the above Social factors such as socio-economic status and class are related to health --> TRUE  can afford better health care, don't have education on how to deal with health issues etc There are minimal differences in health outcomes between the Aboriginal population and the non-Aboriginal population --> FALSE  they are socio economically disadvantaged, suicide rates higher, suffer more chronic disease, shorter life expectancy etc New immigrants coming to Canada tend to not be as health as Canadian born citizens --> FALSE  generally new immigrants tend to be healthier than Canadian-born citizens  called the healthy immigrant effect: trend is expected to decline because the Canadian government puts minimal health regulations in place We still have inequality in the health-care system even though we have universal health care --> TRUE  3 explanation for this (social determinants of health): o individual lifestyle/ your health behaviours – stuff that falls under this: if you smoke/drink/don't exercise/eat healthy or not; criticism: people with lower status can't afford the finer things so maybe he wants to exercise but can't afford it o social psychological resources – has to do with: mental health (depression, stress, anxiety); has to do with the kind of friendships you have, job, amount of emotional support o material conditions which is also your socio economic state – if higher class can afford better health care etc Environment  your friend in economics says that the environment can be protected without sacrificing economic growth. This argument is an example of o the command and control approach – state heavily regulates environmental pollution, top down approach? o the alternative environmental paradigm
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