Lecture 1-Jan 7th, 2014.docx

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McMaster University
Sandra Colavecchia

Lecture 1- January 7 , 2014 **Read chapter 8 of new society, read chapter 12 in SIQ Race and Ethnic Relations • Pg 133 SIQ • Ethnic groups are distinguished by ancestry, culture, and social location • Physical characteristics become socially recognized and are seen as significant, they also have an impact • Focus on inequality and power • How our life opportunities are shaped and constraint by categories of race and ethnicities • Focus on discrimination • Race and ethnicity as achieved statuses • Race and ethnicity as socially constructed • Race was previously used by scientists to differentiate groups and make conclusions-> not considered wrong until later • Acknowledgement that racial classification system were not scientifically sound • Race as a biological myth- small insignificant genetic differences-> everyone is almost the same Ethnicity • Objective definitions of ethnicity: ethnicity is fixed and static (language, country of origin) • Subjective approaches to ethnicity: ethnic identity as variable, fluid and flexible and sometimes situational depending on group settings • Subjective are self-defined by people themselves • Objective are defined by society ?? difference Subjective Approach ethnicity Ex: experience of visible minority university students described (Henry and Tator) Ex: Quebec: civic nationalism (resident) versus ethnic nationalists • Civic nationalism: if you resided in the province of Quebec, you belong. Based on geography • Ethnic nationalists: culture, and language determines whether you belong in a province or not • Race and ethnicity have consequences in terms of how we treat people and how they are important parts of social reality Institutional Racism • Discriminatory racial practices built into institutions- political, economic, education • Whites were superior and colored were discriminated against • 3 forms: 1. Based on overtly racist ideas – “whites are superior to blacks”  Denying Chinese Canadians the right to vote 2. Institutional practices that were originally racist but no longer are based on racist ideas but the policies are still in place  Seasonal migrant workers from Mexico come here to work on farms and our government asserted at one point that they were well suited for our summers but not for our winters and so could not remain here permanently 3. Institutions that unintentionally restrict the chances of certain groups (racial profiling)  Policies harm certain groups  Restrict their opportunities  “The racial Profiling Debate in Toronto” (Scott and Julian) • blacks report higher tendency to be stopped by police regardless of past criminal history, social class, age  height and weight requirements for police-> Asians did not fall into this category so could not go into the police force  firms tend to hire people who are like them if hired informally or internally and so visible minorities aren’t visible New Racism • The theory that it is natural for groups to form bounded communities and there is a type of gate keeping going on • Racism is taking on new forms (cultural differences as opposed to biological differences) • Impact of New Racism leads to unequal treatment • Britain argued that immigrants cultural difference was harmful to British society and so they couldn’t come into their country -> this prevented immigrants of colour from entering • If underlying intent is to exclude people, then you are being racist. It doesn’t have to be overt anymore • Using other kinds of arguments to lead to new ways of being racist Prejudice vs Discrimination • Prejudice: having negative attitude or being hostile to people because they belong to different racial group • Discriminations: denying equal treatment to someone because they belong to another group (ex: not hiring someone because of their race or ethnicity) • Approx. 1/3 of Canadians hold prejudice attitudes White Privilege • Developed by Peggy McIntosh • Unearned privilege that whites benefit from • Visible minorities don’t have these privileges Lecture 2- January 10,2014 Chapter 8-NS • Immigrants from high-socioeconomic status come to Canada • Canada is biased and favors those who they think will do better financially thus helping Canada 3 groups facing inequality • Aboriginals (economic and health outcomes) - Young aboriginals taken to residential school to Christianize - Proper foods are not available • Black Men (economic outcomes suggest persistent discrimination) - Experience high unemployment & low income even after proper education attainment - Foreign credentials are not recognized • Recent immigrants (poorer outcomes as compared to earlier waves of immigrants) - Earlier waves of immigrants experienced grater upward mobility whereas no it has decreased - Canada fails to recognize foreign credentials - Many immigrants end up in lower paying jobs even though they have the necessary education Social Psychology • Frustration-aggression theory - If white feels frustrated over own economic failure, they will scapegoat immigrants for their inability to get jobs - Frustration over blocked job opportunities leads to racism against racial and ethnic minorities Primordialism • People seek out other that are similar • Helps maintain social boundaries • In jobs, people give jobs through word of mouth to their own kind because they want people like them to excel Normative Theories • Prejudices are learned through agents of socialization such as family, or society • Learnt when growing up • Language is important as it places different values on certain words such as “black” or “white” to produce negative or positive imagery Marxist Theory • Economic interests->slavery->racism • Racist ideology useful to capitalists because it prevent class consciousness and justifies lower wages • Head tax on Chinese immigrants thus preventing Chinese immigrants from migrating to Canada Split Labour Market Theory • Racial and ethnic conflict is rooted in the cost of labour • Non-white workers are the victims of conflict between white workers and capitalists because they are exploited for cheap labour Culture of poverty thesis • Problematic as cultural values explain poverty among racial and ethnic minorities • Certain races have values that hold them back from success • This theory neglects social structure Conflict Theory-Internal Colonial Model • Focus on historical exploitation & material conditions of life • Discrimination of Aboriginals by Canadian gov. & whites after slavery explains inequality today Chapter 12 SIQ-Porter • Verticle mosaic- Canada is hierarchy stratified such that racial and ethnic groups are situated differently in terms of jobs • English and French at top, followed by Europeans, and then immigrant Loutard and Guppy 1) Occupational Differentiation (“job clustering”) declining over time - Certain races are no longer clustered in a specific type of job such as agriculture or mining 2) Occupational stratification (good vs bad job) declining over time - Diff. ethnic groups have the spectrum of good and bad jobs -Ethnic origin continues to affect occupational inequality January 14, 2014 Religion - Sociologists cannot answer whether God exists or if there is life after death - Sociology addresses social factors related to religion such as age, urban, rural vs. residence, region of country, level of education, gender, employment status - Sociology addresses o How can we measure religiosity? o How many people in a society:  Would define themselves as religious?  Attend worship services?  Believe in life after death in a society?  Pray every day?  How has this changed over time? What accounts for these changes? o Cross-national comparisons o How important is the family o Why has membership in some religious denominations declined/increased? o Has society become increasingly secular? o What are the main religious denominations in a particular country Structural Functionalism - Religions is functional in meeting societal needs - Rely on religion for emotional or spiritual needs - Financial and practical support to people can also be provided by religion - Helps to create social boundaries and create social solidarity - Durkheim: pre-industrial society characterized by mechanical solidarity; industrial society characterized by organic solidarity o Believed that Gods are socially created o Done in group context (worship together) o People seek questions which aren’t always answered by science o How societies create cohesion o Mechanical solidarity: everyone shared the same beliefs that are determined by religious doctrines o Believes that people are moving away from mechanical solidarity to organic solidarity o Organic solidarity: People believing diff. things and sometimes not believing anything at all o Source of moral regulation has shifted from religion to government -> gov. can’t teach us right from wrong Conflict Theory - Religion is a source of false consciousness for the working-class - Pacifies working class - Prevents us from revolting against economic beliefs - “Religion is the opiate of the masses” - Even if you have a low paying job but you volunteer in a church group, then religion is giving you a status that you don’t really have - Tool of subordination - Religion provides support for slaves which is good however they could be submissive which is bad Symbolic Internationalism - Role played by religious symbol, subjective understandings of religion - Examine places of worship, norms around worshippers interactions and religious leaders - Max Weber: Protestantism (Calvinism) allowed capitalism to flourish o Making connection between religion and capitalism o Argues that capitalism took off first in England and no other countries is linked to religious ideas people held o Protestantism (Calvinism) taught certain ideas that lead capitalism to flourish  Emphasized on saving money and re-investing  Working hard  Small number of people were chosen by god for salvation  Economic success was a sign to know you were chosen for salvation  Allowed capitalists to exploitation of workers as they were making the workers work hard making them think that they were chosen for salvation when in reality only profit was being made Feminist Theory - Questions reflecting gender such as how organized religion subordinates or empowers women Measuring Religiosity - Stark and Glock o Dimensions of religiosity o Beliefs o Practices (i.e prayer) o Experience (i.e. experiencing higher power) o Knowledge (i.r. of holy book) - Most Canadians are roman catholic and protestant Bibby - Canadians have high level of religious beliefs, practice, experience and knowledge - Church-Sect Typology o Dominant church would be the religion - Organizational Approaches: 1. Membership a. How does religion attract people and keep people (mostly due to parents) 2. Goals 3. Norms, Rules, and Sanctions 4. Success a. Financial revenue b. membership January 17, 2014 Individual-Level Explanations “Person-Centred” Explanations: • Reflection: some people think about the big questions in life. Life events make you think about the big questions in life • Socialization: necessary but not sufficient cause of religiosity. Attend religious service every week if parents did the same. • Deprivation: economic deprivation. Most individuals that face economic deprivation follow religion. - Research on suicide bombers by Brym and Araj (2006). Found that these bombers did not come from socially deprived backgrounds; rather they came from middle class background. Societal-Level Explanation - “Structured-Centred” Explanations: - Secularization versus Persistence - people on mass become less religious pose industrialization - persistence thesis: religion continues to be important - Canadians show high level of commitment Personal Consequences - Does religious commitment improve mental health? - Need to control for other factors, like age, education, and unemployment - when we control for these things, we find that religion commitment does NOT lead to better mental health outcomes - not a lot of support mental health and religious commitment Interpersonal Consequences - Does religious commitment make people more compassionate? - Canadians who are religious are no different when it comes to empathy, compassion, tolerance and acceptance of diversity except in the region of sexuality, abortion, pornography - Pre-marital sex, same sex marriage, abortion, pornography: people who are more religious are exceptions from people of no religions - January 21, 2014 - organize paper by ideas, not the research papers - You can talk about the background or previous information found about obesity and their relationship with children - Talk where research questions are common - Don’t be assertive and say that obesity is cause by television-> tell points from both sides but say how the sociologists feel a certain way after their findings - Don’t convince that x causes y - use APA format- in-cite citation: (author’s surname, year of publication) January 24, 2014 Globalization - gravity movie - world has become homogenous because tastes are the same - world-wide exchange of money though goods or services - expression of culture being share around the world - cultures are becoming alike - Barry Lynn said the globalization is world-wide interconnectedness - Geography determines social relations - Economic developed societies dominating less dominant societies - Main American export is pop culture - Pro-globalization: top down globalization - Anti-globalization: - Pro globalization people believe in free market economy - Neoliberal economic policy: gov. should get out of the markets and not interfere in business Pro Capitalism - Promotes capitalism Anti-globalization - Spread of capitalism is problematic Globalization - Shrinking of the world: Money can move instantly among businesses, idea, company’s, products, people - Countries are interconnected politically, economically, culturally - Travel and migration - Communication - Time-space compression: technology allows us to connect across the world including air travel, tv, internet, wealth Economic Interconnectedness - Known as the 3 sisters - World Trade Organization (WTO) - International Monetary Fund (IMF) - World Bank Top-down Globalization - Capitalism  Overcapacity: companies are making more products than people to buy these products (ex. Automotive)  Taxes: taxes paid by big companies. Big companies are not paying their fair share of taxes. Also they are avoiding paying taxes by moving assets to places/countries that aren’t taxed. These companies create jobs for people abroad.  Global commodity chains: global networks of how products get made around the world. Food products, culture, pop culture. Culture is commoditized.  Cultural imperialism: American culture imperialism. American values and images getting exported all over the world. American culture is focused on sex, violence, secular ideas. - Financial capital (casino capitalism): money that’s used for investment, trading in stock markets. Tremendous growth in financial capital. Casino capitalism is buying and selling assets in the financial market. Causes unstable economies which is a problem for people. - Neo-Liberal economic policy: little to no gov. regulation over market .Let laws of economics govern the market and the gov. should not intervene. • Less gov. spending • Less gov. regulations • Emphasis on people taking responsibilities for their welfare rather than relying on gov. to take care of them and their families • Less protection for workers: pay workers less and fewer restrictions on the working conditions • Less protection for environment • More privatized companies that were previously owned by government (highways, water) Subprime Mortgage Crisis - Housing values declined, interest rates increased leading to an increase in mortgage delinquencies and foreclosures - Subprime mortgages were held as securities for many financial firms - Started as real estate crisis - US has lower restrictions on mortgages so people could easily take mortgages and then ended up not paying those mortgages so banks were in debt - Decline in capital, credit-tightening, and global recession resulted - This will impact other countries - Critique of neo-liberal economics: subprime mortgage crisis in US sets off global recession January 28, 2014 - Subprime mortgage crisis set off the global recession - 1990s-2000, housing prices went up in the US and Canada and lending interest rates went down - Subprime: interest rates on mortgages were very low because prime lending rate was low - 1%,2% interest rates for mortgages - This encouraged people to buy homes - Purchase a home and pocket the profit by selling it - American banks trying to give incentive to people to get mortgages and people were getting mortgages that they couldn’t afford and had bad credit history - 2006, houses price fell, and interest rates started to climb - People couldn’t afford to pay their mortgage and this led to epidemic of home foreclosure (walk away from home and declare bankruptcy) - Led to huge credit crisis - Tightening of credit globally even in Canada - Canada has stricter regulations for borrowing money which is why we weren’t as heavily impacted whereas the US didn’t have as strict policies Top-down Globalization - Free Trade Agreements (i.e. NAFTA) and Export Processing Zones (EPZ) or Free Trade Zones (FTZ) • Export processing zones: small industry that hires people to provide job in developing countries • Produce goods • Government intervention is reduced - Political and economic establishment • Elites making the rules • Economic elites of countries have a lot of power - Advertising/branding • Branding: making the consumer familiar with a product and get us to buy from them • Creates brand loyalty • Create value for products (making it seem like products are better than other so consumers pay more) Anti-globalization - Bottom-up Globalization, Alternative globalization, Global Social Justice movement - Democracy, equality, economic and environmental sustainability, critique of American hegemony  Paying people fair living wage  We take care of this planet - Critique as American hegemony: American culture being imposed on other cultures - Anti-Neoliberal Economic Policy  Need more gov. regulation because we have to protect most vulnerable group from exploitation - Fair Trade  Workers in sweatshops treated unfairly  Children being paid low wages  Fair trade movement is eliminating unfair labour/exploitation - Economic and environmental sustainability  Go green for companies and watching the natural resources - Anti-establishment (democratic deficit)  Greater democracy  Economic and political elite need to listen to everyday people  Democratic deficit: individual gov. have less power and are likely to listen to large corporations and the three sisters than they are to listen to their sisters - Anti-consumerism  Reinforces capitalism  We are over-consuming and therefore create huge amounts of waste  Cultural jamming: challenge mainstream corporate advertisements • TV turn off week, buy nothing day • Jonah Peretti versus Nike o Say sweatshop be in the Nike logo • Naomi Klein, No Logo Life and Debt: Structural Adjustment Policies and Jamaica - Economic policy on Jamaica - Old crises- oil skyrocketed - Jamaican gov. needed to borrow money - Had to go to world bank to borrow money - Had to sign contract and were now in debt Terminology - Global north: wealthy industrialized countries - Global south: poor countries - Majority world: majority of world’s population who are poor and don’t have access to basic things - Minority world: has access to education, housing, health care - Fourth world: large # of people who are so poor that they’re considered to be irrelevant for the functionality of society January 31, 2014 Work and The Economy - Trends that might impact you post post-graduation: - The growing number of overqualified workers - The expansion of contract work - The disappearance of company-sponsored pension plans - Corporate downsizing and restructuring - You need masters or beyond to find a job in your field - Unionized workers, science and health studies are more qualified Overqualified workers - 1/5 with a university education were overqualified for their job in 2001 - Groups most at risk: younger workers, immigrants, people who had studied commerce, arts, humanities - The higher the university certification, the LESS likely to have a job that only requires high school - Problem is getting worse - The more education you have, the less likely you are to be overqualified - We are less likely to have jobs that have pension plans now than our parents did Key Trends - Dramatic changes I past 3 decades - Demographic change (aging population) - Globalization and deindustrialization (decline of manufacturing) - Most people work in the service sector - Polarization of jobs: - ‘Good’ jobs in primary labour market (internal job shelter) • Protected • Experience benefits • Hard to switch into these jobs - ‘Bad’ jobs in secondary labour market (job ghettos) • Low wages • Little job security • No benefits • Women, aboriginals and visible minorities, newcomers are mostly seen in these jobs - Non-standard employment (involuntary) • Standard employment is rare now (working 5 days a week 9-5) • Now people work multiple part time jobs, evening, nights, temporary work, seasonal, contract work and being self employed • Creating greater inequality • Involuntary in the sense that they can’t get standard employment and they’re stuck in non-standard employment • These affect the emotional and physical health of people • Self-employed earned less than regular employees o Men are likely to earn higher income and hire other workers whereas women are not - Big demographic change is that population is aging due to baby boomer - School to work transition has changed  Prolonged- need more education so we are staying in school longer • Milestones are delayed (buying a home)  Discontinuous life course path(s)- limited job opportunities  Overqualified workers - Work to retirement transition has changed  Prolonged  Varied  ‘Bridge’ jobs  Corporate downsizing  Unemployment (rates are lower; but unemployed longer) • Rates of unemployment for younger persons is higher but for older people, when they lose their job it last longer  Ageism, discrimination • Older people are not hired that frequently after being fired than younger people because they stop learning efficiently and well especially in IT areas • Older workers face stereotypes that they can’t learn and work quickly Expansion of women service sector - People thought women would be good for nurturing professions such as child care - Real need for a secondary wage earner in the family is what caused women to go out and get a job • Cost of living starts going up • Consumerism and materialism grew • Changing ideas about wants versus needs • “wanting” became “needs”; necessities for families became important and so more money needed to be earned Women’s Labour Force Participation - Expansion of service sector - Changing ideologies - Need for a secondary wage earner • Men are no longer to earn family wage so they need their wives to work • Globalization fueled bad and unsecure jobs and so secondary wage earner was needed in case the first lost his job - Expansion in postsecondary education • Allowing more women into paid employment • Women getting education to get fulfilling careers - Women’s movement • Made postsecondary education possible • More and more women remaining in pay work after becoming mothers is a new movement whereas many women before left work after having kids - Changes in family life and fertility • Before women had to forego careers due to unplanned pregnancies but now they have options Key Trends - Unemployment • Among younger and older workers o Older workers have longer careers but stay unemployed longer once they are fired o Doesn’t impact all Canadians equally o Workers of colour, immigrants, aboriginals have higher rates of unemployment - Unionization • Declines o 1/3 of workers are unionized o Due to rise in non-standard work; more and more workers are working part time and part time workers are harder to organize o Also due to globalization as it has increased competition this meaning employers want cheaper labour (no union) o Union-density: The actual membership of a trade union as a percentage of the total possible membership o Canada has higher union rate than US and Japan but lower than Netherlands • Advantages of unionization o Being part of union provides workers with benefits like job security, safer working conditions, legal advocators o Unionized workers tend to have higher wages on average o Have access to collective bargaining: union negotiating with employer at the end of contract (wages, benefits) for employees Theoretical Perspectives - Structural functionalism • Davis and Moore • Financial rewards linked to importance of job • Critique: what about intrinsic rewards? Educational inequality • Critique: Canadians say that it is the most important that people they work with treat you with respect - Symbolic internationalism • Donald Roy (1909-1980) • “Banana Time” article published; he worked in garment factory and took notes on their interactions with each other, supervisors. Found that work was horrible, and boring, monotonous. Interactions show worker alienations • Banana Time was when a banana was stolen and hidden and workers would laugh, and enjoy that time • Workers friendship helps to overcome alienation - Conflict or Marxist Theory • Marx: Worker Alienation 1) Alienation from products 2) No control over production process 3) No creativity 4) Alienated from co-workers • Sabotage is a common response by alienation - Feminist Theory • Occupational sex segregation • Sexual harassment • Discrimination • Glass ceiling • Glass escalator (men working in female dominated jobs like social work) • Maternal wall • Gender disparities in earnings • Women are less likely to have authority In the workplace - Frederick Taylor • Scientific management • Time every activity and the manager should have those records • Management “stop watch” control over production • Minimize “soldiering” (slowing down work through any means) - Henry Ford • Extends scientific management through technology (assembly line) • Problematic for workers because it causes alienation and is not valuing workers - Max Weber • Modern bureaucracies (any large corporation or institutions that organize themselves hierarchically) • Rationalization • Hierarchy • Formal protocol • “been caught in red tape”- represents worker in a bureaucracy - Michel Foucault • Worker surveillance • Physical to non-physical means of discipline • Corporal punishment as means of controlling workers has disappeared but is being replaced by non-abusive monitoring - Ritzer: McDonaldization • Efficiency, Calculability, Predictability, Control • These govern each McDonalds outlet and are applied to food and retail industries Politics and Social Movements Arab Spring • An interactive timeline of Middle East protests (Egypt) • Mohammed Boyceus sold fruits at a street stand, the police confiscated his stand, and he set fire to himself as a protest. They were protes
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