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Stephanie Ross

Sociology Exam Review Race and Ethnic Relations • Ethnics groups are distinguished by ancestry, culture and location Sociological Perspective: • Focuses on inequality & power • Social stratification of categories of race and ethnicity • Focuses on discrimination • Sees how race and ethnicity is not fixed but fluid and the statuses are acquired by social definition and can change overtime • Race is a biological myth, and it is socially constructed Ethnicity • Sociologists don’t agree on a proper definition of what ethnicity is • Objective definitions- believe that ethnicity exists because of people’s social attachments, ethnicity is what ppl possess because that is what makes us different (diff languages, culture) • SubjectiveApproach- process of ethnic identification, ethnic groups made up of people who identify themselves. Creates a “we” feeling of belonging. Race • Race used to be analyzed in social and natural sciences • Before, people used to categorize others as belonging to a race due to attaining specific features • But realized genetic differences between groups are tiny and insignificant • Ethnic boundaries are flexible, negotiated and historically variable Institutional Racism • racist practices built into prominent structures • Institutional practices are based on racist ideas (Canadian history w/ Chinese head tax) • Institutional practices arose from racist ideas (migrant workers that are brought over to Canada) • Institutions restrict life chances of certain groups aka systemic discrimination-- (height and weight requirements for jobs) New Racism • Martin Barker -- looked at the way racist ideas were expressed in British Parliament when speaking up about Britain Immigration Policy, because the policy only permitted people from countries that were British colonies • New Racism involves the beliefs that although races can’t be ranked biologically, they are different from one another and when they try to group themselves together, there is probs that are created Theories of Race & Ethnic Relations Social Psychology • focuses on how prejudice and racism are forms of hostility that arise from frustration, people frustrated when achieving a goal respond w aggression, they take out their frustration on the less powerful, • But there’s better way to deal with problems. This theory does not explain why certain groups are chosen as scape goats Primordialism • Seek out to be with people who are similar to us in terms of language, culture etc • Ethnic prejudice and racism are ways of maintaining social boundaries • criticism- it does not explain why we hurt people of our own kind Normative Theories • How prejudice is transferred through agents such as socialization • Socialization approach- shows how we are taught at a young age of prejudice through families, media etc • Emphasizes the way that prejudices are learned through interaction • Criticism- unable to explain how the prejudice ideas arose in the first place Power Conflict Theories • Karl Marx says that racism is an ideology, a set of statements shaped by economic interests and how the world works, racism is used by capitalists to justify the exploitation and unequal treatment of people, helps justify why certain groups get lower pay etc • Criticism- this does not explain the past (Chinese head tax) Split Labour Market Theory • Racial and ethnic conflict is rooted in differences in the price of labour • Employers try to replace high paid worker with low paid non white workers. • Cheaper non white workers are victims between process of class struggle, expensive labour and capitalism.. examples (Aboriginals, blacks, recent immigrants) Aboriginals • Health status as national tragedy, same living conditions as third world • Higher death rates and infant mortality • Reserve & residential systems impact children b/c ripping them from home & culture Black men • higher unemployment because of their lack of education Recent immigrants • More immigrants experience upward mobility, Canadians do not recognize their credentials and therefore, they get neglected. Work in bad conditions w low pay Culture of poverty thesis • Problematic cultural values explain poverty among groups, used the examples of theAboriginals who were at unfair advantage • Criticism- people born into poverty but that does not mean they have a lack of economic success Conflict Theory • Focuses on historical exploitation and material conditions of life, there is exploitations of people.. text book uses examples of aboriginals shows the problem of inequality in terms of power imbalances and how they got exploited Family Class Immigrants • Families who already have family in Canada, come over because they know they can get the support they need, and they have someone to sponsor them to come Economic Immigrants • Skilled workers, migrant workers that come to Canada only to make a better living for themselves Vertical Mosaic • Porter said Canada is a vertical mosaic, a society where ethnic groups tend to occupy different and unequal positions in the stratification system, economic rewards given to people is based on ethnicity, comparing the earnings of whites and non whites. • Social groups are ranked according to power because of income, power and prestige. This vertical mosaic accentuates how distinct cultures and ethnic inequality SIQ • Lautard and Guppy stated that occupational differentiations is declining over time, occupational stratification so the good vs bad jobs is declining, but ethnic origin is still affecting occupational inequality Religion • Durkheim stated that religion can affirm nothing that Science denies • Sociologists only answer specific questions like who believed they have experienced God? who believes in life after death? What people mean by spirituality? The impact religion has on societies Theoretical Traditions Marx and Conflict • Believed that religion is a human creation • Religion is for the economically deprived, he states it soothes the disadvantaged like a narcotic • People who hold power encourage religious beliefs as a process of exploiting them (if you work hard u will be rewarded later mentality) ex. slaves, religion helped them be better slaves Structural Functionalism/ Durkheim & Collectivity • Durkheim stated that religion’s origin is social, people who share common sentiments and they form a collective conscience, they tend to associate themselves with a supernatural reality and add symbolic meanings to things (ie a cross) • Religion is functional bc it meets all of our needs(spiritual & emotional). Religion creates moral boundaries and social solidarity • There is organic solidarity -where there are a plurality of beliefs Symbolic Interactionsim • Role played by religious symbols, how people define their religiosity.. • Max Weber & Ideas- God conceptions are related to the economic social and political conditions in which people live, monotheism is related to goals of political unification, calvinism allows capitalism to flourish Feminist Theory • How religions subordinate or empower women Charles Glock & Rodney Stark • Religion is concerned with discovering life’s meaning and human perspectives are concerns with making life meaningful, most Canadians are Catholic and Protestant • Religions all attain beliefs, practices, experience and knowledge components (these are dimensions of religiosity) OrganizationalApproach • Religion like an organization, you need to have membership, goals, norms roles and sanctions, and success Individual Centered Explanations of Religion • Reflection- explanation for why people who on spiritual journey, ask bigger questions-- to understand meaning • Socialization-Religious commitment is an act of learning, this is tied with the socialization of the family whether u believe in religion or not • Deprivation-Mostly economically deprived people become the most religious (suicide bombers) Societal Level Explanations • Secularization Thesis- Increasing industrialization and post industrialization contribute to the decline and importance in religion • Persistence Thesis- Religion persists in industrial and post industrial societies, because people continue to address questions of meaning and purpose Globalization • Has made our culture more homogenized, world wide exchange of goods and services, we now have time spaced compression which suggests that we are no longer slowed down by long distances and time differences, and we also now have virtual communities where we are able to communicate more efficiently The global and the ethical • Consequences of globalization affects human lives and it affects the environment • Globalization has brought capitalism & capitalism has caused various inequalities(evident through diff strikes like (Tunisian square-- protest about university guy, couldnt find a job got fruits taken away) Top Down Vs. Bottom Up Globalization • Top Down Globalization- the action of groups promoting globalized capitalism and free trade, has been dominated by neo liberal economic policies which have been prevalent in both rich & poor countries. Associated with the United States, bc it promotes neo liberal policies • Neoliberalism- associated w retreat from state spending and regulation, a focus on individual responsibility for one’s own welfare. • Neoliberal Policy- little government intervention, let the market regulate itself.. this causes crisis in the country (subprime mortgage crisis in the us) • Globalization from below (bottom up)- describes the actions of groups that criticize the injustices that result from globalization processes, advocate for democracy, environmental protection and social justice in the global system. Against neo liberal forms of globalization Rise of Financial Capital • Money used for investment, currency and trading is the financial capital, grown faster than production and trade • The rise of financial capital has been labelled as casino capitalism because they stand to make or lose millions of dollars in short periods-- allows people to make money more quickly, the problem is that it makes our financial market unstable. There is declining profits and over capacity in goods and services. Growth of Corporate Giants • Big corporations do not have to pay big taxes, they are paying less now than in the 1990s, they are more bigger and powerful than many national governments, (ie, reduction in corporate taxes in Canada form 2000-2010 decreased Canada’s revenue by 12M • Evident inequality bc overtaxing of low and middle class but not with the rich • Critics of corporate power- Bottom up globalizers react to this, criticizes because of labour practices, environmental sustainability, animal welfare and relationships with the military industrial complex • There is a political vacuum because corporations are growing in strength and governments are losing ground to corporate power and to international institutions like WTO • People wonder if the age of globalizations means the end of the state system Political and Economic Establishment • Advertising/Branding- People are identifying themselves with brands, as they see it as a life quality, it took them more $$ to buy it but they can’t afford it with their wage Global Consumer • Global Commodity Chain- network labor and production processes who’s end result is a finished commodity, (when u eat a tomato u dont think about work put in 2 get it) Consumers • High consumer spending increases economic growth • Consumerism- a way of life where a person’s identity and purpose is oriented primarily to the purchase and consumption of material goods • Global spread of consumerism has been criticized as a form of cultural imperalism- corporations are exporting a Western way of life throughout the world. • There’s signs of antagonism towards the Western style of consumerism, corporations like Nike, Coke, Barbie. • Bottom up globalization wants things like fair trade, to develop consumer products that are environmentally sustainable and produced by workers that are paid well. (Fair trade movements for coffee) • There is ecological consequences for consumerism as well-- pollution etc. They do forms of culture jamming, the marketers know exactly what the public wants. • There’s ad busters- non profit organization, they show the real truths behind consumerism (do protests) Wage Labour and Wage inequality • People gain access to food, water and shelter directly through their work in some countries rather than receiving a wage • Urbanization increases, the use f wage labour spreads across the world • There is a disparity in global wages present, we see trend of agricultural work in Canada (people come here, no benefits minimum wage) because they want cheap labour • Export Processing Zones-An area where people go to assemble goods at low cost and export. Slave work, people are forced to be there. Global Food- What would help is if we do a local purchasing movement, environment and the world is affected by getting food. Fossil fuels are produced, mass fishing etc. Because of global food production there is deforestation, soil erosion. Anti Globalization • Anti neo liberal economic policy, we need socialist intervention, government needs to protect ppl exploited • Structural adjustment policy- poor countries borrowing money from the world bank, set of things countries have to do to borrow money (cut down public spending) impacts other people, poor countries struggle to pay back the interest Ch. 23 SIQ • Globalization next phase in the evolution of world capitalism • Neo liberalism introduced after the 1970’s after an economic crisis, this caused the cheapening and manipulating of labour world wide • Transition from local to global, domestic markets no longer necessary • After neo liberalism, there has been no development in regards to people maintaining a decent living, it has gotten worse • As inequality arises democracy deteriorates & society expresses social decay, political violence • Development not possible now because there needs to be a democratization of social life. Development there needs to be an intervention of authority to renew and redistribute resources to the poor, neo liberalism does not do that, they only benefit the elites and the upper class Work and the Economy • Organization of work shifted during the Industrial Revo • Division of labour expanded, work done by skilled people was broken down into smaller components to semi skilled workers who got paid less • Second Industrial Revo in Canada, large corporations buying smaller ones, Henry Ford contributed to the expansion, this led to the expansion of “white collared” jobs, all these changes amounted to an increased division of labour • Since 1970 labour market changed dramatically in Canada-- workers over 55 putting more participation, workers at 65 delaying retirement, Canada’s population getting more educated • There is also a change as Canada has a growing reliance on immigration to meet the demand for skilled workers Good vs Bad Jobs • Good jobs provide things like extrinsic rewards- higher pay, benefits, bonuses etc. Good jobs also provide intrinsic rewards- decision making opportunities, challenging, non repetitive work etc • Service based economy is what Canada is leaning towards, but service jobs do not necessarily mean bad jobs Non Standard Jobs • It is now a central part of the economy, also known as precarious jobs. You don’t have a standard fixed schedule for yourself (part time jobs etc) they lack job security-- hired for short term. • Non standard job happened because of functional/internal flexibility, which was allowing employers to move employees around from one job to another • Also, it happened because of external/numerical flexibility- enables employers to adjust the size of their work force by easily hiring & firing workers • People in this job, are felt as if they are non persons because they are isolated from full time employees, they work at greater risks, higher isolation and abuse. Polarization of working hours • Notice a trend where some Canadians are overworkng and some have the opposite problem • Reasons could be because of choice, some people do not want to work bc they have family they need to attend • Non Standard Work Schedules- Basically anything that isn’t a 9-5 or working non standard days like Sat & Sun • The impact of technology has us connected to devices that allows employees to work at any given time Labour Market Segmentation • Shows that where you enter the labour market may limit your chances of getting a different better job. • Jobs are divided according to their location in the core of the economy (automobile industry) Core industries are large, unionized and capital intensive • Periphery in contrast, is characterized by lower tier service jobs (smaller, labour intensive, low pay) • Primary labour market- This is a market where you can move up in the company, provides more opportunities • Secondary labour market- doesn’t provide much of a ladder, stuck where you’re at. • Job Ghettos- prevents certain groups of workers from experiencing upward mobility, structural barriers bc of stereotypes work to keep some individuals from entering the primary labour market. • People with disabilities face this, minorities, aboriginals and youngest and oldest workers experience this Structural Functionalism • Davis & Moore- financial rewards linked to the importance of the job, the critique was based on educational inequalities Symbolic • Donald Roy- Talked about Banana time, how workers used comedy to help overcome the way that they were feeling during alienation (workers in garment industry) Conflict • Marx- Perception of alienation, how workers are alienated from what they produce. Have no control over how something should be made, the price etc, have no creativity and they are alienated from other co workers Feminist • Occupational sex segregation horizontal- within the industry and vertical- outside • Sexual harassment, glass ceiling effect and gender disparities in earnings Frederick Taylor (Taylorism) • Scientific management, - regain direct control of the labour processes • controlled work- workers working every second • Management, stop watch over production • Human Relations School Of MGMT- showed the importance of the social aspects of work friendly relationships with workers increases co operation and productivity Henry Ford (Fordism) • Extends scientific management through technology, assembly line, • advanced division of labour- workers stood in one spot and did whatever was assigned to them, he worked off of taylorism (alienation of workers) Max Weber • Bureaucracies are the most efficient and rational type of organization that ppl have created • Complex division of labour ensures that workers know what is required of them and helps to identify who is responsible when something goes wrong • Also saw bureaucracies as a mechanism for overcoming arbitrary decisions and corruptions • Believed increasing bureaucracies can be the fate of modern society. McDonaldization (Ritzer) • work places, schools and cultures are taking on the characteristics of the fast food restaurant • 4 components to this... • Most efficient way to complete a task • Emphasizing things in a way it can be calculated • Creating predictable product and experience • Setting up systems of control to standardize the work of employees Foucalt • Worker surveillance, videos etc • Physical to non physical means of discipline • People fear their employers, they are being watched Unionization • There has been declines, but there is advantages to being part of a union (more job security, better productivity etc) Job Satisfaction • Hard to measure, some people lie and it depends on the circumstances (ie in the financial crash 2007- 2008 people said they were satisfied to having a job only because they didnt get laid off) Politics and Social Movements ∙Ch 18 NS ∙Ch 19 SIQ Theoretical Perspectives
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