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McMaster Sociology Final Exam Review.docx

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McMaster University
Sandra Colavecchia

Sociology Exam Review Race and Ethnic Relations ASociological Perspective - Focus on inequality, power and discrimination - Race & ethnicity as socially constructed, achieved statuses & biological myth Objective Definition of Ethnicity: Ethnicity as fixed & static i.e. language, culture, customs etc. Subjective Definition of Ethnicity: Ethnicity is self-defined by individuals who may identify as being part of a cultural group or not i.e. “being Canadian” Institutional Racism - Discriminatory racial practices built into institutions - 3 forms 1. Based on racist ideas (Japanese placed in camps during war) 2. Institutional practices that were originally racist but no longer are (Mexican & Caribbean’s only being allowed to work in the summer) 3. Institutions that unintentionally restrict the chances of certain groups (racial profiling) New Racism: Racism has taken on new forms (cultural differences opposed to biological differences) i.e. unequal treatment, - Prejudice = Hostility - Discrimination = Unequal treatment White Privilege - Unearned privilege that whites benefit from - Concept developed by Peggy McIntosh Feminist &Anti-Racist Scholar 3 Groups Facing Inequality - Aboriginals (economic and health outcomes) - Black men (economic outcomes suggest persistent discrimination) - Recent immigrants (poorer outcomes as compared to earlier waves of immigrants) Theoretical Perspectives Social Psychology: Frustration-aggression theory, frustration over blocked opportunities leads to racism against racial & ethnic minorities Primordialism: People seek out others who are similar, helps maintain social boundaries Normative Theories: Prejudices are learned through agents of socialization Marxist Theory: Racist ideology useful to capitalists because it prevents class consciousness and justifies lower wages, Economic interest  Slavery  Racism Split Labour Market Theory: Racial & ethnic conflict is rooted in the cost of labour, non-white workers are victims of conflict between white workers & capitalists Culture of Poverty Thesis: Problematic cultural values explain poverty among ethnic and racial minorities Conflict Theory-Internal Colonial Model: Focus on historical exploitation and material conditions of life, EX. Historical legacy of discrimination of aboriginals by Canadian government connected to today’s inequality Lautard and Guppy 1. Occupational differentiation (“job clustering”): declining over time 2. Occupational stratification (“good vs. bad jobs”): declining over time - Ethnic origin continues to affect occupational inequality Religion Religion:Attempts to measure religiosity (methodological issues) level of religiosity among Canadians - Approaches to the study of religion - Churches vs. sects - Organizational approaches (i.e. membership, goals) “Person-Centered Explanations” 1) Reflection 2) Socialization 3) Deprivation “Structure-Centered Explanations” - Secularization vs. persistence Globalization - Shrinking of the world, time-space compression - Countries are interconnected politically, economically, culturally - Travel, migration & communication - Digital divide Globalization and Food - Locavore Movement: Low carbon diet, 100 mile diet, locally grown food - Local purchasing movement (local economy movement) Top-Down Globalization - Capitalism (overcapacity, taxes, global commodity chains, cultural imperialism) - Financial capital (casino capitalism) - Neo-liberal economic policy - Critique of neo-liberal economics: Subprime mortgage crisis in US sets off global recession Subprime Mortgage Crisis - Housing values declined, interest rates increased, lead to increase in mortgage delinquencies & foreclosures - Subprime mortgages were held as securities for financial firms - Decline in capital, credit-tightening and global recession resulted Anti-Globalization - Bottom-up globalization, alternative globalization, global social justice movement - Democracy, equality, economic & environmental sustainability, critique ofAmerican hegemony - Anti-Neoliberal economic policy - Fair trade - Economic & environmental sustainability - Anti-consumerism (i.e.Adbusters, culture jamming, Subvertisements) Work and the Economy Structural Functionalism - Davis & Moore - Financial rewards linked to importance of Job - Critique: What about intrinsic rewards & educational inequalities Symbolic Interactionism - Donald Roy (1909-1980) influenced by Marxist theory - “Banana Time” observed daily interactions between workers due to boredom - Worker Camaraderie helps to overcome alienation Marx: WorkerAlienation 1) Alienation from products 2) No control over production process 3) No creativity 4) Alienated from co-workers Feminist Theory - Occupational sex segregation & discrimination - Sexual harassment - Glass ceiling, escalator & maternal wall - Gender disparities in earnings Frederik Taylor (1856-1915) - Scientific management - Management “stop watch” control over production - Minimize “soldiering” Fordism: Extends scientific management through technology (assembly line) Max Weber - Modern bureaucracies - Rationalization - Hierarchy - Formal protocol - Critique of modern bureaucracies (they can sometimes be irrational) Michael Foucault: Worker surveillance, physical to non-physical means of discipline Ritzer: McDonaldization - The characteristics of the McDonald’s empire are increasingly being applied to other realms - Characteristics: Efficiency, calculability, predictability, control Key Trends - Dramatic changes in labour market in past 3 decades - Demographic change (aging population) - Globalization and deindustrialization - Polarization of jobs: - ‘Good’jobs in primary labour market (internal job shelters) - ‘Bad’jobs in secondary labour market (job ghettos) - Non-standard employment - Work to retirement transition has changed i.e. prolonged, ‘bridge jobs’unemployment etc. - School to work transition has changed i.e. prolonged, discontinuous life paths - Increase in women’s labour force participation linked to service sector, changing ideologies, need for secondary wage earner, expansion in postsecondary education, changes in family life & fertility - Unemployment: Among younger and older workers - Unionization: Declines, advantages of unionization Politics and Social Movements Pluralist Theory: Power widely shared by various groups Elite Theory - Power held by: 1) Largest companies 2) Executive branch of government 3) The military Instrumental Marxist: Economic elites control the government because: 1) Economic elites become political leaders 2) Government officials refer to economic elites for political advice 3) Big businesses support political parties through campaign dollars Structural Marxists: Government is constrained to work within capitalism and can’t ignore best interests of capitalists Power-Balance Theory: Power is not only held by elites but by others & shifts over time EX. Cross- national comparisons in rates of unionization State-Centered Theory: Argues that the state can structure political life quite separate and apart from economic elites and take a life of its own Relative Deprivation Theory: When individuals lack resources that are likely to mobilize & form social movements Resource-Mobilization Theory: Social movements emerge when people have enough resources to demand changes CH 19 Dr. LeDuc - Canadian politics are characterized by a dealigned electorate & brokerage politics Political Engagement - SES & political engagement - Youth & political activity - Non-voting political engagement (and predictors of) Lesbian & GayActivism - Dr. Tina Fetner’s (2008) How the Religious Right Shaped Lesbian & GayActivism -
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