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2C06 E - Outline - 7 January.doc

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Denis Wall

SOCI2C06E – Deviance 7 January Social disorganization and deviance Reading - Deutschmann, ch. 7 I. Durkheim on social disorganization Durkheim’s theory of social change / social differentiation i. - mechanical solidarity: social bonds, based on common sentiments and shared moral values, that are strong among members of preindustrial societies ii. - organic solidarity: social bonds, based on specialization and interdependence, that are strong among members of industrial societies Integration and regulation i. integration to social groups and their goals: integration involves the maintenance of interpersonal ties – that one is a part of a larger collectivity ii. regulation by the collective conscience (values, beliefs, morals about what is right and wrong) regulation limits individual aspirations and needs, and keeps them in check (e.g. limitations on greed, over-spending, over-eating, under-achieving …) 1 Social Cohesion / Social Solidarity Two societal ‘needs’ (requisites / functions) Integration - involves the maintenance of interpersonal ties and the perception that one is a part of a larger collectivity - unless individuals can be integrated to a larger collective and its goals, they become egoistic, or self-centered, in ways that are highly destructive to their psychological well-being Regulation - regulation by the collective conscience (values, beliefs, and general social groupings): regulation limits individual aspirations and needs, keeping them in check - the regulation of individuals’ aspirations, which are potentially infinite, prevents anomie (or normlessness) Durkheim’s theory of suicide FATALISTIC over-regulated (“+“) Mechanical societies EGOISTIC R under-integrated (“-“) E Organic societies G U L INTEGRATION A T I ALTRUISTIC O over-integrated (“+“) N Mechanical societies obligatory optional acute ANOMIC under-regulated (“-“) Organic societies 2 Low social solidarity = high rates of anomic suicide High social solidarity = high rates of altruistic suicide Equilibrium of social solidarity = low rates of both types of suicide *Durkheim’s great contribution was his recognition that deviance (e.g. suicide) is caused by the same forces that maintain conformity in social systems: Excessive or insufficient attachment and excessive or insufficient regulation will cause varying forms of deviance in a social system. *Anomie: “the condition of normlessness in which values and norms have little impact and the culture no longer provides adequate guidelines for behavior”. For Durkheim, a situation of strain (e.g. sudden divorce or financial ruin) produces anomie (a state wherein there are no limits on acquiring one’s needs or desires – Hobbesian ‘state of nature’), which in turn increases the likelihood of deviance. 3 Mortality rates due to suicide per 100,000 by age and sex, Canada, 1998 4 5 II. Chicago School on social disorganization Robert E. Park Ernest W. Burgess 1- social pathology period (reformist, clergy – pre-1920s) 2- the social disorganization period (Chicago School – 1920s-1930s) 6 Zone 1 – Central business district with few residents but the hub of banking and business during the day Zone 2 – Zone of transition. Once an area of considerable affluence but now decayed and characterized by multi-occupation. The least expensive zone for housing – first settled by new immigrants Zone 3 – Respectable working class district Zone 4 – Suburbia. The pleasanter middle class districts further out of the city Zone 5 – Outer fringe of the city where the wealthy live 7 Chicago theorists treated the city of Chicago as an urban laboratory. 1. Social disorganization and social pathology at the societal / structural / macro level: Causal order: Rapid social changes → breakdown of norms → bad neighborhoods → increase in deviant activities = social pathology (“society is sick”) Rapid social changes: 1. Urbanization (growth of cities and urban density) 2. Migration (influx of new immigrants) 3. Immigration (newly arriving immigrants, e.g. Polish immigrants to Chicago in the 1920s) 4. Industrialization (growth of manufacturing) 5. Technological change (for example automobile assembly line production but also computer technology and its impact on society – compu
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