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2C06 E - Outline - 18 and 25 March.doc

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McMaster University
Denis Wall

SOCI2C06 – Deviance 18 March and 25 March Stigma and labeling: Acquiring a deviant identity Readings Adler & Adler, ch. 20: Pager, “The Mark of a Criminal Record” Adler & Adler, ch. 21: Chambliss, “The Saints and the Roughnecks” Adler & Adler, ch. 29: Simi and Futrell, “Negotiating White Power Activist Stigma Stigma and labeling: Managing and resisting a deviant identity Readings Adler & Adler, ch. 23: Degher and Hughes, “The Adoption and Management of a “Fat” Identity” Adler & Adler, ch. 30: Roschelle and Kaufman, “Fitting in and Fighting Back: Homeless Kids’ Stigma Management Strategies” Adler & Adler, ch. 31: Martin, “Collective Stigma Management and Shame: Avowal, Management, and Contestation” Adler & Adler, ch. 38: Turvey, “Autoerotic Sexual Asphyxia” Adler & Adler, ch. 47: Howard, “Obstacles to Exiting Emotional Disorder Identities” Interactionist approaches George Herbert Mead on the self Two components to the ‘self’: - the ‘I’: the spontaneous and creative component of the ‘self’ - the ‘me’: the social component of the ‘self’ - in response to the public’s continual reaffirmation of a negative ‘me,’ the ‘self’ has three options: i. - it can accept the reaffirmation of a negative ‘me’ ii. - it can change the reaffirmation of a negative ‘me’ by presenting a new image ii. - it can challenge and contest this reflection of the public’s reaffirmation of a negative ‘me’ 1 - how people view ‘reality’ depends on: i. - the content or the meaning of an interaction ii. - the situations in which interactions take place iii. - the interpretation of interactions (subjective: ‘deviance is in the eye of the beholder’) iv. - how the subjective interpretations result in particular kinds of behavior - positive and negative stigma: - public stigma - self stigma Kai Erickson ‘Deviance is not a property inherent in certain forms of behavior, it is a property conferred upon those forms by the audience which directly or indirectly witnesses them’ 2 Howard Becker’s ‘audience reaction’ approach ‘Social groups create deviance by making rules whose infractions constitute deviance, and by applying those rules to particular people and labeling them as outsiders. From this point of view, deviance is not a quality of the act a person commits, but rather a consequence of the application by others of rules and sanctions to an “offender.” - master status - secondary deviance - moral entrepreneur - e.g. Adler & Adler, ch. 21: Chambliss, “The Saints and the Roughnecks” Frank Tannenbaum’s ‘dramatization of evil’ approach ‘the process of tagging, defining, identifying, segregating, and describing an individual for the purpose of special treatment’ Edwin Lemert’s ‘societal reaction’ approach i. - primary deviance ii. - secondary deviance iii. - tertiary deviance (resisting and managing the deviant label) 3 The deviantisation process (the process of becoming a deviant) i. - individual is caught and then publicly identified ii. - others begin to think of the caught /identified individual differently iii. - individual develops a ‘spoiled identity’ (stigma) when his/her reputation is tarnished iv. - dynamics of exclusion: individual is removed from participation and membership in the collective v. - dynamics of inclusion: individual is labeled as deviant and thus more attractive to other deviants vi. - differential treatment of the deviant individual by significant others vii. - people react to this treatment (Cooley’s ‘looking-glass self’) and so the deviant internalizes the deviant label and comes to think of him or herself as the label (self-fulfilling prophecy) Erving Goffman on stigma - stigma: a brand or mark that brings disgrace (spoiled identity) - two types of stigmatized people: i. - the discredited are those who visibly vary from ‘ideal’ ‘normal’ humans - e.g. appearance deviants: ii. - the discreditable vary from ideal ‘normal’ humans in hidden ways - e.g. secret deformities and scars 4 - the awareness that stigmatized individuals have about their identity motivates them to hide their stigma through strategies of ‘passing’ and ‘covering’ - passing and covering: how individuals manage their spoiled identity i. - passing: disguising discreditable facts about one’s spoiled identity ii. - covering: disguising visible stigma about one’s spoiled identity Goffman on deviance and the ‘institution’ - the stated aims of institutions is to cure and rehabilitate the deviant but that in practice the institution tries to get the deviant to accept their deviant identity: - mortification of the deviant - institutionalization of the deviant - post-institutional experience of the deviant ‘The deviant returns home with no proper license to resume a normal life in the community. Nothing has happened to cancel out the stigmas imposed on him... the members of the community seem reluctant to accept the returning deviant on an entirely equal footing... if the returning deviant has to face the community’s apprehension often enough... he may respond to the uncertainty by resuming deviant activity.’ (Erikson) - rehabilitation has not worked: - atrophy of interaction skills - social discrimination - job rejection - police surveillance 5 Shaming Charles Cooley and the ‘looking glass self’: self-monitoring is only the first step of a dynamic social and psychological process: ‘A self-idea of this sort seems to have three principal elements: the imagination of our appearance to the other person; the imagination of his judgment of that appearance, and some sort of self-feeling, such as pride or mortification’ Shaming can take place in two ways: i.- self shaming ii.- shaming by others Harold Garfinkel on shaming and stigmatization ‘Conditions of successful degradation cer
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