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2Q06 Midterm Notes.docx

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McMaster University
Anna Janzen

Sociology of Gender 2Q06 Study Guide  “The Gendered Society Reader” (Kimmel) Important Readings with author names:  David: evolutionary themes to sex differences/adaptive differences  Robert: Testosterone and masculinity  Judith: “Biology as Ideology”: gender portrayed unrealistic in sports  Anne: “The 5 Sexes”: intersex/hermaphedite  Elaine: “Alberta Frontier”: Menstrual taboo/marriage for survival  Candis: “Alive and still kicking”: changing goals/agendas, control own bodies, feminism has a long way to go, problem of sexism  Shelby: “Gendered strategies of self”: Boundary work: People differentiate themselves from others/use a comparative self to situate themselves as superior to others, strategies of self = making fun of employees or boss to feel better about oneself, heroic masculinity, rejecting the feminine to build ego (puts females in a negative light)=BSHR  Stacy & Geraint: “Strenuous Hockey”: Violence & masculinity, hockey as manslaughter, butchery vs active spectacle = VHBS  *Gillian: “No Longer One of the Boys”: Barrier of motherhood, conceptual men  *Scott: “Household Labour”: Producing gender, division of labour, managing vs helping, normalizing atypical (strange) behavior  Nancy: “Gender in Women’s Hockey”: challenging masculine hegemony (power), sport ethic and how women should play hockey  Ellen & Angela: “Kindergarten”: Warrior narratives vs discourse of civil society, social contract  *Sarah: “Residential Schools”: Place, rested place, gendered place  Brenda: “Medical School”: Everyday racism, sexism, heterosexual classism  Karen: “Mass Media in Figure Skating”: performance of gendered images  Pamela Wakewich: “Women, Health and Body”: Bio-logies, body images, constructed “other  Anne Martin-Mathews: “Home Support Care Workers”: Home as haven, nexis of private and public spheres, gendered patterns of access  Definitions:  Androcentrism: places males at the centre of social and biological life. Females are subordinate in this position  Multiple jeopardies: when stereotypes about men and women are enmeshed with stereotypes of RSDSAA=RACE, CLASS, DISABILITY, SEXUALITY, AGE AND ATTRACTIVENESS  Sex: The condition of being make or female. Biological standpoint. Sex influences and determines gender and is arbitrarily related to one another  Sex Dimorphism: The division of the human population into categories of male and female. Dichotomy (right/wrong, black/white). Females are considered the opposite  Gender: Refers to masculinity and femininity. Refers to all expected and actual thoughts, feelings and behaviors associated with masculinity and femininity. Introduced by John Money  Biological Determinism: The idea that sex and gender are interchangeable. The belief that biological sex determines masculinity or femininity  Biological Sex: Not simply ‘male’ or ‘female’. When male sperm and female eggs unite they form a Zygot  Gender Stereotypes: Widely held beliefs about the defining characteristics of masculinity and femininity. Powerful influence upon our expectations, perceptions and evaluations of ourselves and others=EPE  Heuristics: Simple formulae that serve as mental shortcuts. They fit our perceptions of men and women to our stereotype  Hermaphroditism or Intersex: The biological condition of children born with ambiguous genitalia. Sex Discordance occurs at the hormonal, internal-reproductive or genital levels rather than at the genetic or chromosomal level  Transsexualism: People with unambiguous genitalia assigned at birth who voluntarily undergo to change their biological sex as much as possible. Gender Dysphoria is the belief that a person is trapped in a man’s body or vice versa. Transsexuals say their gender identity to be at odds with their sex assignment and socialization  Sexism: The “belief” that innate psychological, behavioral, and intellectual differences exist between men and women. These differences connate the superiority of one group and the inferiority of the other  Alpha Bias: Emphasis on the ways in which men and women differ (assumption that one sex is “superior” to the other)  Beta Bias: Minimizes gender differences  Gender Roles: Socially created expectations for masculine and feminine behavior. Comprise duties, responsibilities, rights and privileges associated with occupancy of status. Values and beliefs  Eve First, Then Adam Principle: Fetuses begin developing into a female first naturally. To be male “something” must be added  Gender Identity: A sense of oneself being male or female. Gender Dysphoria. Masculinity and femininity=gender dysohoria (brain)  Social Learning theory: The impact of the social environment on human behavior. Learned through 2 processes: External Reinforcement (behavior is determined by its consequences) & Modeling (imitation of ones behavior) which includes direct imitation and observational learning. This is learned with gender roles and identity at a young age through parents  Gender consistency: The awareness that ones gender is permanent or unchanging “If I am a boy I want to do boy things” (gender behavior)  Gender Behavior: Physical Appearance and sex characteristics that surround a specific gender. Includes gender consistency  Self-Socialization: Children accumulate gender stereotypes that guide their behavior  Ethnocentrism: The use of ones own cultural yardstick for judging ways of other people or societies  Social construction: Sex and gender are related through social learning  Sexuality: The range of activities that are designed to create erotic pleasure or response  Sexual scripts: How, where, with whom and under what circumstances one is to behave as a sexual being  Sexual orientation: The directionality of sexual scripts either towards oneself, another, or both sexes (heart)  Sexual preference: Matter of choice  Self Fufilling Prophecy: Stereotypes deny individuality. Posit
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