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Soc 2RR3 Exam Notes

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McMaster University
Prof Mai

1 Sociology 2RR3 Exam Review Wed. Dec 19 2012 @ 7:30 pm IWC 2 (10) (Weeks 7 to 12) Week 7: Energy, Climate Change and the Politics of Sustainability - Video: Tar Sands  Aboriginal communities tend to be the most effected - Chp. 12 - Because tar sands are out of sight the public is less concerned because they cannot see it Week 8: “We are not the savages” Indian Residential Schools Nation to Nation - Aboriginals consider themselves to be a nation within a nation - System of treaties vs. assimilation  one respecting and one attempting to erase Systemic Racism: pattern of behaviour, policies or practices that are of the structures of an organization and which create or perpetuate disadvantaged for racialized persons.  Pattern  Focuses on the outcomes  Not individuals, embedded in society  racialization: process of attaching race to a group based on certain criteria (label as fundamentally different) - Article: whites have different understanding of apology: thought an apology was enough – lets just move one  Laissez-faire racism: Aboriginal inability to forgive/forget The Principle of Discovery - Christopher Columbus - Conflict b/w Spain and Portugal: pope divides the world between the two  “Inter Caetera” 1493 - Discovery viewed through Christian European eyes  Non-Christians do not count: God given right to civilize non-Christian lands  “saved”: conversion would make them like Euros - England 1870: land to Hudson Bay Co. - Early relations one of co-operation: needed the natives because of their expertise - As Euros continued to arrive also got involved in trade with natives - French vs. English conflict: aboriginals align with various aboriginal groups and become military allies: Iroquois help England to win 7 years war - Co-operation and necessity tempered racism - promoting English settlement in NY: Daniel Denton 1670  Down plays Aboriginal presence rd - King George 3 : thanks natives and cost of peace; protect fur trade  Royal Proclamation 1763:  Significance: slide - Aboriginals title exists: land belonged to them and cannot be taken away with out treaty  Aboriginal and crown: prevent swindling between colonist and aboriginal who would try to trick them -- autonomous and self-governing - Royal Proclamation still valid - Treaties a mechanism for land transfer 2 - Still receive symbolic $ amount each year Aboriginal Views: Treaties - Treaties: what was said much more important than what was written down  often accompanied by exchange of sacred possessions: e.g. wampum belt - look to elders to find out what was said at the time - What was said vs. written down after conflict  use different language - Treaties understood under different motivations: Law, relationships between people – coexisting Post Confederation Treaties - need more land for settlement; fur trade declining - Natives decline in importance as traders and military allies: change the way gov viewed aboriginals - “the Numbered Treaties” 1871-1921 - In exchange for surrender of title to the lands, first nations: smaller parcel of land (reserves); annual payments SLIDE - Some areas treaties never signed therefore never seeded land to government Assimilation - Canada inherited all promises made to aboriginals by British - slide: define who was “Indian”: - Aboriginal by birth/blood - married/adopted - belong to a band  Power to define themselves taken away - 1857: “An Act to Encourage the Gradual Civilization of Indian Tribes in this Province and to Amend the Laws relating to Indians”  Enfranchisement: lose/give up Aboriginal status  men, 21 +, speak/read/write English or French, good moral character, free of debt – give up tribal affiliations and any future land claims - followed by 1869: self-gov on reserves: “an act for the gradual enfranchisement of Indstns, the better management of Indian affairs, and to extend provisions of Act, 31 Victoria”  Only men  Prohibited sale of alcohol to aboriginal  Compulsory enfranchisement: women who marry non-native men lose status Indian Act 1876 - Extended and consolidated previous crown policies of assimilation – slide  No longer autonomous self-gov  Movements strictly controlled  Natives rituals, festivals all considered illegal  Residential schools  Enfranchisement: uni degree lose status; doc/lawyer/clergy = lose status; extended marrying out rule: if you married a non-status you lost your status. - Many provisions protested - Amendments: Bill C-31 1985:  Eliminate enfranchisement provisions and gave back status  Bands develop membership codes 3  Eliminate patrilineal definition of eligibility  Two-generation “Indian status” rule: if two consecutive generations of status Indian marry non-Indians their offspring are no longer eligible for status  significant because high intermarriage rates  This clause: “abocide” – genocide of aboriginal people over long term - Daniel Paul: Genocide policy: Residential schools as a form of Genocidal policy (based on UN definition of Genocide – look in text) - Psychological intent to destroy a people. Ways of accomplished: killing, physical conditions; remove children - cannot get mortgage because land not theirs - Scholarship for aboriginals so we think they are getting all these benefits but we don’t see the path they have taken: lack supplies, some don’t even have high schools near by (barriers) Week 9: Keeping Canada White Building a Nation: Immigration to Canada - Chapter and article very critical of Canadian policy - One site where we articulate who we are as a nation, and what we want to achieve  large site of conflict - Also touch on other policy: education and cultural reproduction; public health; crime and security  Our ability to grow economically - touch on almost every area and reveal power and interest 1800s - Laissez-faire approach: - Colonial admin, merchants, explores - Loyalist from US  invited and offered free land - Euro fleeing conflict/poverty - Great potato famine in irleand - After thnfederation change in policy: no longer everyone come in Late 19 Century - “Canada, the last best west” - Settlers encouraged to come to Canada - Free land grants offered - Prairie settlement especially promoted - Also time of # treaties to gain more land - Ideal: British, US, French – Bottom: Italians, Slavs, Greeks, Jews, Asians, India, Blacks 1906-1952 Early Exclusion Policies - Barred immigration based on race, nationality, ‘fitness’ and political views: - 1885-1907: Chinese immigration act  head tax that started low than increased. Sikhs also had head tax at the time - 1908: Order in Council – “continuous Journey”  cant stay if you did not come on continous journey from Birth place to Canada e.g. the Kamogato Maru - 1914-15: War time Measures Act: no immigration from places that were at war with. Those here considered enemy aliens e.g. Japanese - 1919: Immigration Act - 1923-67: Chinese Exclusion Act – no Chinese immigration 4 - 1952: all these acts together and no homosexuals 1967 - Embarrassment to gov to have these kinds of laws – a paradigm shift - 1966: link labour to immigration  Human capital model: Point system: education, age, work experience, language, occupational demand, relatives - at the time considered a colour blind policy - had to score 50; later increased to 72 Categories of Immigration for Permanent Residence - Economic Class (62%) - Federal or Quebec skilled workers - Provincial/territorial nominee - Canadian experience class - Business - live-in caregivers - Family Class (26%) - spouce, partner, children  come after primary applicant who sponsors them - Grandparents  only stay 2 years and must buy private healthcare insurance and show wealth - Refugee Claims made in Canada (13%) - resettled refugees (UN asylum claimants) - Refugee claims made in Canada - Graph: change in composition  increase in Asians and decrease in Europeans - Vietnam war 70s-80s – contribute to increase in Asian immigrants - Technological changes: flow of info between countries (learn more about Canada), cheaper airfare - Euro economic prosperity and also long period of political stability  little reason to flee as in the past - transfer Hong Kong to China Explaining Paradigm Shift - Why did the gov abandon racist and discriminating selection criteria? - Normative change: ascendance of human rights and equality SLIDE The political economy of immigration - in this perspective, immigrants are central to process of capitalist expansion  cheap labour. Benefits: 1. Cost of training and educating workers is borne by other countries – brain drain 2. Immigrant socio-economic vulnerability makes them an exploitive workforce 3. Immigrant useful to employers as a way to disorganize the working class: divide and conquer; prevent unions ** works with the needs of capitalism Why we want immigration? - Humanitarian - counter the decline in birth rate - Work force Change in Point system - Point system changed over time: better match skills to economic interest - Works with political economy of immigration 5 - High point for language: research shows important for integrating into country - Young educated, better language ability Economic Action Plan 2012 - adds federal skills trade class - Canadian experience class: those educated in Canada  tighter match between labour needs and economic policy – the economy decides who enters - changing distribution of immigration category Emerging Regime of Precarious Workers 2008-2012 - 2008 marks the first time we had more immigrants entered on temporary basis than permanent - Public policy shaped by temporary work looks different than policy on permanent - flip side of outsourcing: bringing cheap labour to Canada - Graph: tem foreign workers - TFWPs are an increasing part of Canada’s federal immigration policy racialized and gendered - Canadian season agricultural workers  men – Mexico and Caribbean - Live in Care - women – Philippians, Caribbean - NOC C & D (low skilled workers) - Support: argue gives Canada way to manage labour demands. Also benefit labourer country because they send money - Critics: vulnerable class of workers; few opportunity for skill transfer; employment standards not practiced - despite name not temporary because they always come back  average 7-9 year with same employer - one of the most regulated is SAWP because negotiate by both governments SLIDE  when contracts are finished they must return home but employer has ability to request them back – incentive to maintain good relations Video: - language barrier= unsafe working conditions - given dirties jobs - often bad living conditions - how are these workers more vulnerable? - threat of deportation if employer unhappy - language and info barrier: don’t know their rights and employment laws - housing tied to employer: cant risk being homeless. Also bad conditions - What are some obstacles they face in the workplace?: - different perspectives of what is acceptable: they should live under same conditions as us Noc C&D pilot program - this evolution creates increasing “flexibility” for employers and correspondingly increasing insecurities for workers - unlike LCP, no pathway to permanent residency - unlike SAWP, no gov-to-gov contract agreement or oversight  don’t have to provide housing - majority of them in Alberta  goes against oil sands opening jobs for Canada - result in high unemployment among youth 6 Week 10: Privatization is Not a Cure: Healthcare reform in Canada Health as Private or Public Good - health inequalities= ways our lives are structured  explained socially - whether we see health as private or public good? Two broad Explanations - our life experiences will determine health  social status effect health – lower income more likely to get diabetes, heart dieses etc - race also interacts with social status - why?
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