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David Young

Erving Goffman - Alberta 1922 - BA - U of T - PHD - U of Chicago - Died in 1982 (60) - ―Presentation of the self in every day life‖ - influenced by I & ME discrepancy between ourselves+socialized selves (ME) Goffman‘s Dramaturgical Theory - see‘s social life as a series of dramatic performances, similar to theatre - people presenting themselves in a certain way - ―All the worlds a stage‖ – Shakespeare - analogy to the theatre o actor – given a position, follows society‘s script o role – behavior expected of a person based on norms – actor can stick to or go against script o stage – front stage (where actor peforms role for audience), setting (physical)  personal front-appearance(items that reveal actor‘s status-ie menus) and manner (tells audience type of role actors playing) back stage (actor can step out of role) o script o performance Impression Management = attempt to influence the views others have of them - occurs in the front stage The Self in Dramaturgical Theory - people engage to present a self that will be accept - most performances are successful (presentation of self) - Tries to avoid making mistakes in the performance - The audience sometimes has a stake in successful performance – displaying great interest or not noticing mistakes in the performance (ie. Date) Criticism of Dramaturgical Theory - A cynical view of people – calculating and selfish - Impression management seems to be a way for people to manipulate others - His theory rules out any human behavior motivated by altruism ―Stigma” - A mark or sign of disgrace - gap between what a person ought to be (virtual vs. social identity)-fat stigma - The dramaturgical interaction between stigmatized people and ―normal‖ Discredited stigma – known to audience members or assumed to be o A convicted criminal, blind person, wheelchair – audience knows they suffer a stigma. Stigmatized persons will engage in impression management - Discreditable stigma – audience cannot see stigma, it is unknown to them o A homosexual person who has a partial hearing loss, person who is a devil worshiper. Ie homosexual will engage in impression management and present himself as heterosexual Focused on people who have obvious, grotesque stigmas. Ie. People missing limbs Applies to many because most have experienced it or seen as difference ie. Race “Frame Analysis” =The basic frameworks of understanding available in our society for making sense of events (micro) -Schemata of interpretation How Do Frames Work? - In two main ways: 1. focus attention on our surroundings: relevant (in frames) or irrelevant(out of)  ie. Someone who uses a racist frame will focus on things that fit stereotypes 2.frames link relevant elements so that a particular ―story‖ is told or interpreted  ie. Racial stereotypes present an overall picture of that group of people -frames interpret behav (ie old lady stealing –criminal frame: shoplifting, security; psych:absent minded) -― statements (ie all women belong at home-patriarchal and feminist frames) -news use frames to reduce a lot of info down to something that is much easier for audience to understand -frame of conflict (amplifies polcy, news turns it into story about conservative vs. liberal) -news frames present less powerful groups negatively (ie management vs. strikers) ―all the world is NOT a stage‖ Evaluation(SI) Advantages of S.I. Theory: provided a much needed corrector to early theorists (bc they didn‘t focus on micro) Simmel->Mead->Goffman Criticisms: 1.Sci analysis (use qualitative analysis to see how people behave, not much use of quan.) 2.Key Concepts (vague/unclear ideas…ie ME and I – hard to operationalize concepts) 3.Large Scale Social Structures(ignores these bc focus on micro-should look at how cap affects behav) 4. Microscopic Approach (ie does not look at psych factors..too focused on social) Ethno-methodology: study of common sense knowledge and the range of procedures by which people make sense of and act on the circumstances in which they find themselves -It is less focused on theoretical ideas, and more rooted empirical observations (induction) -developed by Garfinkel late 1940‘s became big when he published ―Studies in Ethnomethodology‖ (late 1960‘s) What is studied? -not micro/macro, si interested on micro and actor, ethno are interested in methods (practices through which people produce an understanding of the social Analysis of Accounts -ways in which people explain, describe, criticize or idealize specific social situations -Ethnomethodolgists are interested in the nature of an account (ie missing a test, interested in how account is offered and accepted) -ethnomethodological indifference – they do not pass judgement on an account breaching experiments(early studies) ‗common sense‘, social rules or expectations are broken (to shine light on methods by which people make sense of situations) -breach: asked to be stranger in home, reaction: shock,anger,demanded explain., aftermath-harmony restored OR hard feelings Conversation Analysis  detail understanding of the fundamental structures of conversations, social rules governing convos -assumption:convos=sequential orgn,turn by turn basis, context shaped(content will shape context) -stable,orderly properties Methodology: examining convos in natural situs, videotape, requires highly detailed data -can analyze words, cut-offs, throat clearing, breathing,laughter,silence,re-starts,non-verbal STUDY 1 (gale Jefferson) – examining how people know when to laugh (structure designed to make other person laugh-speaker to place a laugh at the end AND within utterance) STUDY 2 (Phillip Glenn) – speaker usually laughs first in 2 party, someone other than in multi SHYNESS/SELF CONFIDENCE (Philip Manning, George Ray) – lab experiment on uni students, videotaped convos, 10 shy dyads/10 self confident, both ―setting talked‖, shy people 2 ½ more likely to go back, 8 more times likely to come back AUDIENCE REACTIONS: structures/social rules/procedures that come into play 1. Applause – independent, individual decision making; occurs immediately after pop remark 2. Booing – monitoring behave of others, signal=a murmur going through audience then booing(time lag) Analysis of Institutional Settings - an ethnomethodologist might be interested in looking at hospitals, police departments - Conventional sociologists who are studying institutional settings would be concerned w/ analysis of the formal structures and bureaucratic rules connected to that structure - Ethnomethodologists would be interested in the procedures and practices that people within these institutions do to make sense of things (ie crime rates-bureacratic), ethno would look at how to classify victim 1) Job Interviews (Graham Button) o Saw job interviews as sequential, turn-taking conversations that take place in a variety of institutional settings (moves onto something else, can‘t go back) o 3 structural procedures that the interviewer uses 1. The interviewer may indicate that the interview as a whole is over 2. The interview may ask another question that moves the discussion in a different direction 3. May assess the answer given in such a way that the interviewee is precluded from returning to it - what makes a job interview a job interview? what people to and in particular how they structure and organize their conversations that makes a job interview a job interview 2) Calls to Emergency Centres (Marilyn Whalen and Don Zimmerman ) - in normal telephone conversations we usually find that the opening of the conversation is structurally organized in a particular sequence (answer, greeting) - they found that certain events which would be ignored in normal telephone conversations are treated quite seriously (ie silence, hanging up-indicate assistance) Criticisms of Conventional Sociology Ethnomethodology vs. Conventional Sociology -Studies of institutional settings – approach studies in very different ways A. Conventional Sociologists Impose Their Own Sense of Social Reality(conventional don‘t pay enough attention to everyday world, do not examine structures(ie social rules governing things such as laughter, conversations), rely on their assumptions about how things work, distorts sr B. Using Scientific Techniques (stats cant capture social world, engage in coding(distorting..preconceived notions) C. Using descriptions of Phenomena (rely on research subjects to describe) D. Confuse Resources and topic (ie seeing speech as a resource that can be used to study norms, ethno sees speech as a topic-bc can reveal how social life is organized) Feminist Theory = system of ideas about social life and human experience that is developed from a woman centered perspective, interdisciplinary, tries to broaden sociology centered in two ways – takes as its starting point its situations and experiences as women Questions 1. What amount the women (draw attention to empirical are they present in social situ,if not y..ift they are what are they doing) 2. Why is all this as it is (theoretical explanations-developed gender in 1970s-(sex – bio) = deals with physical differences (gender – social concept) = deals with culturally learned behaviours(mas,fem) Men = aggressive, women= submissive 3. How can the Social World be changed to make it More Just? (theoretical exp. for empir issues) Social change (explain why women not present, come up w/ solutions) 4.What About the Differences among Women? women experience different due to different conditions(sex, ethnicity, location)-recently paid attention to bc fem theory was developed by white,midclass Types of Feminist Theory GENDER DIFFERENCE: -oldest, location&experience of women is different from men -stems from 2 basic ideas 1) differences between men and women are bio determined(challenge it) & social instituions need men and women to fill different roles(ie man to provide)  CULTURAL FEM: A branch of feminism that explores and even celebrates the distinctive social values of women and how those values are different of men - -argument:women=inferior, challenged by the first wave of feminists – emphasized the positive aspects of what they saw as ―the female character‖ or ―the feminine personality‖ th - In the 19 C these feminists also presented ideas about the role of the state(argued that the state and its institutions need to adopt these positive feminine values) coop,caring,non-violence - Empirical evidence: have changed since 19 Cth - Today,social values of women are different from the social values of men - Argue that women have disctintive standings of ethical judgments, a particular style of communication, have capacity for openness to emotional experience, have capacity for peaceful co-existence - +positive assessment of women&their social values, - does not explain origins of differences GENDER INEQUALITY Certain themes 1) inequality between men and women (women less power, $, opportunities even if in same circum) 2) results from orgn of society (not from bio differences) 3) can be overcome through social change (modifying structures toward egalitarian structures) LIBERAL FEM: branch of feminism that emphasizes how women are disadvantaged by cultural and ideological processes in the society-often reported in mainstream press (journalists) - ideas: inequality stems from process of socialization – imparts cultural ideas/gendered behavior -basis: institutions(fam,edu) encourage m and f to adopt behaviours to go into occupations that are gendered/socially defined as mas and fem (boys -> independent aggressive(become docs), females -> dependent, submissive(nurses, sec)) – encourages men to have more POWER than women -eliminating: happens bc of ideological processes, solution: changing ideas through policies (to prevent sex-role sterotyping in TV, discrimination for women going into jobs) -empircal evidence: media re-enforces it, study (2001) childrens lit published 95-99; sex-role stereotyping was prevalent ; Disney films filled with genderized notions(esp. Beauty and the Beast) -edu also re-inforces gender inequality(guidance counselors encourage students to pursue appropriate occu) - + draws attention to role of ideological processes(ie socialization), well-supported arguments - - fails to see real cause of gender inequality (where do ideas come in first place?-social structure); solutions limited to reformism rather than restructuring GENDER OPPRESSION: - situations of women as consequence of power relationships between men + women (men=oppressing,DOMINATION=dominant party succeeds in making subordinate an instrumentofitswill) -takes form of PATRIARCHY=privledges men in all aspects of life RADICAL FEM -how women are disadvantaged by relations of reproduction, adopts by USA fems,less influence Can/eur ideas: 3 basis for gender oppression 1=biology (capacity to reproduce) Shulanth Firestone ―THE BIO FAM‖ pregnancy and need for child care impacts the lives of women, making them econ dependent) 2= patriarchy(most rad fems talk about it) – bio differences between men/women produces unequal distribution of power 3=ideology (patriarchy as a system of power is supported by gendered ideologies, ideo about lov&motherhood perpeture gender oppression) FIRESTONE argues joy of birth = patri myth – myth sustains gender oppression (continue women w/ childbearing role) - eliminating gender oppression – restructuring society (initate revolution to gain control over repro – new repro technologies… or separatism-eliminating men and trad. Family structures from womens lives) - evidence of rad fem-evidence doesn‘t support some claims about patriarchy (that it is universal,transhistorical and transcultural) -relations between men and women were egalitarian in foraging societies but bio factrs remained (ie giving birth)There was sharing, coop and interdependence in these socities-men participatedin childcare,no private and public spheres yet - + calls for restructuring rather than reforming—social change, draws attention to patriarchy (first ones) - - treats patriarchy as universal (hasn‘t always existed), provides unclear solutions to gender oppression neglects issue of production while emphasizing repro (doesn‘t look at capitalism), focuses on pro-creative aspects of social life (ie child birth)-missing material aspect (domestic unpaid labour) STRUCTURAL OPPRESSION: - oppression (like gender)stems from interests of some groups being able to control,use,subjugate others -interested in analyzying domination enacted through social structures -social structures=recurring/routinized arrangements that arise out of history&reflect power arrangments there is a focus on structures such as capitalism, patriarchy, racism and heterosexism  SOCIALIST FEM: how women are disadvantaged by relations of production & reproduction in society (Marxist fem) disagreement between socialist feminists and other types of feminists The Basis for Gender Oppression: - two basis: Capitalism and Patriarchy - many socialist feminists are dual systems theorists (suggest that capitalism and patriarchy are two distinct systems that intersect in relation to the oppression of women) Sylvia Walby: - Walby makes a distinction between private patriarchy and public patriarchy - Argues that there has been a general historical shift from private patriarchy  public 1 – Private Patriarchy - exists in the domestic sphere - connected to reproduction under capitalism - exclusion of women from public roles - this type involves control by men over the labour of women - means that women work for men in the domestic sphere (meals, services) - essentially, in capitalist society the work that women do are all connected to with the fact that women help to reproduce the labour power of men 2 – Public Patriarchy - exists in the economic and political spheres - and it is connected to the capitalist production process - segregation of
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