Study Guides (247,940)
Canada (121,181)
Sociology (303)
Midterm

Midterm Review

10 Pages
251 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Sociology
Course
SOCIOL 2U06
Professor
Sandra Colavecchia
Semester
Fall

Description
Sociology 2U06 Midterm Review Defining Families:  Chapter 1 Luxton, Fox “Conceptualizing Family” o “…relationships that bring people together on an ongoing and daily basis to share resources for the sake of caring for children and each other.” o People actively create their own families  Chapter 2 Felicity Edholm “The Unnatural Family” o Family is not biological but socially constructed o Nuclear family is not universal o Notion of “blood ties” is not universal o Incest taboo is nearly universal o Social definitions is critical in determining sexual relationships that are incestuous  Definitions of family and marriage impact social policy and the personal decisions we make about our intimate relationships and families o Government uses definitions of family in creating social policy (ie. Compassionate Care Program)  Social reproduction o Physical needs o Emotional support o Socialization of children  Families as socially constructed (ie. Edholm: parent-child bond, rules around incest, conception)  Historical and cross-cultural variation in families  Also covered by Baker, chapter 1 o Extended families, polygamy, arranged marriages, patterns of authority and descent Trends in Family Life:  Chapter 1, Baker  Chapter 12, Fox  Chapter 1, Becker  Increased Diversity  Delayed marriage o Married-couple families are most common but are declining o Most people are postponing or foregoing marriage o Increased age at first marriage  Increasing divorce o Increased through the 1960-1980s o Blended families o A lot of research on the impact of divorce on children o Second marriages have higher rates of divorce  Declining fertility  Increasing cohabitation o Increasing across all ages, especially for younger people  Increasing lone-parent families  Delayed home-leaving  Increasing same-sex families Sociological Imagination and Sociological Theories  Chapter 2, Baker  Chapter 2, Becker  Concept of the sociological imagination – C. Wright Mills  Main Sociological Paradigms: o Structural Functionalism (order theory; macro)  Connection to biological/essentialist perspectives  Stability, equilibrium, consensus, functionality  View of families (social institution):  Heterosexual nuclear family is “natural”  Reproduction requires a man and a woman  Highlights the differences between men and women  Social institutions are interrelated and interconnected  Idea of consensus has been criticized  Not paying attention to the conflicts in society  Too conservative  Emile Durkheim  Structural Functionalist: Later 1800 – early 1900  Nuclear family is the most ideal because the sexual division of labour is functional for families and society  Criticized for the nuclear family  Criticized for not looking at the interest of individual family members  Justifies gender based inequalities  Talcott Parsons  Structural Functionalist: 1950s  Nuclear family is ideal  Strict sexual division of labour needed  Women performing the expressive role (nurturing children, emotional support)  Men performing the instrumental role (financial support)  Many institutions taking over the function of families (ie. Schools)  Women’s role not viewed as work  Bronislav Malinowski  Structural Functionalist: late 19 century – early 20 century  Nuclear family is universal  Believed men and women are biologically, psychologically and socially different o Conflict Theory (change theory; macro)  Karl Marx; economic conditions  Class conflict  Our material conditions of life determine how we view society  Feels workers are exploited  Critique: not all of us are victims of the social class structure, many of us can overcome it  Focus on class based inequalities and overlooking other inequalities  Production moves outside the home during the Industrial Revolution  Separation between public and private  Critique: focussed on paid work and ignoring “women’s” work  Frederick Engels  198s  Connections between paternity, private property, nuclear family and monogamy o Control women’s fidelity so men can make sure their property goes to their biological offspring  Marxist Feminist Theory  Sociologists like Meg Luxton argue that unpaid labour is essential for capitalism  Identifies capitalism as the primary source of women’s repression  Critique: Scholars that have looked at non-capitalist societies still see gender based inequalities  Focus is still on class based inequalities, not focusing on other inequalities  Not inclusive of all women o Symbolic Interactionism (change theory; micro)  Interactions create society – subjectivity  Critique: puts all emphasis on micro level interactions ignoring the macro level  Families are created in our everyday interactions or failure to interact, rituals and symbols  Critique: Canadian families are impacted by larger social structures (ie. Government policies) but is ignored o Feminist Theories (change theory; macro and micro)  Gender-based inequalities  Women’s social reality  Critique: Concept of patriarchy is problematic because not all men dominate over women and not all women are victims  Liberal Feminism  Radical Feminism  Inclusive Feminism  Other theoretical Perspectives: o Biological (Essentialist) Perspective o Postmodernism:  Critique of grand theories  No singular theory  Knowledge is fluid, contested  Family is contested, ambivalent, fluid Families and Foraging Society  Chapter 4, Fox “Women in an Egalitarian Society: The Montagnais-Naskapi of Canada” by Eleanor Leacock o Studied Montagnais-Naskapi of Labrador  Chapter 3, Becker  Non-privatized living arrangements  Norm of cooperation and sharing  No private property  Fluid gender roles  No class system no one owns the means of production  Sharing childbearing duties with the community  Strong traditions  Democratic decision-making  Monogamy is not the norm  Variation with marriage o Residence patterns o Coerced into marriage o Arranged marriage o Easy divorce o Married couple doesn’t have a private household o Not emotionally or economically dependent on their spouses  Children have a sense that all adults are seen as parents  Montagnais-Naskapi (Foraging) o Lack of hierarchy and authority relations o Gender equality o Fluid gender roles o Non-privatized living arrangements o Characterized by sexual openness  Montagnais-Naskapi (Fur Trade) o Division between private and public sphere o Division of labour by sex o Economic power for men o Economic dependence for women o Violence against women o Living as nuclear families  Children can no longer turn to the whole group o Private property Families and Agricultural Society  Cohen, Fox Chapter 6 “Patriarchal Relations of Production in Nineteenth Century Ontario” o Patriarchal property, inheritance and custody laws o “Patriarchal productive relations” (men ultimately owned women’s labour and the product of their labour)  Tilly and Scott, Fox Chapter 5 “The Family Economy in Modern England and France” o Family economies and family wage economies  Chapter 4, Becker  Household composition determined by labour requirements  Impermanence and discontinuity  Myths about: extended, large families, and strong family ties/obligation not supported  Debates about how children were viewed  Increasing gender division of labour  Women’s labour valued  Male legal authority  Social inequality  Layers of dependency  Interdependent households  Marriage is an economic arrangement Canadian Families in the Past  Chapter 3 Baker, consequences of colonization for aboriginals, family patterns among European settlers, experience of immigrants, changing patterns of parenting and childhood, changes in family law  Chapter 5, Becker Families and Industrialization  Chapter 7, 8, and 9 of Fox  Chapter 6, Becker  Families reliant on wages, but capitalism also reliant on families  Separate spheres, particularly for more affluent classes  Chapter 7, Hareven “Dynamics of Kin in and Industrial Community” o (1880-1930) kin networks among French Canadians who migrated to Manchester New Hampshire o Families who needed support didn’t have the state to rely on so they relied on their kin network o Kin provides resources such as labour and childcare and economic resources o Offer help because they know they may need help in the future  Exchange theory (calculations based on cost and benefit)  Many individuals, mostly women, didn’t follow this and subordinated their own happiness and interests for their familie
More Less

Related notes for SOCIOL 2U06

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit