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Lecture 1 - September 12, 2011 Sociology shapes decisions we make about our lives and how we shape our families  Divorce is increasing  Smaller families, fewer kids  Pressers of credentials  Delayed family starting  Opting to live alone increasing  Same sex marriages, cohabiting relationships  This diversity - creates a lot of uncertainty and challenges especially for those of us raised in traditional family structures Why are definitions of family important?  Important because they inform personal decisions we make about the relationships and families we build  Government policy making revolving around the definition of family o Compassionate care program (2004) o Financial benefits to care for a ill family member  Filial responsibility laws - grown children supporting elderly parents who are dire financial need even if they are estranged from their senior parents  If you’re on social assistance - there is very strict eligibility criteria  Assume male support in new relationships  “Man in the house rules” - problematic because they ignore the fact that a person getting involved might provide other support than financial  Welfare eligibility rules - have has the impact to deterring relationships o African Americans in the U.S and black families o Weakened black families and communities by replacing 3 generation households with separate two generational households  Economic sharing - was less likely among new relationships Marriage:  Inter-faith and interracial marriages were prohibited  Women’s welfare post relationship breakup - o Without legal protection many women and their children are vulnerable  Polygamy: marriage of one many to more than one wife  Families are socially constructed  Families have always been changing  More definitions are focusing on goal and work that families do Chapter 1 - Fox and Luxton  Examine definitions of family and implications  Definitions of family that statistics Canada has used for a ‘census’ family  Any unconventional family gets excluded  Fox and Luxton developed their own working definition of family - based on a feminist critique of earlier definitions particularly those by structural functionalist Look at definitions of family that look at biology   It makes it difficult for people who don’t fit the norm - making it problematic and making people want to conform Lecture 2 - September 15, 2011 Chapter 1 - Fox and Luxton  Families being the product of: o Ideological and cultural forces - ideas about families, marriage, motherhood, romantic love o Material and economic forces - economic production shapes and determines family life  Contemporary society - the ways that gender based inequalities in the labour market have implications for marriage and for family life. By reinforcing women’s dependence on men o Economic mode of production shapes family life Family life is shaped very differently in foraging societies o  Develop a definition of family: focusing on goals and activities rather than on specific roles  Social reproduction - how we get our basic needs met also the caring work (socializing children, caring for sick, elderly)  Neo-liberalism: individual responsibility and family members taking care of family members o Very little or no government interference in the market - don’t over regulate the market at all. o Privatizing basic services o Individuals are responsible for their own welfare and they should take care of themselves and not look at the government to take care of them Chapter 2 - Edholm The Unnatural Family  Heterosexual nuclear family viewed to be natural - which is problematic  Because it runs completely counter to tremendous anthropological evidence of diversity in families  Anthropological evidence: used to dispel idea of the naturalness of the monogamous heterosexual nuclear family living in a privatized household --  Conception - we assume it is recognized that the biological mother and father and their role in conception o Which is not accurate - there is a lot of diversity o Laker of Berma - don’t recognize women’s role in conception they view women as containers to hold babies and don’t see the blood connection with babies Incest - we assume all societies must have taboos against incest  o Different societies define who is kin and the kinds of rules societies develop around who someone can have sex with o Variation in how different societies develop their ideas of incest and this is based on social relations of family not biological relations  Parents and children o We assume there is a ‘special’ relationship between biological parents and children  Marriage o Not all societies practice marriage in the same way o Ghost marriage - Nuwair People  If you have a man who is unmarried and dies without having kids of his own - a close family member will marry the wife in his name and the children are viewed to be the child of the deceased person  If you have an older women who has never had children, getting married to a younger women who is impregnated by a man but its the older women who is recognized as the children’s ‘father’  Household and residence o Privatized households o A lot of variation in households - tied to monogamy 90% of the world’s population practice plural polygamous marriages o o Nigeria - the Tiv who practice polygamy - groups living rather collectively Lecture 3 - Family Trends - Chapter 12 Fox/Chapter 1 Baker The Sociological Imagination C.Wright Mills (1959)  Sociological imagination: individual experiences connected to a social context Social changes regarding divorce:  o Legally easier to get a divorce - changes to divorce legislation o Less social stigma o Women’s rights - giving them rights and jobs - giving them economic stability to leave o Increasing secularism Equal division of matrimonial property rights o o People living longer o Shifting ideas about gender - women/men’s roles in society - division of housework whether it is shared or not o Greater diversity of families - the option of pursuing  Contemporary Trends  Changes in marriage, fertility, divorce, lone-parent families, and increasing diversity, including: o Same sex o Cohabiting couples with (out) children Transnational families (astronaut families, parachute kids) o o Multi-family/intergenerational o Adult children living with parents (“boomerang”) o Interracial/ethnic/faith unions o Blended families  Many Canadian children will live in more than one type of family before they grow up and leave home because of the many different types of families  2006 Census: o Common-law families are growing 5x faster than married couple families Same-sex relationships are increasing 5x faster than heterosexual o unions o More Canadians not being married o Higher proportion of couples living without children o Argue that family is in crisis and in decline o Sociologists - argue that the family is not in crisis and the 1950s family of “leave it to beaver” never really existed  Economic changes in post war period: o 70s/80s/90s - depression changed families  Increased labour force of women in child bearing  Women have always been economic providers for families - Marriage Trends  Married couple families most common family structure in Canada but are declining  Most people marry or re-marry following a divorce  People postponing marriage  General decline in popularity of marriage  People foregoing marriage all together  Opting to cohabit rather than formally get married  Increase in commuter marriages Legalization of same-sex marriage in Canada   Higher age at first marriage  1961-1970 - age at marriage jumping to 26/27 Divorce Trends Increased through 1960s-1980s   Changes in divorce legislation  Changes in economy - women entering paid employment  40% of Canadian couples expected to divorce  Divorce has led to increase in single/lone parent families  Most lone-parent families are headed by women  Has led to an increase in blended families  2nd marriages have higher rates of divorce than 1st marriages  Impact of divorce on children: Children’s well being is most adversely impacted when there is a high o degree of conflict - whether the marriage is intact or divorced o Divorce provides a solution to a high conflict marriage o The disruption of daily routines that happens when parents get a divorce o Divorce will necessitate a residential move, leading to new school, friends Cohabitation Trends  Increasing  Sometimes a trial to see if it works out in order to get married  Others are choosing cohabitation over marriage - including a lot of couples who are previously divorced  Rates are higher in Quebec - decline of the Catholic church  Quebec enjoys great family policy implemented by the Quebec government - daycare/maternal leave - Fertility  Period that women have spent having babies have shrunk  Gone from 12 reproductive years to 2  Still births and miscarriages in the past -  Long-term fertility decline has been associated with: o Changes in industrialization o Pre-industrial era - children had a lot more ‘asset’ purposes now children are seen as a cost o Contraception - the availability of birth control and legalization of abortion o Starting child bearing years a lot later and shortening their span o Career commitments o Uncoupling Single Person Household  Canadians are choosing to live alone  Increasing  One-person households and households contained couples without children are growing the fastest Delayed Home-leaving  Increasing  In an attempt to reach education and career goals  Cluttered nest, delayed launchers, boomerang adults  2006 Census - more young adults in their 20s live in the parental home  Some adults are “sandwich generation” - people who are squeezed between providing care to their children and their aging parents  Empty nest period - period in which a couple’s kids have moved out the home Transnational Families  Related to globalization  Key features of globalization - greater economic interconnectedness mass migration, new communications technology  Increase in transnational families, and inter-racial families Astronaut Families  Head of the family lives and works in one country and the rest of the family lives in another country Parachute Kids  Kids who reside in the host country but the parents have returned to work in their country of origin  Common among newcomer groups Multi-family and intergenerational households  Increase in multi family households  More than one nuclear family living together  Multiple generations living together Unconventional Families  Unique families that don’t fit the traditional view  Friends, siblings living together  Some of the members may have been in a traditional family but the relationship dissolves  Economic pressures might channel people to form these families Social Movements  Civil Rights Movement o Extended political, social rights o Making interracial marriages more acceptable  Women’s Movement o Supporting equal rights for women o Women’s higher education and paid employment Supported the sexual revolution o o  Gay and Lesbian Advocacy o Political rights to same sex relationships o Children raised by same sex parents are not adversely impacted Ideological Change  Increasing secularism  Declining social stigma of non-traditional choices  Increasing individualism More likely than previous generations to prioritize the pursuit of personal  happiness  Happiness > family and marriage  We have much higher expectations of partners or potential partners Theoretical Perspectives Main Sociological Paradigms  Structural Functionalism (order theory; macro)  Conflict Theory (change theory; macro)  Symbolic Interactionism (change theory; micro)  Feminist Theories (change theory; macro and micro)  Biological/Essentialist perspectives o Basic biological differences between men and women o How we might see society/social institutions based on biological differences o Idea that the nuclear family o Look at animal kingdom - how animals mate and pair and form unions and make inferences about humans based on animal kingdom (problematic) o Problematic - to only focus on biological differences o Argue: caregiving is instinctual for females o Sociologists argue: that is problematic caregiving is learned  Structural Functionalism o Connection to biological/essentialist perspectives o Looking at social order and stability and arguing each part of society has a certain role to establish the equilibrium o Analogy of human body: human body is made up of many different parts and if one stops working it impacts other parts of the body o Consensus, functionality o Criticisms:  Overlook conflict in society and inequality built into society  Assuming shared interests - is not always the case  Change is viewed to be problematic o View on Families:  Big view on nuclear family o Emile Durkheim - Structural Functionalist Argued nuclear family is most ideal for society   Having men and women perform different roles is functional for families o Talcott Parsons - SF  Nuclear family is most ideal  Strict sexual division of labour needed 5 main functions of families: reproduction, socialization,  economic cooperation, emotional support, regulating sexual activity  Women - expressive role - nurturing children and doing the emotional work  Men - instrumental role - providing financially for families Criticisms:   Not looking at historical and cross cultural variation in families  Viewing the nuclear family is universal and ideal  And conceptualizing and viewing diverse families as a problem o Bronislaw Malinowski  Nuclear family is universal  Men and women were different and the sexual division of labour is ideal for society o Nuclear family is most ideal because the sexual division of labour is functional for families and society o Arguing that the nuclear family is functional for children and society o Criticisms:  Promotes nuclear family which is problematic for many  Viewing diverse families in a negative light  Looks at the benefits and interests of the entire family unit not individual people  Justifying gender based inequalities Conflict Theory  Economic conditions in society shape our beliefs and ideologies  Conflict theorists are advocating for social change  Mainly looks at the economic mode of production  Material conditions of life determine how we view the world Economic conditions shape and determine ideology   Basic way we look at society is class conflict - those who own the means of production over those who don’t Karl Marx; economic conditions o Advocating for the working class to overthrow the capitalist and to replace with socialism o Working class = exploited Criticism: o Looking at class based inequalities - but ignores other forms of inequality and oppression o Intersecting inequalities - more than one type of inequality o Emphasizing social structure so much that is ignore the role that human agency can play View on Families: o Look at how industrialization has changed families and family life o Production moving outside of the family/household o Families depending on wages Separation from public/private sphere o Criticism:  Focuses on wage work and does not look at unpaid labour done by women  Women’s unpaid labour contributes to economy and society  Women regenerate men Silent on gender based inequalities  Fredrick Engels Connection between paternity, private property, nuclear family, and monogamy Argued that it wasn’t until private property emerged that we saw nuclear family - controlling women’s sexuality Marxist Feminist Theory Meg Luxton - argues that unpaid labour is essential for capitalism If we eliminate capitalism it will empower women Symbolic Interactionism  Interactions create society  Focuses on interactions between individuals  Criticism: o Focuses so much on the micro level that it ignores that we are constrained by the social structure  View on Families Families are not an external thing we actively create our relationships o and families o Through interactions, verbal, non-verbal communications, rituals, media o Looking at how we use symbols to make sense of the world around us o Interested in: rituals we enact in relationships and families Criticism:  Ignores the larger social structure affecting individuals  For example: social policy constraining the everyday lives of families and people in their everyday interactions Feminist Theory  Gender-based inequalities  Patriarchy - male domination over women  Gender differences  Public realm: labour market, education, political institutions  Private: families  Criticism: o Concept of patriarchy - not all women are victims o Historically - feminist scholarship has been focused on white privileged women and not focusing on more marginalized groups of women o Focusing on women’s inequality o Women’s social reality Views on Families: o o Considering women’s role in families o Looking at families of site of violence, inequality o Social policies Feminisms Liberal  Politically popular and powerful type of feminism  Equality of opportunity for women  Looking at public sphere in education, and labour market  Policy recommendations - things like equal pay for equal value, affirmative action  Solutions to gendered inequality - making repairs to existing institutions  Criticized for not looking at private sphere -  Criticized: for not wanting to dismantle social institutions  The masters tools will never dismantle the masters house - if we want change it will never happen if we work in existing institutions - we cant make significant changes if we’re just making internal changes using the masters tools  Criticism: policy changes only benefit women who are already advantaged but what about all other groups of women  Not understanding and recognizing what people refer to intersecting inequalities Radical  Arguing that women’s oppression is caused by patriarchy  Suggested that patriarchy invades all of our institutions and the private sphere of intimate relationships of men and women and the family  Focuses on concrete things like: violence, abuse, women’s sexuality and reproduction, and reproductive rights  Policy implications: to help problem of violence against women: education, awareness, shelters  Policies to support women’s reproductive choice  Criticized: relying on patriarchy and suggesting heterosexuality is exploitive for women  Focusing too much on private sphere and not enough on public sphere Inclusive  Builds from the criticisms of arguing that we need to include the experiences of all women Postmodernism  Concept that reflects a broad range of projects, academic disciplines, and theories  Emerged partially because of globalization - causing massive economic changes, emergence of multinational corporations, dramatic political transformations  Critique of grand theories o Historically grand theories tended to focus on one factor to try to explain society - o Suggest that there is no singular theory No singular theory   Knowledge is fluid, contested  Families: o We have images of families o We have understandings of families o We all have discourses of families Judith Stacey o Americans today have crafted a multiplicity of family and household arrangements that habit uneasily and reconstitute frequently in response to changing personal and occupational circumstances o The contemporary American/Canadian family is postmodern it is contested, and fluid Criticism: o Many people have argued that without very clear explanatory factors that is it almost impossible to craft social policy to help people o Grand theories - are needed because they are useful Historical and Cross-Cultural Perspectives Eleanor Leacock aka “Happy” o Feminist anthropologist o Researched American school system o Race, class, gender o Challenged the “culture of poverty theory” o Experienced sex discrimination which taught her discrimination not ability limited women’s choices o Challenged capitalist ideas o Researched residence patterns after marriage o Found matrilocality existed o Focused on Marxist feminism o Link between development of patriarchy and social system o Renewed Engels theory o Gender inequality linked to hierarchy Ch. 4 Fox o Study of Innu in Labrador o Historically gives us a perspective on our society and family structures Foraging Society o Economic mode of production shapes family life, living arrangements, and gender relations o Close relationship b/w production mode and family life o Marital and power dynamics o Relative power of men and women in society o How we meet our basic needs vs. how we organize our family (gender?) o Non privatized living arrangements – benefits to women o Gender equality, childcare shared, check against male violence o Existed throughout history o 10-15 people living in one camp, membership fluid (personality based not just kin) o Low levels of spousal abuse o Simple division of labour o Women provide bulk of food Montagnais-Naskapi (Foraging) o Lack of hierarchy and authority relations o Gender equality o Women have say in decisions too o Nuclear family per se but shared in living arrangements o Fluid gender roles o Couples less dependent on partner to fulfill needs o Multiple marriages present o After marriage, kin relationships still important o Fertility spaced out o Parenting: dads can comfort baby as much as mom o Non-private living Montagnais-Naskapi (fur trade) o Went from hunting and gathering to trapping o Important change to economic system o Nomadic to sedentary lifestyle o As Hunter Gatherers – seen as generous, cooperative, equal, no hierarchy o Sexual openness (divorce, polygamy) o Fluid gender roles – labour is equitably divided o Family more privatized o Missionaries began converting Innu to Christian views Pre-Industrial Families Myths about Pre-Industrial Society o Myth of extended and large families not supported o Most pre-industrial families lived in a nuclear family pattern that lived with other people - servants, relatives o If they were found, they were found in rural rather than urban settings Two-generational families more common in Western Europe and o central Europe - because there is a later age of marriage o Eastern Europe/southeastern Europe - there is a younger age of marriage 3 generational families were more likely to happen o Myth: families were very big o Most pre-industrial families were not that big 4-5 people - parents had to consider the economic needs to households o High death rates and the land provided was only enough for a certain number of people o Debates about how children were viewed o Myth: children were not loved/cared for and viewed merely as laborers o Myths about family obligation and strong family ties also not supported Pre-Industrial Families o Families were both units of production and consumption o Tilly and Scott: family economies and family wage economies o Forcing people off their land into wage work in England o Family economies - people are working and producing in their homes o Family wage economies - families are not producing in their homes they are going out to get money  More likely to be found in regions more marked by manufacturing and industrialization o Emphasis placed on households or lineage rather than family o Within a pre-industrial household distinctions between servants and blood relatives were not made o Households are a productive unit - o You bring in servants and non-related kin when you needed them and sent out kids when you couldn’t afford them o Making an economic calculation o Household composition determined by labour requirements o Impermanence and discontinuity o Empty nest homes did not exist o Only emerged with industrialization o Because the eldest son would continue to live in the home until the father/mothers passing when he would inherit that property Cohen: patriarchal property, inheritance, and custody laws o Laws were very patriarchal and they favored men o “Patriarchal productive relations” - the labour of women/wives/daughters was ultimately owned by men o Product of their labour was not owned by them including their children Increasing gender division of labour Women’s labor valued - still essential for the household o o Male legal authority o Social inequality o Layers of dependency o Interdependent households o Marriage is an economic arrangement Single people without land could not marry o Economic constraints related to later age at marriage and not marrying o Endogamous marriages o Same occupation/same status o Obstacles to divorce o Care of the elderly o Elderly females were more likely to live alone in the city o But in the country widows are more likely to live in the farmhouse with their son’s wife/children Lecture 10 - Canadian Families in the Past: The decline of the Patriarchal Family Growth of the Nuclear Family o Industrialization o Urbanization Modernization o o Colonization o Immigration European Colonization o French and English Immigrants o French Immigrants: o Brought French language o Roman-Catholic Religion o French Civil Code o English Immigrants o Brought English language o Protestant o English Common Law o Significant feuds among the two o Formed alliances between indigenous groups o Family system - monogamous relationships, patriarchal structure, and nuclear family o Marriage was viewed as economic survival - way to make a living and support your family Indigenous Tribes Huron/Wyandotte o Lived in extended families o Organized by clan membership o Descendent was a matrilineal descendent o Families lived in longhouses o Senior women, their unmarried sons, their daughters and husbands and children o Gendered work o Men’s responsibility - hunting, trading, and going to war o Women’s responsibility - agriculture, crop, food production, and child care o Men/women had the right to terminate relationship o Divorce was seldom - because of the split of work between the family members Iroquois o Extended families o Matrilineal descent o Women had a strong position in politics, economic, and domestic life o They controlled majority of the social events o Longhouses/communal housing Ojibway More migratory o o Hunters/gatherers o Lived in tents or wigwams o They were a lot more similar to the idea of nuclear family o Viewed marriage as essential for economic survival o Young married couples began to establish their own households o Women were primarily in charge of cooking, sewing, childcare etc. o Men were hunters, shaman, and warriors o Women were shown how to hunt build weapons but not vice versa Consequences of Colonization o Formation of indigenous reserves o Change in gender roles o More for men o Men who were raised to be hunters were now pushed on to a small amount of land o Cultural confliction o Residential Schools Immigration o Rise in immigration o Job offers, free land Gendered Labour o Rural to urbanization o Men o Factory labour, waged work o Received a family wage o Viewed as more intelligent and better workers Women o o Domestic labour, underpaid or unpaid o Expected to leave jobs after marriage to have kids o Had to focus on domestic duties after marriage Changes in Family Law o Marriage o Viewed as an economic relationship for economic dependence o Women were seen as having the same rights as their children o Divorce o Political and Civil Rights o Courtship, Love & Marriage o Constrained by social, institutional and familial influence o Ask father permission to marry o Men were more permitted to date openly compared to women o “Good” marriages - endogamy Married from the same background o o Men often needed wives to help out domestic duties o Parenting and Childhood o Childless couples were frowned upon o Childbirth o Contraception o Was very unreliable o There was no freedom to use contraception o Childhood o Find work at a young age and support family o Middle class families didn’t have children work o Maternal health o Significantly high infant mortality rates o Mothers criticized about now having maternal knowledge o As medical research and knowledge becomes widespread the mortality rates lowered Lecture 11 - Families and Industrialization Chapter 7 - Hareven o Kin networks among the French Canadians who migrate to the US (New Hampshire) Manchester. Which was the world’s largest Textile Mill. Looked at the relationship between capitalist enterprise and families o o Families and Industrialization o Changes during the 19th Century as Industrialization developed o As Industrialization develops, the family economy that was prevalent in the pre-industrialization era (Agriculture) these begin to be replaced by family wage economies o Family Wage Economies -> all the members in the family working for wages if it was needed to survive economically o Family is no longer a unit of production -> but changed to a unit of shared consumption o Families in the late 18th/ Early19th Century -> o England ->  As people began to lose their land -> they lost their means of production having to move to urban structures in order to make wages  As people lose the ability to support themselves, they lose control over work and working conditions  The working class -> the world of work becomes o Industrialization shaped family life -> but capitalism was also reliant on families Hareven Chapter 7 o Capitalists were reliant on kin networks to recruit and train workers o Hareven used a variety of documents like old company documents to analyze the employees of the company o The company was reliant on family relationships so what we typically saw was a pattern of chain migration -> typically one member of a family moving to New Hampshire and working in the textile mill and once established, sending for another family member to come. o Family relationships are crucial because families would provide workers with a place to live and family could vouch for their kin o Employees liked this because family members would train their family members for the job. Family members were placed in the same department, helping new employees o Employers wouldn’t waste money finding, training, or providing shelter for new employees o Focuses on showing us Capitalists were dependent on families o Meg Luxton -> women’s unpaid labour o Big change that happened as a result of Industrialization was the separation of spheres: Public life of work and private life of home o o This change was particularly more for affluent classes -> we see as a result of women being confined to the domestic role women are becoming economically dependent on their husbands. o Middle and upper classes promote ideas of appropriate roles for women and men. Working class and lower tier found it difficult to adhere to appropriate o roles Bradbury - Research o Study of working class life in 19th Century Montreal based on archival records o As production shifts outside the home -> children are living with their families for a longer period of time o Children and adolescents and young adults are continuing to live with their parents while earning wages and they are giving their wages to their parents o Family wage economies were flexible o By that she means: depending on the needs of the household and the ages of the children families could rely on the wages of their children and adolescents for family survival o Because capitalists controlled wages, the only thing the could control was the # of wage earners o The # of kids you had working, that had a huge impact on your family’s economic well being o Families with younger children have a low economic class but as their children become old enough to work it rises o How families made decisions on who was sent out to work and who wasn’t? o A number of factors resulted in different life and work experiences: o The sexual division of labour was very important -> domestic work was time intensive like cooking, cleaning. Families needed mothers and daughters to be home and do the labour o Findings challenge Tilly/Scott’s findings -> single women were the best women to work for wages -> but Bradbury argues that many single women could not work for wages because they were needed a home to do domestic labour o Working class families -> had the absolute need for their children to work o Men engaged in skilled labour made more sufficient incomes compared to unskilled labour workers o Gender gap in earnings -> males earning higher wages than females o Because women and girls don’t earn the same level of wages -> leading to more males being sent out for wage work rather than daughters o Determined by the structure of the local economy -> the kinds of jobs available to men and women and the average wages that men vs. women earned. In some local economies -> capitalists are strategically favoring o women and children because they can pay them lower wages -> in those areas, families relied on women’s and children’s labour. o Families are concerned about dangers of the workplace -> preferred to keep daughters at home o Peace work -> women working for wages through their own homes Women were less likely to work in the public realm of factories -> and o when they did they did so less continuously o Children living with parents longer With Industrialization -> o New ideologies came into play o Among the business class -> sons are continuing to work in the family business but wives and daughters are replaced by wage workers o The work of wives and daughters revolves around the home o The idea was to build the home quite a distance away from work o “Home” is seen as a peaceful retreat away from the life of factory work (seen as evil places) o Capitalists wanted to change this evil view of themselves so they could have more political powers:  We see capitalists who start to recognize they need to engage in PR  Doctors recognizing that they need to work hard to exert political pressures -> so they could claim market share  They want to distinguish themselves from the working class and the artitocracy -> trying to make themselves look better  In their campaign were the ideas of families. The roles of families within families  They developed an ideology of domesticity. Cott - Domesticity o Idea of domesticity took its meaning from a juxtaposition of the private sphere and the public sphere o This juxtaposition’s roots were in religious imagery o The concept of the home -> “haven in a heartless work” o Captures the idea that the domestic sphere is a respite from the public sphere where people are selfish o Home is a sanctuary Lecture 12 - continued Cott - Domesticity o Home is where men can be self-interested o Women are being completely selfless and nurturing o Capitalists -> wanted to be seen as family men Tried promoting an image of themselves as being ethical o Changes that took place during Industrialization: o Emergence of concept of ‘family’ -> nuclear family o The nuclear family is a very special set of relationships which contrasts how families were viewed in the pre-industrial period -> where there weren’t really any distinctions in the nuclear family o Affluent families who could afford it -> hired servants who weren’t viewed as a part of the family anymore o Separate spheres of men and women -> create distinction of difference between men and women. Womanhood defined by o Piety (religiosity) o Purity (sexual) o Submission (to husbands) o Domesticity o Self-sacrificing/selfless o Moral guardians o Nurturing “In every thing I must consult the interest, the happiness and the welfare of my husband, may it be my constant study to make him contented and happy, and then will my own happiness be sure” o Very first time in history that mothers are viewed as being solely responsible for their kids being good kids o Cult of domesticity -> idea that women get there identify from their work, as a mother/wife -> that is where you sense of self is derived from. Measuring your happiness from the happiness of your husband o Motherhood becomes woman’s main vocation of life o Some historians argue that -> motherhood role was a solution for teaching/guiding children things that would be needed. Margolis -> o Shift from parental to maternal responsibility o Cult of motherhood was a result of factors such as: o Erosion of women’s economic role -> since work is removed from the household women need a new purpose o Separation of spheres o Decline fertility -> emphasis on motherhood increased as fertility declined. Fewer kids because now kids are no longer economic assets (opportunity costs) o Fewer kids = more quality well educated children o Historian argued -> countries like the US needed children that were highly educated “Gooey sentimentality” o  Many people would argue that it is just as prevalent today  Motherhood is a huge money making business -> women spend a lot of money on books on pregnancy, parenting  A Baby’s Story o Ideas about kids were also changing -> idea of childhood innocence having to protect children from the world o Pre-industrial -> children were viewed as creatures that were wild and evil that needed to be controlled o Parents had more responsibility towards children o Because women lost their socially recognized role, they needed a new one. -> Special caretakers so they could then claim a role in the public life -> moral guardians in society o Women were responsible for their economic budgets o Families had to manage household budgets very closely Lecture 13 - 1950s Family Chapter 10 Fox - Mary Louise Adams “Sexuality and the Post-war Domestic “Revival” Her book looks at how heterosexuality was constructed as “normal” and the only o permissible sexual orientation in the period after the Second World War. o Book looks at the discourses of the time -> which reinforce heterosexuality as normal and the dominant sexual expression and identity o Foucault’s work -> o Talks about discourses: (bodies of knowledge/expertise that frame our understanding of the social world) o Ex. Sociological Discourse, Medical Discourse o Discourse is important because it shapes social policies, and the work of professionals such as those who work in the criminal justice system o Discourses around sexuality shape our understanding of our own understanding -> in a way can exert tremendous power over us. o Discourses around sexuality only reinforce heterosexuality -> Foucault argues that people are denied other ways of understanding themselves. People have to conform and self-regulate, since they have no other choice. o Foucault came up with the concept of surveillance -> over time people engage in self surveillance in order to fit in and conform The 1950s Family o Weird decade in which people totally embraced family life Why did people embrace family life? o o People had suffered tremendously during the 2nd World War -> not only dying but also scarred o Many homecomings were rather tragic and sad because people were so traumatized from the war and family life help to deal with the emotions Women were forced to go back into the home o o Trends in 1950s o Some trends that were long-term family trends reversed, going in a different direction:  Fertility -> up until that point there was declining fertility. But the fertility increases dramatically  More kids than their moms and the generations before them, had them right after getting married  Young mothers with 3-5 children  Age at marriage drops  People divorced less  But there was concern that divorce was increasing but no where near the increases we see in the 60s/70s/80s  Gap between education attainment between men and women are widening -> women not getting enough education as men in this time period Proportion of people “never married” dropped   Incomes were growing rapidly  Home ownership increase -> and growth of suburbs  Segregated gender roles through economic prosperity, media, religion, government, and through all kinds of experts.  Pressure to conform to the heterosexual family was enforced through movies  Consumerism/materialism -> families made large purchases and market needed them  Immigrant settlement agencies -> assimilate they are the ones pressuring and saying this is the standard and this is the ideal they should be moving towards pressure to conform was explicitly linked to what it meant to be Canadian and citizenship  Quotes 140 -  During this time we see heterosexuality is seen as the only natural and normal sexuality - people who diverged from this faced some severe condemnation and prosecution  1969 -> homosexuality is legalized  IN THE US ->  Education paid for if they were in the military  Generous government policies regardin
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