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2V06 Tuesday September 18th.docx

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th Tuesday September 18 VIDEO NOTES - CLOCKWORK  In the late 1800’s work was very non-efficient and non-economical for the companies o Work was cluttered, unpredictable, inefficient  Factories realized that exerting less control over workers and instead using technology would increase productivity  Engineers realized the precision of a machine could replace human workers  Every action was set to follow the minute of a stopwatch  All the planning and conceptual work would be removed o Managers would do the thinking o Workers would carry out their orders o This was called Scientific Management  Gilbert filmed people carrying out tasks and studied the films to find out how to remove all wasteful motions  Scientific Management confined workers to repetitive tasks  Scientific Management is a theory of bureaucratization Weber’s Theory of Bureaucracy Hierarchy of offices Each office should be controlled and supervised by a higher ranking office. However, lower offices should maintain a right to appeal decisions made higher in the hierarchy. This should replace a more traditional system, in which power and authority relations are more diffuse, and not based on a clear hierarchical order. Rational-legal authority A bureaucracy is founded on rational-legal authority. This type of authority rests on the belief in the "legality" of formal rules and hierarchies, and in the right of those elevated in the hierarchy to possess authority and issue commands. Authority is given to officials based on their skills, position and authority placed formally in each position. This should supplant earlier types administrative systems, where authority was legitimized based on other, and more individual, as
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