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2V06 Tuesday September 25th .docx

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Tu Budros

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th Friday September 14Rational Systems Perspective Definition An organization is a collectivity oriented to the pursuit of relatively specific goals and exhibiting a relatively highly bureaucratic structureGoalsExplicit clearly definedOrganizations have specific goals they are not vague or ambiguous Hospitals have the goal of curing and treating patients schools have the goal of educatingBureaucracyFormalizationRules o Organizations have written rules that protect us and they limit what we can do o For example a syllabus for a course CentralizationLocation where decisions are made o When you have a low level of decentralization people that are lower can make decisions o For example the Prof for a course makes up the syllabus SpecializationDivision of labor o Deals with how the labor is divided up o For example a TA for a class a prof students o They will be carrying out different tasksStandardizationUniformity of tasks o For example all professors know that they will be doing some lecturing and evaluating students o A professor will treat all students the same the Prof is following a standardized procedureRationalityTight meansends linksJust another word for technical efficiencyThe idea is that you can think of bureaucratization as a means to an end or a goalOrganizations use these four things to pursue their goalsNormative StructuresStress on how organizations should operateThe theories associated with this perspective are normativePeople who think along these lines they are really talking about the way organizations SHOULD operate Organizations dont always operate how they shouldOrganizations should be tension and conflict free they should be the best efficient things The use of bureaucratic means to achieve goalsExamplesTaylors Scientific Management Theory PreTaylorism InitiativeIncentive System Industrial workers used their initiativeskills knowledgephysical abilitiesto make products in exchange for incentiveswages There was very scant bureaucratizationIf you walked into a shop at this time you would see workers using their initiative to get things done they would use their mental abilities to think about how to do their jobThey would tinker with their job think how can I make this betterThey both designed the jobs and then they executed themThey did this in exchange for incentives getting paidBosses would leave workers alone to do the jobs the way they wanted to do themThere is almost no formalization almost nothing was written downVery low level of centralizationVery low level of specialization they designed the job themselvesVery low level of standardization one day a worker would do it this way the next day another worker would do it a completely different wayWhen Taylor came on to the screen he brought the rise of industrial capitalismo Big companies were emerging so there was chaos Technical efficiencies went down and everyone was wondering what to do because there was no bureaucratization Then Taylor came along and introduced his theory Taylors Scientific Management Industrial capitalism led to large firms with control coordinationproductivity problems Scientific Management was viewed as the solution to these problemsTaylors theory is bureaucratized All four components are included o Cant let workers design their own jobs anymore they need people to be in control managers brains and brawn specializationo Taylor took big jobs being done with few workers and broke them down and assigned many people to work on many small things and putting it togethero Specialization is all about breaking down the labor associated with making a product and Taylor was a huge catalyst to this Specialization Managers designed the work laborers executed it Centralization Managers were making decisions therefore there was centralizationFormalization Taylor produced volume after volume of written job descriptions everything was put on paperStandardization a particular job would have 10 steps to do it and that was the way it must be done no deviationsTimeMotion Studies Taylor would always find the best way to get work done fast He would do experiments to find out which would be the best position to move your arm from a certain position to another He would conclude which position was the best to keep your arm in in a way to allow people to do a job in a technical and efficient way Goals Taylor took away initiative but left incentives Economic Incentives Taylor knew we like money so he took away initiative and left the incentives The idea was that workers work for pay managers give them it and then they all cooperate This was a theory of cooperation a theory of management labor harmony th Tuesday September 18VIDEO NOTESCLOCKWORKIn the late 1800s work was very nonefficient and noneconomical for the companies o Work was cluttered unpredictable inefficientFactories realized that exerting less control over workers and instead using technology would increase productivityEngineers realized the precision of a machine could replace human workersEvery action was set to follow the minute of a stopwatchAll the planning and conceptual work would be removed o Managers would do the thinking o Workers would carry out their orders o This was called Scientific ManagementGilbert filmed people carrying out tasks and studied the films to find out how to remove all wasteful motionsScientific Management confined workers to repetitive tasksScientific Management is a theory of bureaucratization Webers Theory of BureaucracyHierarchy of offices Each office should be controlled and supervised by a higher ranking office However lower offices should maintain a right to appeal decisions made higher in the hierarchy This should replace a more traditional system in which power and authority relations are more diffuse and not based on a clear hierarchical orderRationallegal authority A bureaucracy is founded on rationallegal authority This type of authority rests on the belief in the legality of formal rules and hierarchies and in the right of those elevated in the hierarchy to possess authority and issue commands Authority is given to officials based on their skills position and authority placed formally in each position This should supplant earlier types administrative systems where authority was legitimized based on other and more individual aspects of authority like wealth position ownership heritage etc
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