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Soc3U03 Final Review.docx

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Department
Sociology
Course
SOCIOL 3U03
Professor
Tina Fetner
Semester
Winter

Description
Soc3U03 Final Review Homosexuality  Can’t just say that homosexuality has been prohibited everywhere  However, in the west the over whelming pattern is disapproval  But this is also true for all “Sexual behavior”  Still a taboo  Vern Bullogh, a social historian says that although some forms of judgement has changed, essential morality has not changed.  Homosexuality always been a religious transgression  It was seen as a crime and sin by the end of medieval period, that state controlled. - In modern society, seen as a sickness  The current debate in homosexuality - Whether it is a choice, or biological (genetic) vs. physiological (gay brain) or a variation of behavior.  Early Concerns over Same-Sex Behavior  Historical evidence that before it became a sin, it was disapproved because: - Wasn’t part of reproductive duty of individual - Not helping species/community survival  Natural vs. unnatural dichotomy  This divide seen as bio/moral absolute through history  Has really influenced social defs/behavior toward homosexuality Ancient Origins – Persians th  By 6 C BC pre-marital sex taboo  Sex not controlled but belief that it could be socially disruptive if not controlled  Saw male sperm as gift, not to use for reproduction a waste/rejection of divine gift/sae sex mocked nature and creator Ancient Origins – Hebrews  Most influential of ancient middle east in shaping western attitudes of sex  Male centered society. Women valued as only mothers/wives, sex between women not an issue (did not affect reproduction)  Most historical writing based on male experiences  First reference to anti-sex found in Leviticus 18:33  Most influential of all biblical stories against homosexuality is an Old Testament: Story of Sodem Story of Sodom  God vows to destroy Sodom and other cities because of peoples sins  He then sends 2 angels to see, who met by to, who invites them to his house  During stay, men of city assemble outside house  Ask Lot to present guests to see if they knew them  Lot refused, shows daughters instead, struck blind by angels  Next day, Lot led out of Sodom, God destroys Sodom in fire  Most people think story is about Sodomites sin (homosexuality)  But story contains no specific reference to it  Rather sins that caused destruction were wickedness, pride, sloth, etc.  In Hebrew = Yadha means to become acquainted or to have sexual knowledge or sexual relations The Greeks th nd  Some same sex relations common/institutionalized in Greek Culture (esp 8 /2 BC)  Acceptance came from 2 main ideas: 1. Male Superiority 2. Idea that love uplifts human spirit + strength in community  Greeks did not think such behavior was bad  Male Superiority à Ideas of Male physical and intellectual was perfection  Erect penis meant strength, power, wisdom and had religious power to repel evil  Greeks believed physical/spiritual beauty was what males defined.  Women defined by their child bearing abilities, except prostitutes (not seen worthy for male companionship)  Cultural foundation for Greek homosexuality rested on spiritual  Some male relationships were an expression of a noble bond  At the core of their system was pederasty – Love of boys - It was a spiritual and emotional bond.  Man/boy relationship, personal/social choice for youth and his development. - Moral/intellectual pursuit, teacher/student, mentor/protégé  Other same sex was deviant  Homosexuality only socially approved through set of norms  Outside of this context: - Boy love was disapproved - Sex with young boys illegal - Prostitution was not approved - Adult men who played passive role in sex was degrading Invention of homosexuality  In 1900’s increase focus on heredity + evolution experience of sexual deviance.  The problem with same-sex behavior is that it was a product of hereditary predisposition  1900’s also time where homosexuality became criminalized in Germany, England, Us.  Sodomy (oral, anal) sex removed as capital offence in England 1861 - Homosexuality still convicted  Crusades against female prostitutions also lead to movements for legislations against homosexuality in England & US  Medicalization/criminalization of same sex represent: - Rise of different institutions of social control. - Religion, law, medicine (all systems of morality) - Medical definitions offered therapeutic alternatives to legal devices of control.  This allowed blame to be lifted from homosexuality being tied to free will to blame it on biological- genetic factors  Medical definitions offered intellectual and philosophical alternative  This is when homosexuality emerged as a medical diagnosis Homosexuality as Medical Pathology  The term was made by physician KM Benkert  Argued against the increase in legal repression of same sex/the harsh punishments, he thought they were unfair and didn’t work.  Richard Von Krafft-Ebing, established same sex conduct & corresponding mental states as a psychologically based psychiatric pathology - He was a important figure in medicalizing homosexuality and in constructing homosexuality as a distinctive person. - His work reflective of Victorian moral code that defined heterosexual procreative sex as standard, same sex/emotional attachments seen as abnormal in his work  Claimed homosexuals: - Cannot change expression of their sexual desires, they are sick, should be treated and given compassion/understanding Rise of Psychiatric Perspective – Freud  Explained homosexuality via general theory of sexuality - Rejected notions of congenital etiology & hereditary degeneration  Freud normalized homoerotic desires, said they were a part of normal sexual development & it was not a disease - Also strengthened medical dominance over treatment of this condition - Explained/clarified medical definition of homosexuality. - Part of general theory of psychosexual development  Adult sexuality seen as product of: - Tension between physiological sexual desires (sex appetite) vs. social and cultural desires.  Most crucial part in adult sexuality was ones child hood - All people born polymorphous  At puberty, transfer of sexual attention to peers of different sex - Pursue heterosexual reproductive sexuality - This means you have a mature/complete sexual development  Normal adults retained hidden homosexual desires, hidden and repressed. Disguies with conventional forms of sexual standards.  Homosexuals were adults who had no completed their sex. Dev. Or were victims of various childhood conflicts (key one being Oedipal)  People who are sexually mature are able to get through these traumas unlike homosexuals - Therefor homosexuality is a inappropriate and immature solution to crisis in sexual development  Homosexuality under Freud was then linked to sexually norm  Referred to a number of inverted - The absolute (exclusive feelings and actions) - Psychosexually hermaphrodite (ones sexual object choice either male or female) - Occasionally inverted (situational homosexuals circumstance)  Freud believed people not simply masculine or feminine  Both men and women displayed such qualities and characteristics  In Freud’s model, normal heterosexual not clearly distinct from sick homosexual. - Argues that homosexuality is a variation rather than a a deviation - Not bad, just different Sacrificing Freud – The Reestablishment of Pathology  Significance of Freud’s work to medicalization of homosexuality - Established it as a psychiatric condition - Psychiatrists in charge of being experts at diagnosis and treatment  With Freud, therapeutic won over religious/legal as official way to define homosexuality  Even though conduct still remained a crime in US & England, enforcement was uneven  Now that homosexuality was a medical category, boundaries expanded - Curious about what one thought - Focus on unconscious desires which only trained psychs. Could identify  Freud’s cautions regarding therapy compromised subsequent psychiatric writing on homosexuality  Some medical treatments that emerged to treat homosexual included: - Hormone therapy, electric shock, therapeutic castration,  Within American PSYCH, homosexuality seen as serious psychopathology - Anguish for victims - Seen as disease that should be cured  Lots of non-medical support for these types of medical intervention/ideas  Medical definitions sometimes used in name of politics (to discharge homosexuals from army)  Clinical psychiatrists most influential in supporting pathology treatment  Many made judgements about their patients (seen as over sexual, irrational, manipulative)  DSM (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders) where homosexuality as pathology came from - Acts as what is or is not psychiatric condition - 1 DSM published in 1952  In DSM homosexuality identified as form of sexual deviation, falls under sociopathic personality disturbance  In DSM II homosexuality seen as medical pathology - Seen under personality disorder - According to DSM no other definition of homosexuality other than sexual deviation De-medicalization of Homosexuality  According to 1970 survey 62% Americans agreed to calling homosexuality a sickness that can be cured  Serious of social changes in early part of 20thC lead to this  Increase separation of sex from procreation – the pill  Kinsey - Studied prevalence of Hmslty in AM population - Homosexual conduct learned so it is a choice  Social science research growing that challenged medicine  Some anthropological data – homosexuality conducted was common and in some instances institutionalized (beardache)  Social movements such as women’s + gay changed attitudes of disease status of homosexuality within psychiatric community  Members of gay community would disrupt psychiatric conferences, challenged DSM, fought to remove It from DSM  Some support from members in APA and a few gay psychiatrists  Compromise – Homosexuality no longer a diagnosis, accepted by DSM in Dec 1973 - New diagnosis: Sexual orientation disturbance (homosexuality) - In 1980: Changed to Ego Dystonic Homosexuality  Homosexuality fully de-medicalized  However, still exists groups/people that think its an illness and try to fix those that are. Re-medicalization of Homosexuality  Conrad and Angell argue that # changes that can cause it to be re-medicalized 1. Emergence of GID (gender identity disorder in children) 2. HIV AIDS as “gay” disease 3. Genetic factors, gay brain, genes 4. Biology vs. choice. - However, this is all unlikely Trans-sexualism and Transgenderism Transsexualism th  An experience that emerged in early-mid 20 century  The result of psychiatric and medical discourses and process o Has been referred to as a medical condition as well as a mental illness  Is understood as an experience of those who want to change their sex (bodies) to match their gendered sense of self (gender identity as male or female)  Is particularly associated with individuals transitioning from male to female (MTF or M2F) o Focus on FTMs more recent o Is a specific condition in the transgender realm  Has been used to refer to individuals who have undergone sex change In order to understand the experiences of today’s trans-people, need to understand the emergence of transsexualism as a medical category Transgenderism  Transgender o Refers to individuals who generally refuse to take the gender binary as a given o May/may not have had sex-change surgery o May/may not be taking hormones  Meanings of these terms are contested and have changed within a very short period of time  Some argued that transsexual does not change sex but change their gender (public displays of female/maleness) Transsexualism and Transgenderism  Still has some chromosomes, hormones  Surgery only changes secondary sex characteristics  Others understand this experience as a desire to change one’s public persona o This process does not require/involve surgical transition  Thus term transgender and its relationships to transsexuality is one mediated by the use of surgical procedures  Within the last 15 years, transgender used in postmodern terms to break away from gender and to distance term from transsexuality  Are overlaps between these categories even if have different historical origins  Transsexualism currently defines as individuals relation to gender reassignment o Concerns were with successfully passing as sex of the other o Reifies and reinforces traditional gender norms and presentations Transsexualism  Individuals referred to as pre-operative and post-operative  Now referred to as transitioning (transgender) o Through clothing (cross dressing) only o Cross dressing and use of hormones (T or E) o Cross dressing, use of hormones and some surgical modifications –top surgery for FTM  With transsexualism, focus is on changing one’s body to become that of the other sex o Reifies binary/dichotomy of male/female o Masculine/feminine o Heterosexual/homosexual o Involves traditional gender displays  May use clothing, hormones and surgery but not all result in using surgery to complete themselves  If you had a homosexual past then you were rejected for surgery  History of transsexualism is a history of pathology  Transsexual a psychological and medical classification  These two sub-disciplines remain central in transsexual studies o Steadfastly adhere to a two gender paradigm o Anything else an anomaly/pathology  Medical inquiry advances two theories of etiology  Influenced by tenets of early sexology of 19 century o Innocent pleasures of cross dressing taken over by hegemonic psycho-medical discourses on the normal and abnormal o Homosexuality regarded as a biological/psychological ailment rather than a crime o Located within realm of the pathological  Stoller (1968, 1975) first distinguished transsexualism from homosexuality and transvestism  Proposed transsexualism to be the product of unconscious rearing of the child in the opposite sex  Split between identity and gender –this was a big deal  Large numbers of researches took as given the etiology of transsexualism to consist of parental deviations from normal femininity and masculinity o Effeminate fathers and domineering ball-busting mothers  Other causes included: o Birth order, divorce o Temporal lobe disorder o Introversion, depression o Non-adjustment to work o Narcissism, paranoid personality  If males are the youngest of several boys, there is a higher rate of these boys being gay  Personality problems and actual problems Transgenderism:  At same time that homosexuality delisted as mental disorder in DSM-III, transsexualism became an official psychological disorder in 1980  In DSM-IV adult gender dyshporia (formerly transsexualism) is defined as: o A strong and persistent cross-gender identification o Is different from desire for any perceived cultural advantages of being the other sex o E.g. homosexual hooker  Persistent discomfort of one’s sex or feeling inappropriate in the gender role of that sex  The disturbance is not concurrent with a physical intersex condition  The disturbance causes significant distress in social, occupational, or other important areas of life  Are ‘true transgender dysphora’ –is an organic condition  Psychoanalysis and behaviour modification the major psycho-medical responses to transsexualism Transsexualism:  Both treatment approaches seek to ensure that identity, social status and biology ‘match’  End result is that the binary structure of gender is maintained on exam! o Importance of passing – had to look & act as biological females o Could not be homosexual o Had to be a man ‘trapped’ in a woman’s body o Had to have a transsexual biography from early age o “Always felt this way”  The ‘success’ criteria for psycho-medical treatment responses the same o An individual who is unambiguously either female or male  Despite years of attempts, arguments that transsexualism is somatic in origin have taken a backseat to psychiatric arguments  Those supporting somatic arguments cite long-term evidence suggesting that  Mental condition  Clark institute in Toronto deals with transsexualism along with other mental health issues and conditions o Transsexual women & men are not mentally ill o Distress, anger & depression found among transsexual individuals the result of societal discrimination & not the transsexual condition itself • As in the case of homosexuality, no reliable evidence suggests transsexualism can be ‘cured’ • Has been argued that transsexualism be considered an intersexed condition o Evidence found that 6 trans women revealed to have “female” patterns in a normally sexually dimorphic part of the brain  Not a condition in itself but a condition of society  Culture of homophobic  Surgery did not cure –still did not feel like a real girl or boy  At first it was not allowed to talk about dissatisfaction with the surgery  Despite continued research into somatic causation, these types of studies, like ‘gay gene’ are less popular than psychiatric theories of transsexualism Billings and Urban Article: • Argued transsexualism a socially constructed reality that only exists in & through medical practice o Created by medicine o Constructed as an identity disorder rather than mental illness • Series of medical developments that lead to the creation of the transsexual o Doctors previous experience with hermaphrodites o Assumptions about gender development o Psychological benefits of elective cosmetic surgery  Notion there were “true transsexuals” - this ‘obvious’ o Were not homosexual or psychotics o Surgery would successfully ‘fix’ the problem o Achieve gender & physiological congruence  Doctors duped o Transsexual grapevine emerged o Learned & passed on to others seeking sex reassignment surgery the textbook diagnosis of a “true transsexual”  Tell the doctors what they want to hear  Any doctor could look at the patient and just knew that they were what they wanted to be (being a female or a male)  Assumption that the body and mind would work together after surgery Transgender • Term in constant change – b/c is contested, is in process • 1 used by Virginia Prince (1969) To describe individuals who were not gender normative And who did not identify as transvestite or transsexual • A term and experience that was in contradistinction to world of gender conformity= • By 1990s, became a broad radical political term that embraced a variety of challenges to gender conformity • Transgender has become a central concept in sexual and gender politics • Has become a key aspect of the Queer Movement that challenged fixed categorization • As a concept, seeks to encompass all lifestyles & gender complex individuals Regardless of surgical/hormonal/prosthetic modifications (packing) Regards gender as fluid, unstable, malleable  Packing means for transmen it was a prosthetic penis, pack their pants  Challenges & parodies the belief that there is an original true essential (male/female) nature  However transgender contains within it both a move towards unsettling gender categories as well as reaffirming them  At one & the same time gender is: o A construction, is fluid, is always in process, is continually produced and reproduced –no doer behind the doing o A stable essential identity o I.e. that there is a true gender identity trans people want to live  Schleifer article  FTM transgenderists  Processes by which FTM construct, reconstruct & manage sense of self as male/masculine & gay to self & to others o 5 gay FTMs live full time as men or as man-identified o None have undergone phalloplasty reconstruction of the male penis o Sexual orientations varied – some lesbian some heterosexual  Complex interplay & negotiation of sex, gender & sexuality in these individuals erotic experiences  2 respondents were lesbians before becoming men o Surprised to find selves attracted to men after transitioning  These shifts lend credence to idea that as sex & gender change, so too may sexual orientation  Also important are sexual encounters with others & how their reactions enhance or challenge one’s gender identity (& identity claims) o I.e. want to be & live as a man o Want others to be supportive of one’s definition of the situation even if lack physiological aspects of maleness  Possessing a penis  For 2 others who now lacked erotic desire for women, sex with other gay FTMs bolstered conceptions of selves as masculine  Making claims about who we are and how we construct ourselves; along with what is masculine and feminine  Being supportive of one who is transgender is beneficial  Managed interaction  Sex with other FTM –help to reinforce the claim of being male since they understand –not about genitals  How we live with our bodies is contributed to culture –not everyone has the same experience with their bodies as other women do o One individual expressed the pleasure found in the sameness of being with another FTM Sameness may be erotic o Importance of other FTM seeing them as men • These FTMs able to incorporate their female body parts into homosexual activity with other men o As a way to reinforce their masculinity & heighten their sexual pleasure • We make distinctions between sex, gender & sexuality, but at same time we challenge & blur those distinctions b/c they are ‘fictions’ Transgender Lived Experience  Female to male in the process of becoming and being  What are his reasons for stopping to take male testosterone - Hair, voice, face, sexual orientation  What does he do to be a man, how does he identify?  Danys Exp, how does he identify? How does he feel about his female body/self  How does his mom/sister respond to him being transgendered  How is Danny’s experience similar and or different to first persons? Heterosexuality  Until recently little attention was given to theorizing heterosexuality - Was rarely acknowledged or problematized - Naturalized concept: Treated as norm - Seen as natural, fixed, universal and stable category. - Anything other than that is a deviation.  But there is still a diversity of meaning/social arrangements within the heterosexual category Heteronormativity  Is a new concept which is an institutionalized form of practice as well as relationships of family structure/identity  Its meaning is dependent on gender divisions, category divided by gender  For women, whose identity primarily related to their desire for men - EX: the social/economic privileges associated with having male partner. - In roles of wife/mother  However, this term privileges/disempowers women  For men meanings of heterosexuality means masculinity, desire for women and social and economic power - Dominant discourse of heterosexuality refer to white, male heterosexual subject  Experiences of institutionalized heterosexuality informs construction of race and class - Black sexuality historically seen as form of hyper-sexuality (men/women) - Both black men/women seen as over sexed heterosexuals - Black make heterosexuality seen as threat to white woman hood  Heterosexuality believed to be original blue print for interpersonal relationships  Western political thought taken heterosexual couple to represent principle of social union itself Heterosexuality  Female sexuality has been traditionally been defined as different form, yet complementary to male sexuality  This difference constructed as gendered power differences  Assumed to be both natural and necessary to sexual arousal and pleasure power eroticized  Rape fantasy – of being overpowered, taken by force  Harlequin romance novels: Publishes 120 new titles a month million $ industry – Canada  This approach suggests that desire is the privilege of heterosexuals  If you do not engage in vaginal intercourse you are not recognized as sexual beings, still virgins  Heterosexual sex also disciplines the body - Sexualizes some body parts over other (anus not in heterosexual relationships) - Anal sex heterosexualized in gay sex (fem,passive)  Judith Butler: A post modernists attempted to theorize heterosexuality and relationship to lesbian identity  We cant escape hegemonic ideas of heterosexuality - Lesbians too - Heterosexuals as well: Heterosexuality always in process of being produced  Heterosexuality constructed through repeated performances that imitate its own ideas/norms, produces effect of being natural as result. History of Heterosexuality  Katz (1990)  The concept of heterosexuality is one way in history to perceived, categorize and imagine social relationships of sexes  Not ancient, modern invention (late 19 )th  Past generations saw societies very differently than how we do today  Pre-heterosexuality: Early Victorian True Love (1820-1860) - Heterosexual did not exist during this time  True man hood, true love, true woman hood all characterized by purity, ideals found in religious texts - True Womanhood: Defined by distance from last - True Manhood: Free from lust  True love was romance with no kisses - Only real with marriage (true way of producing correctly gendered women and men)  Women/men seen as procreators only, not erotic beings - Erotic not aspect of heterosexual identity - Human body meant for procreation - Penis/vagina instruments of reproduction not pleasure  Late Victorian Sex-Love (1860-1892) - Hetero/homo were in the making at this time, did not come out of the blue  Experience of heterolust began to be widely documented and named  Transformation of family from produced to consumer - Changes in family members relationships to own bodies - Instrument of work in new economy  Growth of consumer economy fostered new pleasure ethic - Change in values  Erotic new form of consumption: books, plays, films - Commodity culture based on pleasure  During this time new rise in power/prestige of medical doctors who began to describe healthy new sexuality - In the name of science doctors defined new male/female relationships - Once labelled nympho for enjoying sex, women’s lack of sexual pleasure became mental disturbance  New norm: Women/men possessed healthy libido  New normal sexuality had its counterpart in invention of late Victorian sexual pervert  Increased attention paid to sexually abnormal  Heterosexuality: the First Years (1892-1900) - Defined by mental condition  In 1892 Krafft Ebbings said heterosexual used unambiguously to refer to erotic feeling for different sex - His idea of heterosexuality offered the modern world a new norm that dominated our ideas of the sexual  Distribution of Heterosexual Mystique 1900-1945 - Heterosexual hypothesis was that it was stable, fixed, ruling sexuality  Heterosexuality associated with human needs/drives  Stress on gender differences a conservative response to changing social sexual division of activity  Sexuality during this period regarded positively  Heterosexual Hegemony 1945-1965: - Cult of Domesticity after WWII: Re-association of women with home, how women work take away from men, emasculating men and causing problems within the family. - A period where the heterosexuality norm did not get challenged  Became era of heterosexual hegemony  Sexual liberalists helped to extend and secure dominance of heterosexual ideal Bisexuality  Category of bisexuality played a central role in linear model of sexuality  It was referred to by sexologists as “primordial hermaphroditism” or “embryological bisexuality”  Found in recapitulation theory - Human embryo repeated in its own life history - It also passed through lower forms of its ancestors on way to maturity  & Darwinian Theory - Every individual has aspect of reproductive system of opposite sex  Blacks, women, children and homosexuals were see as the effect of an unsuccessful evolution  An individual’s distance from the state primordial bisexuality dictated the degree of one’s evolutionary advancement - Race, age, gender, sexuality defined by relation to bisexuality Bisexuality & Sexology  Bisexuality posed a problem for sexological discourse - Problem with trying to contain sexual deviance in either hetero/homo - Sexology could not account for bisexuality as a “legit: sexuality - Affirmed most bisexuals prefer their own sex, that they may be introverts  Sexologists struggle with how to see bisexuality as bisexual caused, or psychological effect.  Bisexuality being refused in present tense, meant it had to be somewhere else (in the embryo)  Could never be stable ID, or else categories of male and female, hetero/homo get doubted  If an individual was bisexual physiologically, no reason why they might not be bisexual in psychological orientation  Categories of homosexuality and heterosexuality merging into bisexuality - Bisexuality as important historical experience Bisexuality & Freud  Inherited problematic relationship to bisexuality  Kept theory of primordial bisexuality, made frame work of psychoanalytic frame work  Aimed to create a psychological theory of gender and sexuality that would complement biological foundations of psychoanalysis  Psychological bisexuality seen as biological bisexuality  Freud believed homo/hetero desires found in each individual - He believed opposites attack, bisexuality human beginning  Bisexuality danger stability of oppositional notions of gender and sexuality  Rejection of bisexuality and pathologyization of homosexuality hand in hand  Zinik proposed three forms of bisexuality 1. Simultaneous 2. Concurrent 3. Serial bisexuality Heterosex- In The Same Boat (Gendered experience of first sex)  Heterosexuality is grounded in bodily sexuality, and cannot be understood independent of these factors: - Giving up ones social power to determine their own sexuality - An AMbiigous role for women whether sexuality exposed or not - In discourses of masc/fem, norm/abnormal  Deconstructions of heterosexuality show how far straight women will go, they will give up their power to determine own sexuality, and this is what causes men/.women to support/reproduce heterosexual ideologies and practices.  Heterosexuality is about masculinity - How boys become men through heterosexuality  1 sex a double construction - Young women pressured into consenting into this adult heterosexual masculinity - She must fit herself within this construction by making sense of herself and others - Intercourse with men becomes something for them to manage  Construction of adult heterosexuality as masculinity: - Offers limited masculine and feminine identities - Constructs feminity on masculine terms - However, this territory only exists with female consent   Most women arrive at first heterosexual experience already constituted as women - 1 period  What it means to be women, she will define being woman with being able to reproduce  Young men, puberty has no physiological marker - They are men once they have their first sex act - Their sexuality validated through acts than being.  Young people know that there is a variety of range of activities  Proper sex was widely defined as specific version of heterosexual intercourse - Vaginal penetration starts with HIS arousal, and HIS climax.  Female heterosex is absent or least passive  Cultural values/social practices of heterosexual still about sexual needs of man.  The subordination of female sexual agency occurs in her first sexual experience Race, Social Class & Sexuality Disability and Sexuality  Theories about intersection between sexuality/disability are limited  Historical sociologists view disability through lens of a medical model  Physical disease located within the body, can/need find origins – will cure  Body and body parts can be understood and treated in isolation  Focus on how disability is an individual problem that needs medical intervention to make it normal again Social Constructionist Approach  Rooted in idea that some dominant groups set rules that define what is normal/deviant - But problems lie in environment  People with disabilities are marginalized through oppressive societal attitudes/behaviours regarding anything that’s not normal in appearance/sexuality  Galvin: Explored how disability status affected self-perception/how others treat you - Common themes: Negative view of self, being pitied, single out, stared at by others.  Common that disability made someone look unattractive, or unable to be in sexual relationship - People of disability from all groups of people find they don’t have many opportunities to love/relationship/parenting - Face institutional exclusions: Lack of info about disability there is - Disabled women sometimes denied birth control, not needing sexual services.  Not good to merge disabled identity with sexuality because only normal identities socially viable  Because dominant view is that hetero/able bodied is normal it means that only hetero relationships are accepted/normal - This excludes many other forms though (Quadriplegic sex seen as freakish) The Disabled Body in Social Life  Body is central to social life  People are privileged by the type of bodies they have - Bodies exist along continuum, and are framed in terms of how normal they are - Characteristics such as, race, ethnicity, class, age, physique.  Bodies can be less normative by being, too light, dark, fat, skinny, poor, young,etc - Degree to how normal our body matters - Degree to how bodies were accepted has changed over time - One is treated in society depending on the normalness of - Also their resources, historical/cultural context  The way people are negatively treated is understood by body symbolism, it signifies your worth, they’re denied social recognition/validation - Seen as unattractive if you don’t have normal body  Disabled bodies stigmatized – weak, passive, dependent.  In English language, those with disabilities seen as de-formed, dis-eased, dis-abled, dis-ordered, in valid  Having disability can be primary master ID, overshadows other aspects of self-identity  Individuals with disabilities are in power struggle with those who don’t who have power to validate their bodies Medicalization of People with Disabilities  Historical, disability seen in medical terms that needs medical solution  This view emphasized pathology, tragedy, loss  Disabled seen as passive, dependent, need of care  While medicalized has improved lives of disabled, it has undermined disabled individuals ability to control their own life  Individuals face deep prejudice when trying to establish self-satisfactory sexualities Constructions of Sexuality for Midlife Women Living with Chronic Illness  Women who have chronic illness, focus on sexuality as important health issue  3 themes emerged: 1. Changing body: Female body highly sexualized in west. Illness reshapes and problematizes body. Some illness scar/deform/limit body. Living with chronic illness means accepting changes of self and body. View of beautiful body is that without illness. Source of embarrassment, altered feelings of intimacy, couldn’t have sex, bodily changes affected clothes can wear 2. Meeting needs of others: Felt need to put others before themselves. Minimize their problem to other people’s lives. Changes in sexual relationship with partner, feeling guilty, powerlessness. 3. Communicating Sexuality: Some women feel uncomfortable talking about how lives changed sexual needs. Some relationships do not even speak about sexuality. When to tell partner about condition, fear of rejection. The Virgin Daughters  What are purity balls?  What are the reasons for purity?  What is the role of fathers in young girls lives?  What do the young girls think about this?  What do the young girls think about this? o Young men?  What are the assumptions about sexuality?  What happens to those girls who cannot live up to this ideal?  Is this an attempt to return to the ‘rule of the father’ –Patriarchal Rule  Do you think it would be cool to say that you only kissed one man in your life? Notes:  Daughters/girls pledging to be pure until they are married  Daughters go to balls with their friends  1/6 girls in America take a purity pledge  Fathers and daughters preparing for the purity ball in Colorado, may 2008  Cannot even kiss a guy until you are married  Randy and Lisa, started the purity ball 10 years ago  When a father loves his daughter than she feels valued and does not need to go look for attention from young men  Wilson is the grandest, elegancy and romance  Homemade wooden cross in the center of the ball and it is the focus that the girls danced around to show their pledge  If they don’t get that love reinforced by their father than they will go outside the home to get this reinforcement  Christian Wilson –she is 20 and runs the ballet show of the purity ball  She does not desire to date anyone or hang out in places that are not for her  Kevin Moore is Randy’s right hand man and he has 3 daughters and his oldest has never dated  Rachel (daughter) feels that dating is annoying reoccurring situations that she does not want to get into  He was a single parent for 10 years before he got married again  Purity means – not having an intimate relationship before I get married, to have a pure heart and not giving up my first kiss until day of marriage, it is also one of the 10 commandments  Purity ba
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