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SOCIOL 1A06 Study Guide - Final Guide: Role Theory, Robert D. Putnam, Social Relation

Course Code
Tina Fetner
Study Guide

of 9
chapter 1
study of human society
the study of what seems natural, but really it isn't
social institutions eg: legal system, university
theological stage: people believed that society is the result of the actions of supernatural
metaphysical stage: human behaviour is governed by natural biological instincts
scientific stage: scientific approach to understanding society
"theory and practice of society in america" -some girl
one of the earliest feminist sociologists
"historical materialism" - karl marx
conflict between social classes that drove social change in our society
material living determines consciousness
material living comes first then our thinking
max vipor- "economy in society" "the protestant ethic and the spirit of capitalism"
religious transformation laid groundwork for development of modern capitalism
studied calvinists
religion believed in predestination
came to value success and material possession
focused on individuals
dakime?? -cohesion
understanding how societies are held together
focused on groups of people
"the division of labour in society"
studied suicides
studied the function of religion and saw that its not only about worshipping god, it is
about being there with people who are same minded as you, gives a sense of
belonging and identity, escape from problem
functionalism: simplistic, everything is there to serve a function
conflict theory
focus on conflicts
feminist theory: form of conflict theory
whenever there are 2 people together, there is always a conflict
symbolic interactionism
focused on how face to face interactions create the social world
about individuals, not a group
canadian sociologist- ervin goffman:
uses theatre terms
everything we do is for selfish reasons
if something doesn't bring us benefit, why bother doing it
motivation behind any sort of social action
chapter 2
quantitative: deals with numbers, something you can count
qualitative: ways of collecting information that doesn't deal with numbers
ways to research:
deductive: theory- hypothesis- collect data- analyze data- confirm/reject theory
inductive: collect data- work your way up to make a theory
causality: when a change in one variable directly causes a change in another
one causes another
difficult to prove
so many variables that could explain something
correlation/association: two things are related
simoultaneous relation in variables
does not mean causation
easier to use this in sociology research
3 factors needed to establish causation
time order/chronology
non spurious explanations - rule out alternative explanations
spurious explanations- false assumptions
free verse causality: when you believe A is causing B, but its really the other way: B is
causing A
dependent/independent variables
hypothesis: proposed relationship between two variables, usually tells a direction
operationalization: you have to define the term (e.g.: what long hours of driving mean)
null hypothesis: no relationship- trying to disprove
alternative hypothesis: there is a relationship- trying to prove
moderating variables: affects the relationship between the dependent and independent
eg: parental education is associated with children's likelihood of living in poverty as
independent: parental education
moderating variables: race, family structure
mediating variables: variable that comes between dependent and independent variables,
but do not interact or affect their relationship
eg: test scores/childrens education
validity: measures what you want it to measure
reliability: you can do the study again and get the same result, can be repeated
generalizability: focus on a small subset within a big population and generalize it and
your finding is applicable to the wider population
sample: subset of population in which the data is drawn from
case study: in dept look at a phenomenon in a social setting
experimental effects: as a researcher, you always have an effect on the relationship you
are studying
flexivity?: analyzing the effects the researcher has on research
power: we are not all equal, we need to be aware of the roll power plays in the research
feminist methodology: promotes independence of women
participant observation: observing those actions in practice
very time consuming
personally demanding
only method for certain topics
open ended interviews/ closed ended interviews
survey research
historical methods: written documents
When conducting research:
no harm rule: don't hurt participants
voluntary participation: they can withdraw
protected population (jails, mental institutions): get additional approval
make research available to the public