SOCIOL 2QQ3 Study Guide - Final Guide: Noncustodial Parent, Longitudinal Study, Gartner

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Published on 5 Oct 2020
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Work and Family Life
-Changes in work and family: female labour force participation & aging population
Challenges of eldercare
-As people get older, they care about their pension, and after one failed relationship where women can take half of
man’s pension, they can’t risk a second relationship failure.
-Unpaid labour is multifaceted
-Unpaid labour is unpredictable
-Time off to care for family members — there is not much and it’s unpaid
Some have no choice but to send kids sick to school because can’t take a day off
The more caregiving one does, the more it impacts ones mental and physical health
Narrowing — women doing less/ lowering their standards
Caregiving and health:
-Consequences of failing to perform unpaid labour/caregiving, ex. missing deadlines for school trips
-Also includes, failure to address medical needs for family member before it’s severe
Perceptions of fairness
-Heterosexual couples say things are fair, even if they aren’t because women statistically do more unpaid labour
-You can’t change the other person you’re in a relationship with — pattern already established within household
-Inequality in childcare seen as more acceptable
Sandberg : leaning in — women deciding not to climb corporate ladder
Challenges faced by parents of children with disabilities
-Lower life and marriage satisfaction
-Mother reduces paid employment
Divorce and Relationship Dissolution
-Fairly large number of Canadian children will experience parental relationship instability
-Divorce as a process — Before and after factors determining cause and effect (short and long term effects)
Child support guidelines and spousal support guidelines don’t always improve things for women
This is a generalization: the non-custodial parent is the father
Does the involvement of the non custodial parent have outcomes for children?
-Research suggests children do better in presence of non-custodial parent, but others say that there isn’t enough
evidence
-Why?
Most couples who are splitting up are conflicting and don’t maintain a collaborative style of parenting
-Scholars argue in hetero relationships where fathers take passive role, they have a harder time parenting post-
divorce
-Children harmed more from parental conflict than a divorce
-Children’s well-being determined by custodial parent well-being
The mother has supports in place, but are challenged by a lack of resources
-ex. They have to pick up paid employment to pay the bills, and this leads to less time with their children
Re-partnering trends
-Often choose cohabitation and will not re-partner - mainly women
-Men are more likely to re-partner and they do this more quickly
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Because concepts of masculinity…
-divorce caused by: women’s criticism of their husband’s income, and men’s criticism of the wives homemaking
-Highly educated/ high earning women marry less often than less educated women
-Men with low income are less likely to marry
-Chapter 24, Catherine Kohler Riessman, “Mourning Different Dreams: Gender and the Companionate Marriage”
-Why do people get divorced? Expectations of marriage, and how it didn’t match up with their actual experiences
-Participants embraced an ideology that marriage is based on a companionate relationship
-Men wanted emotional exclusivity
The men didn’t like their wives involvement in wider social networks
-The men felt that they were losing control over their wives, and this led to conflict
-This theme of control is a form of abuse
Women wanted clear communication and reciprocity in conversation
-Chapter 25, Smart et al “Doing” Post-Divorce Childhood”
-Examines divorce from the child’s perspective — children have agency and actively respond to divorce
-Children who are very young when their parents split are not going to affected as much as older children
-Positive impact of divorce on children
-“Children develop their own coping strategies: emotional intelligence, independence, autonomy, diplomacy…
-Chapter 26, Elizabeth Church, “Kinship and Stepfamilies”
-Interviews with stepmothers, Meta analysis
-Looks at the research of impact of divorce on kids
-Since so many women died during childbirth in the 1500s, there are substantial amount of families that were step
families in the past.
-Stepmothers saw their roles in varied ways
Step mothers reported higher dissatisfaction and stress in comparison to the step fathers.
The men benefit from the women’s unpaid labour and this explains why men tend to remarry more quickly, and
why a growing number of women are not remarrying, especially women who are financially stable.
-Easier for step fathers, less emotional labour
Boundaries in stepfamilies are more flexible
Children of stepfamilies tend to leave home earlier
-Second marriages have higher divorce rates
Gender and Families
-Chapter 9, Yen Le Espiritu, “We Don’t Sleep Around Like White Girls Do”: Family, Culture, and Gender in
Filipina American Lives”
Gender intersects with race, class, sexual orientation, age, ability, citizenship (intersecting inequalities)
Women’s experiences with establishing identity, relationships, and sexuality are embedded in family and
community contexts
-Espiritu
Did 100 interviews with first and second generation Filipino immigrants
Explores gender, sexuality, and family relations within a broader context of immigrant status and the status of a
racialized, colonized, and subordinated group
-Filipino community in San Diego has experienced tremendous population growth
-Strategies to maintain a sense of cultural superiority over white American society
-Filipino families viewed as close-knit and dedicated
-Americans viewed as less family-oriented
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Idea that they’re more individualistic, less caring and less willing to do work of the family and cultural
maintenance.
Filipino women viewed as more committed to husband and giving up their pursuits for husband/ family.
-“In the following narratives, “Americans” are characterized as lacking in strong family ties and collective identity,
less willing to do the work of family and cultural maintenance, and less willing to abide by patriarchal norms in
husband/wife relations” (p. 169)
-Filipina women were upheld as sexually virtuous whereas American women were constructed as sexually immoral
This allows the Filipino community to retain a sense of cultural superiority despite their disadvantaged position
in American society
-How are cultured women sexuality constructed?
In negative ways.
racialized groups also criticize the morality of white women as a strategy of resistance
Le Espiritu problematizes this strategy of resistance because it reinforces patriarchal authority in the family
-Restrictions placed on daughters
-if daughters tried to push back parents say they’re not faithful to culture - taking toll on women mental health
-double standards when the daughters are given less freedom
-This strict parental control led to conflict
-Radical feminist theory — in favour of sexual autonomy for all women because women’s autonomy is restricted
Money in Families
-Important in: cohabiting/marital relationships, decision-making, relationship dissolution/family law
-Relationship length and status important
-The way that separate accounts are used varies by gender
-Allowance system
Used to be popular to give to wife (unequal economic pooling)
Partial pooling system — 50/50 on everything = disadvantages for women bc typically don’t earn as much as
men
-Women who work full-time may have greater involvement in money matters
-Vogler, Brockmann, and Wiggins (2006): partial pooling increased among childless cohabiting couples w
significant differences in income
-Rowntree (1910): secondary poverty
Young (1952): female paid employment reflects inadequate allowances
Women’s restraint in spending following motherhood
Women’s higher earnings do not translate into higher levels of personal spending
-West and Zimmermans (1987):! “doing gender”
Homogamy: marriage between two people who share similar backgrounds in terms of socio-economic status
Marriage for kin to get ahead, marrying others in same social class or marrying up = economic opportunism
-Predatory marriage
An individual pursues marriage solely for financial gain ex. Taking advantage of their old age.
-Sexually transmitted debt
Debt that accrues between two people who are in an intimate relationship
-Marriage Fraud
Over citizenship
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