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Quiz

SOCIOL 2R03 Quiz: SOCIOL 2R03 Quiz #1

by OneClass815711 , Fall 2016
18 Pages
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Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOCIOL 2R03
Professor
Lina Samuel
Study Guide
Quiz

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SOCIOL 2R03 Quiz #1
Chapter 1
Inequality’s core dimensions
oClass
oRace
oGender
Some dimensions are bound together and hard to disentangle
oRace
oEthnicity
oReligion
Dimensions of an Unequal World
Luck is important in society
oHaving access to right schools, financial resources, business and professional contacts
and particular opportunities
Strata: layers with discernible borders between the levels
Social stratification: how the inequalities in society are sorted into identifiable layers of persons
with common characteristics
oThese layers are social classes
oExample: most people call themselves middle class, because it seems too “uppity” to
label yourself as upper class, yet nobody wants to admit to being lower class because
that could be associated with failure
Sociological perspective of social inequality seeks to examine patterns going beyond certain
scenarios to explore differences in the constraints that shape people’s choices
oTries to dig deeper in a macro perspective, not micro
Interested in how inequality is structured – systematic inequality
Key theme: who we become is part of a complicated interplay outcome, between individual
characteristics and our role in society (this determines which characteristics are encouraged,
constrained and rewarded)
Social imagination: awareness of micro personal experience and the relation to that with macro
society
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Intersections of Race, Class and Gender
Robeson County: courthouse that lists veterans in a hierarchy – whites first, Lumbee Indians
second, Africans last
Smithfield packing: hog-butchering/pork production plant; Whites hold supervisory roles
oA few Indians are supervisors/have clean jobs
oBlack women scrape feces and worms from animal intestines
oBlack/Mexican workers stand 8.5 hours and slash hogs
oAt end of shift, their whole bodies ache and go numb
oThis is one of the only jobs that enables unskilled workers to work for as much as
$8/hour
Employee turnover = 100% (5000 leave in a year, then 5000 more come)
Industrialization of food production, immigration, and globalization
oDecline of union power
oRace, class and gender intersect work
oComplex social relations define social stratification
“New” approach to inequality: religion, ethnicity, sexuality, age
oclassical theorists pay most attention to class
Weber: 3-part division
oClass, status (prestige), party (political power)
oInterested in organization of privilege/duty between men and women in the household
Race and gender = special types of status
oRace is better understood as social status
oRacial category/identity = special prestige/respect within a community and may come
with stigma or disadvantage
oGender = social and legal status, can come with privileges/barriers related to associated
class
oAge – may command respect or contempt
oEthnic heritage – source of pride or (in negative terms) something to be hidden
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find more resources at oneclass.com
oIn trying to analyze race, class and gender it is difficult because they are a continual and
complex interaction with one another/other dimensions of inequality
Example: a poor black woman would have triple the disadvantage
Conclusion: we cant disentangle the Gordian Knot, the challenge is to better understand
interactions among oppression and privilege, dominant and subordinate positions, and inclusion
and exclusion that shapes our social structure
oThe Gordian knot is an analogy of how the three dimensions (class, race, gender) are all
equally intertwined/important, and they affect the individual as a whole
Hunting and Gathering Societies
Until 10,000 years ago, they contained everyone in the world
Made up of semi nomadic bands of 50+
Gender divided societies, based on biology and convenience
oMen hunt, women gather
Hunting
oImportant protein and nutrients
oEasier for men because they have longer arms
Gathering
oSmall animals
oMen and women work together to fish (combo of hunting and gathering)
oReliable food source
o60%-80% of total food
Class Divisions
oUnheard of among hunter-gatherers
oSkills of hunting and gathering = equal to everyone
oFew possessions – bands must carry all they possess when they travel
oEconomy based on reciprocity – the sharing of goods
oNo hierarchy or leader
oShare their common lot
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find more resources at oneclass.com

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Description
SOCIOL 2R03 Quiz #1 Chapter 1  Inequality’s core dimensions o Class o Race o Gender  Some dimensions are bound together and hard to disentangle o Race o Ethnicity o Religion Dimensions of an Unequal World  Luck is important in society o Having access to right schools, financial resources, business and professional contacts and particular opportunities  Strata: layers with discernible borders between the levels  Social stratification: how the inequalities in society are sorted into identifiable layers of persons with common characteristics o These layers are social classes o Example: most people call themselves middle class, because it seems too “uppity” to label yourself as upper class, yet nobody wants to admit to being lower class because that could be associated with failure  Sociological perspective of social inequality seeks to examine patterns going beyond certain scenarios to explore differences in the constraints that shape people’s choices o Tries to dig deeper in a macro perspective, not micro  Interested in how inequality is structured – systematic inequality  Key theme: who we become is part of a complicated interplay outcome, between individual characteristics and our role in society (this determines which characteristics are encouraged, constrained and rewarded)  Social imagination: awareness of micro personal experience and the relation to that with macro society Intersections of Race, Class and Gender  Robeson County: courthouse that lists veterans in a hierarchy – whites first, Lumbee Indians second, Africans last  Smithfield packing: hog-butchering/pork production plant; Whites hold supervisory roles o A few Indians are supervisors/have clean jobs o Black women scrape feces and worms from animal intestines o Black/Mexican workers stand 8.5 hours and slash hogs o At end of shift, their whole bodies ache and go numb o This is one of the only jobs that enables unskilled workers to work for as much as $8/hour  Employee turnover = 100% (5000 leave in a year, then 5000 more come)  Industrialization of food production, immigration, and globalization o Decline of union power o Race, class and gender intersect work o Complex social relations define social stratification  “New” approach to inequality: religion, ethnicity, sexuality, age o classical theorists pay most attention to class  Weber: 3-part division o Class, status (prestige), party (political power) o Interested in organization of privilege/duty between men and women in the household  Race and gender = special types of status o Race is better understood as social status o Racial category/identity = special prestige/respect within a community and may come with stigma or disadvantage o Gender = social and legal status, can come with privileges/barriers related to associated class o Age – may command respect or contempt o Ethnic heritage – source of pride or (in negative terms) something to be hidden o In trying to analyze race, class and gender it is difficult because they are a continual and complex interaction with one another/other dimensions of inequality  Example: a poor black woman would have triple the disadvantage  Conclusion: we cant disentangle the Gordian Knot, the challenge is to better understand interactions among oppression and privilege, dominant and subordinate positions, and inclusion and exclusion that shapes our social structure o The Gordian knot is an analogy of how the three dimensions (class, race, gender) are all equally intertwined/important, and they affect the individual as a whole Hunting and Gathering Societies  Until 10,000 years ago, they contained everyone in the world  Made up of semi nomadic bands of 50+  Gender divided societies, based on biology and convenience o Men hunt, women gather  Hunting o Important protein and nutrients o Easier for men because they have longer arms  Gathering o Small animals o Men and women work together to fish (combo of hunting and gathering) o Reliable food source o 60%-80% of total food  Class Divisions o Unheard of among hunter-gatherers o Skills of hunting and gathering = equal to everyone o Few possessions – bands must carry all they possess when they travel o Economy based on reciprocity – the sharing of goods o No hierarchy or leader o Share their common lot  Nasty, Brutish, and Short o Hobbes says this society was nasty, brutish, and short o There’s evidence that they may have lived well o They worked about 20 hours a week and had healthier diets o lives filled with nature, waited for seasonal herds and ripening fruits Horticultural and Herding Societies  As hunter gatherers became unable to provide for huge communities  They became plant cultivators (horticulturalists) o Shift their cultivation, but live in one location whilst doing so  Redistribution = an economic system where goods flow into a central location then out to other locations  Horticultural surplus o Produced by a small village, but was limited o Privileges are based on ability to redistribute to everyone’s satisfaction  Women o Had important role o Hoe work of tending gardens – men were hunting, but gardens sustained the village o She controlled the economy and governance (economic power = political power) o When men married, he went to live with wife’s relatives  Age o Brought respect o Village elder, wise medicine woman, vision seeker, canny clan leader  Sexuality o Attitudes were more stringent than in the European society o Inheritance didn’t follow the male line where they had the responsibility of establishing “legitimacy” of their offspring o Berdache = person who crosses traditional gender lines  Domestication of Plants and Animals o People began to control come animal’s movements and eliminate competition of predators o People became herders and pastoralists (sheep and cattle farmer) o Emerged along semiarid regions too dry for horticulture but had grasses where herd animals were attracted to  Age and Gender; a privilege in herding societies o Senior male = patriarch, accumulating herd along with servants to help tend their animals  Family lineage dependant on him o Strict gender divisions, more importance on inheritance of livestock, stricter punishments for those who blur lines of gender/sexuality o Last 7000 years – horticultural/herding societies have disappeared into larger and more powerful societal forms (developed in Middle East with ride of Agrarian societies) Agrarian Societies (field)  Based on cultivation but practice continuous growth – not shifting gardens  More agriculture  People domesticated animals and plants as they faced demand to bring land to grow  Realized oxen could turn up more ground than they could  Irrigation (watering) = plowing = key to agriculture  Urban-based society – began the start of “civilization”  Became more stratified than their forerunners  Land could be owned – private property now existed  More centralization of Power o Lords owned/controlled land o 50% of peasant’s earnings were obligations to the lord o rulers of the great empires extracted enough surplus from land/subjugated cities to live luxuriously o Egyptian Pharaoh came to be “god-man” – birthright was to own land/everyone to serve him o When labour was short, warfare provided new land/slaves  Capitalism replaced Feudalism o Early rulers had Joseph gather surplus grains in times of famine o With expansion of money economy – redistribution developed markets o Markets = goods being bought/sold with prices set by supply/demand o Merchants now grew in wealth Life on the Edge – Frontiers and Ports  Maritime societies in Phoenicia, Venice and Netherlands  Depended on sea trade entirely, merchant dominated  More republics than monarchies – with groups of wealthy and influential traders forming governments Industrial Societies  High increase of social inequality  More goods to amass – ways to accumulate them all  Race to catch up to Great Britain (greater power)  Workers revolted – strikes and fights with militia  Declining inequality o Middle class filled gap between rich/poor o Power was still class based, but united workers could win political concessions Inequality  Lowest: hunter-gatherer; starts to increase in horticultural/herding societies when prestige is more common  Reaches highest point: Agrarian societies (landlords and serfs)  Extreme: in industrial age (horrible working conditions and extreme poverty)  Inequality declines after industrial age – more complex class struggle emerges  Dimensions of inequality = social constructions (not facts of nature) Women throughout societies  Hunter gatherer – gender equality (gathering provides most of food)  Horticulture – somewhat gender equality  Agrarian – women positions are diminished; still contributing but shoved aside for domestic positions  Early industrial – poor women at lowest wage sectors  Advanced industrial society – new opportunities for them, able to work their way up Post-Industrial Societies 1. Extensive trade 2. Surplus of goods 3. Large service sector 4. Wide variety of goods/services 5. “information explosion” 6. rise of global village – technologies give rise to society Chapter 2 The Great Debate – The Historical Debate  Gerhard Lenski (1966) – study of the sweep of inequality o Conservative thesis  Inequality is part of the natural order of things – should/can not be changed o Radical antithesis  Equality is the natural order of things – inequality is a usurpation of privilege and should be abolished  Arguments from the Ancients o Ancient rulers were conservative on the issue of inequality o Hammurabi: King of Babylon  First to set a constitution for his kingdom  Did not consider all subjects to be equal  Thought a common man did not possess full manhood status  His laws ignored women – they were property of men  A common man would have to pay with his life, a noble man would pay with silver o Aryan invaders of India were establishing a caste system – an intergenerational system of social, racial or ethnic divisions that determines fixed social positions  Each caste (class) came from different parts of the body of Lord Vishnu o Buddha = radical  Freedom from suffering means giving up desire and that right living means fairness in all things, and caring for all things o Conservative counterpart = Confucius  Believed in justice and order – but hierarchal order o Plato = radical  Theory of social inequality = divides between families become large and fixed, resulting in a class of noble birth, and common birth  Thought children should be raised apart from their families  The Challenge from New Faiths o Tension between radical and conservative Christianity o Radical and conservative philosophy tensions in Asia o Dominant view of medieval theology was conservative o Weber saw in the ethics of the protestant reformers the beginnings of the demise of old medieval divisions between nobles and peasants  The Social Contract o By 18 century in Europe – arguments for social change drew less on the bible, more on new understanding of social contract including the rights of all o Emphasis on political, not economic reform – legal rights = prime concern o Adam Smith – argued for free trade and commerce to meet the demands of consumers  If this happened, the market would balance competing individual demands to produce the greatest goods for all (‘invisible hand”)  Set basis for liberalism (classical economics) o Thomas Jefferson – American Declaration  “all men are equal”  was on the pursuit of happiness – wanted free economic activity Karl Marx and Class Conflict  collaboration between Marx and Friedrich Engels  Drew on historical-comparative and quantitative data to support his positions  No other social scientist has ever come close to having their theories the basis of a whole society  Impossible to to give fair consideration to his work o Was worshipped in communist world, and vilified in non-communist  Not only writing a history of capitalism, but a history of civilization  Influenced by Hegel, who called the debate about ideas “dialectic”, which means a truth arrived through conflict  Dialectic is the driving force in the history of ideas  Marx believed the real dialectic was struggle between classes  Basis of any society is its mode of production o Physical component = means of production (technology) o Human component = social relations of production (positions of groups of people, social classes, economic process)  Two classes o T
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