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[SOCIOL 2S06] - Final Exam Guide - Ultimate 98 pages long Study Guide!

98 pages72 viewsFall 2014

Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOCIOL 2S06
Professor
David Young
Study Guide
Final

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McMaster
SOCIOL 2S06
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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o sociology 2S06 4/9/2014 1:58:00 AM
Introduction to sociology
Reasons for studying sociological theory
Gives us a way to interpret the world around us, lets us interpret
social condition (ex.) applying Karl Marxs theory, to transnational
corporations
Allows us to make sense of virtually any aspect of social behavior
Sociological theory is made up of many different theories, which
gives us many different perspectives on social conditions. Which we
can compare.
o By comparing the theories we get different insights on social
conditions.
o We can consider which perspectives are the most useful for
understanding social conditions
We can look at transnational corporations, by either
looking at webers idea on bureaucracies or Marx
capitalism, which allows us to compare and see which
one is the most useful for understanding cooperation.
Understanding the emergence of sociological theory
Emerged in the late 19th century, could not have emerged any
earlier because sociology grew out of historical and intellectual
governments especially the intellectual movement the
enlightenment
The impact of the enlightenment
What was the englightment
The development of intellectual change, intellectual development in
philosophical thinking during the 17th and 18th centuries.
Key aspect of enlighten thinking
o Reason, which is the human ability to think about things.
Ability to create, apply and evaluate knowledge.
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o Rationality, which involved the use of reason, to deliberate
about and evaluate explanations regarding the nature of
reality.
o Empiricism emphasized the importance, which involves the
use of evidence to describe and analyze phenomena. Allows
us to go beyond abstract rational thought.
o Allows us to create theories, of what’s happening the world.
We can test the explanations against evidence, to see if they
are true or false.
Enlightenment and traditional authority
o Makes of the enlightment saw the ability for humans to move
away from non-rational explanations of the world.
Religions, myth and tradition (have to move away from
these ways of thinking
o Move away from traditional authority, such as religion
o Oriented towards social change.
Conservative to the enligthment
o Conservative thinkers rejected the whole focus on reason and
rationality. Instead they saw the continuing importance of
religion, of myth and tradition.
o Very much interested in keeping society the same
o Thus conservative thinkers were geared towards social order.
Impact of the enlightenment and the conservative reaction on
sociology
o Developed sociologist to be ration, empirical, scientific,
oriented towards social change
o The conservations reflected, a form of sociology that was
oriented towards social order. Which developed towards
French sociology.
French sociology- the ideas of Claude Henri de Saint-Simon
Made contribution to both conservative and radical theory
Wanted to preserve society (conservative) the way it was, but also
saw where society can change (radical)
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