[SOCIOL 2S06] - Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes fot the exam (32 pages long!)

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Published on 30 Mar 2017
Department
Professor
McMaster
SOCIOL 2S06
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Lecture Friday January 6, 2017
The ruling class term is problematic because the economic class may or may not rule
politically.
- The term does not give enough autonomy to political order (the three orders) Ties together
the economic and political order
- The term says nothing about the military order
Marx argued that power resides with the ruling class (the bourgeoisie). Recognized
political and military institutions but did not see the triple power or equal to the power of the
bourgeoisie.
Class consciousness- Mills saw the power elite as possessing class-consciousness.
Marx- A class in itself, for itself. The proletariat is the only class that can develop class-
consciousness.
Later Neo-Marxian Theory and the State
Neo-Marxian definitions of the State- Neo-Marxism had a deep impact in the 1960s. Partially
due to the work of Dahrendorf and Mills (not neo-marxists). They paved the way for greater
attention to the work of Marx. The 1960’s had a lot of social conflict therefore theories trying
to address social conflict emerged (Theories of the State).
1- An Institutional Definition Established by Ralph Miliband who wrote “The state in
capitalist society (1969).
- The state is a complex of institutions that interact within a system. Included the central
government, the administration (civil service, central bank, public corporations, regulatory
bodies etc.) the military (police forces and secret intelligence services) the judicial system,
the sub-central government (provincial and local level) and representative assemblies
(House of Commons).
- He excludes the mass media, political parties, pressure groups, churches, education, and
the health care system.
2- A Functional Definition- Louis Althusser, “Ideology and ideological State Apparatuses
(1970)”
- The state preforms functions in the reproduction of capitalist society.
- Makes a distinction between a “repressive state apparatuses” and “ideological state
apparatuses”
Repressive State- function ultimately by violence. Includes the government, the
administration, prisons, police, courts, and the army.
Ideological State- Function primarily through ideology (capitalist) to encourage people to
accept the system. Includes religion, education, the family, law, the political system (includes
political parties), trade unions, communications (press, radio, and tv), and culture (literature,
the arts, sports, etc.) Protects the capitalist state through the ideas they convey.
3- An Alternative Definition- established by Carl Cuneo. (Canadian sociologist, taught at
McMaster). “Pay equity: The labour-feminist challenge (1990). Definition between Miliband
and Althusser.
- He argued that Althusser included too many apparatuses: Cuneo believed that religion,
family, and trade unions are not part of the state.
- He argued that Miliband excluded too many institutions: the mass media, education, and
the health care system. Parts of these systems need to be seem as part of the State.
Alternative definition- the state includes the central and regional governments (federal,
provincial, and municipal), parliamentary assemblies, the armed forces and police,
intelligence and security, judicial and court system, prisons, and asylums, law, and public
education, public health care and public mass media.
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Instrumentalist Theory- The state acts at the behest of the capitalist class. The state is an
instrument of the capitalist class. The capitalist class influences the state so its interests are
met.
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