Study Guides (390,000)
CA (150,000)
McMaster (9,000)
SOCIOL (400)
Final

SOCIOL 2S06 Study Guide - Final Guide: World-Systems Theory, International Inequality, Historical Sociology


Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOCIOL 2S06
Professor
Young David
Study Guide
Final

This preview shows pages 1-2. to view the full 8 pages of the document.
Theories of Globalization
Introduction and Historical Overview
Definition: globalization is the process of integrating nations and
peoples into larger economic, political and social processes
The Development of Globalization Theories
been around for about 30 years recent concept
Early theoretical ideas
o Marx talked about Capitalist Expansion; (1860s) expanding
markets (around the world) and enhanced their profits
o (1950s) Parsons SF developed Modernization Theory;
suggested that all societies will inevitably follow the same path of
economic, social and cultural development achieved by the United
States
Later Theoretical Ideas
o (1960s) Gunder Frank established Dependency Theory as a
critique of Modernization Theory
believed that Latin American countries will remain under
development because they are being subjected to exploitation
by the United States.
Highlighting the structural inequality between countries in the
world capitalist economy
o (1970s) Immanuel Wallenstein World Systems Theory
taking a broader approach than Gunder Frank, focused globally
and argued that inequality (which exists globally) is part of the
“capitalist world system”
o (1980s) Concept of Globalization
scholars began talking about globalization, using this term, and
conceptualize it… Found different types of globalization
Economic globalization; involved worldwide interconnected material production
and financial transactions
economic mechanisms of explaining global trade
Sociologists are interested in/focus on; historical and
structural aspects of globalizing economic processes and also
the social implications (include global inequality that are
generated by this globalization)
Political globalization: extension of political power and activity across state
boundaries
Biographical Sketch of Emmanuel Wallerstein

Only pages 1-2 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Did not use the term ‘globalization’ just wrote about the issue of
globalization
His ideas now connect to what we would now call globalization
Early life
o He was exposed to ideas of politics and world issues because his
parents discussed them in his home
University Education
o Completed all 3 degrees at Columbia University
BA (1951)
MA (1954)
PhD (1959)
o His MA thesis was on McCarthyism during this time there was a
campaign against (to expose) alleged communists. This campaign was
led by senator Joseph McCarthy
o In PhD he went in a different direction; wrote his dissertation on
countries in Africa “The Emergence of Two West African Nations;
Ghana and the Ivory Coast”
o This dissertation shaped his later work
University Career
o During that time and especially in the 60s there were 2 influences
during this time;
Research on Africa became known as an expert in African
studies
Became aware that some parts of the world dominated
other parts of the world
As a result, he became thinking about what he would
call later “World System”
Student Uprising at Columbia in 1968 (not unique, many
universities had uprisings)
Protest against inequality, war and lots of social
problems
Started to realize that the “world system” may be in
crisis
Analysis of the World System
o 1947 he published “the modern world system” – which analyzed
the emergence of the modern world system which he says began
in the 16th century
o This book is an example of historical sociology
1976 after this book he took another position as a
distinguished professor of sociology at the state university of
New York in Binghamton
1980 published “The Modern System II” – continued his
analysis of modern world system up to the 17th century
1989 published “The Modern World System III” – continued
his analysis of modern world system up to the 19th century
Formally retired from teaching in 1999 still wrote and worked on his
theories
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Only pages 1-2 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

o Took position as a Senior Research Scientist in the department of
sociology at Yale University (2000)
o 2011 published “The Modern World System IV” continued his
analysis of modern world system up to the early 20th century
o Analysis ended in 1914 (outbreak of the war)
Currently he is in his 80s still working and writing, in 2013 he announced
there would be a 5th volume and maybe a 6th volume if he lived that long
Theoretical Ideas of Immanuel Wallerstein
Influenced by Marx but does not see himself as a Neo-Marxist
Prefers to see himself as a Radical because he is also influenced by many
other thinkers
His work is different from Neo-Marxists because for most Neo-Marxists the
unit being studied is either classes or the state. He prefers to study a much
broader idea the world system
World System
o world system as a social system has a single division of labour;
which encompasses multiple dominated cultures
o World system can take 2 forms
1. World-Empire: a world system that has a common political
system (ex. Roman Empire (encompassed a lot of known
territory at its time)
2. World-Economy: a world system that does NOT have a
common political system (**he is more interested in this, ex.
Capitalist World System)
o In any world system, there is a geographical division of labour
Capitalist World System
o A specific world system marked by the historical emergence of the
capitalist world economy
o Stages
1. Formation (1450-1640) during this time there was the
“Crisis of Feudalism” – led to the beginnings of capitalism
As capitalism emerged, certain countries came to
dominate (Britain and the Netherlands)
2. Consolidation (1640-1815) recession in the European
capitalist economy led to their being eventually only one
dominant country (Britain)
3. Expansion (1815-1917) marked by 3 developments
Beginnings of industrial capitalism
European capitalist economy (began extracting raw
materials and cheap labour from other countries)
Emergence of other dominant countries; especially US
According to Wallerstein there are a number of unequal and different strata
1. Upper Stratum (made up of core states)
countries that are at the center of world economic
production
US & Britain
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version