Study Guides (283,358)
CA (135,368)
McMaster (8,394)
SOCPSY (92)
Midterm

SOCPSY 1Z03 Study Guide - Attribution Bias, The Red Dot, Erving Goffman
Premium

19 Pages
45 Views
Fall 2016

Department
Social Psychology
Course Code
SOCPSY 1Z03
Professor
Paul Glavin
Study Guide
Midterm

This preview shows pages 1-3. Sign up to view the full 19 pages of the document.
Social Psychology!
Study Notes!
!
Social Psychology: defined as the systematic study of the nature and causes of human
social behaviour (Delamater) !
!
Four Core Concerns
The impact of one individual on another’s behaviour and beliefs (ex. Milgram)
The impact of a group on a member’s behaviour and beliefs (ex. family)
The impact of a member on a group’s activities and structure (ex. political leaders)
The impact of one group on another group’s activities and structure!
(ex. inter-group conflict vs. inter-group cooperation)
!
Social Psychology and Other Fields
Sociology: study of development, structure and functioning of society
oSociological Social Psychologists: study relationship between individuals and
groups and broader social structures
Psychology: study of the individual and their behaviour
oPsychological Social Psychologists: concerned with behaviour and social stimuli
Social Psychology as a Social Science: examine human behaviour and the social
world by following a scientific method
oMake systematic observations of behaviour and formulate theories that are
subject to testing
oa scientific method versus personal experience, commonsensical knowledge,
philosophy!
Theoretical Perspective - Chapter 1
!
What is a theory?
Goes beyond mere observable facts by suggesting casual relations among
variables
Have to be testable, have prediction and explanation
If theory is valid, enables user to explain the phenomenon under considerations
and predictions about events not yet observed
!
Theoretical Perspectives
oGeneral explanations for social behaviours in a variety of situations
1. Role Theory
oMuch of observable behaviour is people carrying out their roles, similar to actors
preforming on a stage
oExpectations on how to act in a given social setting (social norms)
oTo change a person’s behaviour, it is necessary to change/redefine their role
oPropositions:
People spend much of their lives participating in groups/organizations
Within these groups, occupy distinct positions
Each of these positions entail a role, which is a set of functions preformed
by the person for the group
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
Expectations known as social norms, which are rules specifying how a
person should behave
Carry out roles and perform according to norms
Check if each individual conforms to the group’s norms
oLimitations:
Difficulty explaining deviant behaviour
Does not and cannot explain how role expectations originate or change
overtime
2. Reinforcement Theory
oHuman behaviour influenced by external conditions
oIndividuals reacting to environmental stimuli rather than initiating behaviour on
thought
oPropositions:
More likely to preform a behaviour if it is followed by something
pleasurable or absence of a negative
Will refrain from a behaviour if positive disappears/negative appears
Conditioning: Emitting a response and receiving reinforcement
Stimulus: Any event that leads to/changes a behaviour
Response: Change in behaviour induced by a stimulus
Reinforcement: Any favourable outcome that results from a response
Stimulus discrimination: Learn specific behaviour needed to preform to
get the positive
ex. training pet: command (stimulus) = sit (response) = treat (reinforcement)
oLimitations:
Cannot explain altruism and martyrdom
We are only doing things to get good result
3. Cognitive Theory
oThe cognitive processes of the individual are important determinants of social
behaviour (perception, memory, judgment, problem solving, decision making)
oIntervene between external stimuli and behavioural responses
oPropositions:
Schema: cognitive structure of related ideas connected to each other,
used to explain people, groups and situations (ex. thought when thinking
of a “lawyer”); can make decisions/process information quickly
Cognitive Consistency: strive to hold ideas that are consistent; if hold
ideas that are inconsistent, will experience internal conflict
oLimitations:
Everyone processes information differently (not everyone uses schemas)
Hard to observe, inferred from what people say/do
4. Symbolic Interaction Theory
oHuman nature and social order are products of symbolic communication
oPeople trying to understand what other people are doing and engage in
“impression management” (using symbols to play roles (clothing, body language)
etc.); give or take
oPropositions:
The “Self”: social order is rested on part of self-control
Because continuously engaging in role taking, see themselves from the
viewpoint of others (ex. “not a teacher until you start teaching”, audience
helps to feel like a professor)
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
Individuals care most about opinions from significant others (people who
control important rewards or occupy key positions)
oLimitations:
Not always thinking about how others see us
Concerned primarily with maintaining self-respect by meeting other’s
standards
Too much emphasis on cooperation, neglects importance of conflict
5. Evolutionary Theory
oPropositions:
Extend evolutionary ideas to explain social behaviour
In our genetic material and passed on through reproduction (Darwin)
Characteristics that enable the individual to survive will occur more
frequently
oLimitations:
Circular Reasoning: Why did the behaviour begin in the first place?
Ignores the role of cultural and social factors (choice of mates has
changed historically)
Comparison of Theoretical Perspectives
!
!
*MIDTERM QUESTION!
Which social psychology theoretical perspective argues that inconsistent beliefs
produce changes in behaviour? !
a. Role theory!
b. Reinforcement theory!
c. Symbolic interaction theory!
d. Cognitive theory
Dimension
Role Theory
Reinforcement
Theory
Cognitive Theory
Symbolic Interaction
Theory
Central Concepts
Role
Stimulus-response;
reinforcement
Cognitions, cognition
structure
Self; role taking
Primary Behaviour
Behaviour in role
Learning of new
responses
Formation of beliefs
Sequences of acts
during interaction
Assumptions about
Human Nature
People are conformist
(conform to accepted
behaviours)
People are hedonistic
(want best for
themself)
People act on their
cognitions
People are self-
monitoring actors
Factors Changing
Behaviour
Shifts in role
expectations
Change in
reinforcement
Cognitive consistency
Shifts in others’
standards
Research Method
Surveys
Experiment
Survey, Experiment
Survey
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com

Loved by over 2.2 million students

Over 90% improved by at least one letter grade.

Leah — University of Toronto

OneClass has been such a huge help in my studies at UofT especially since I am a transfer student. OneClass is the study buddy I never had before and definitely gives me the extra push to get from a B to an A!

Leah — University of Toronto
Saarim — University of Michigan

Balancing social life With academics can be difficult, that is why I'm so glad that OneClass is out there where I can find the top notes for all of my classes. Now I can be the all-star student I want to be.

Saarim — University of Michigan
Jenna — University of Wisconsin

As a college student living on a college budget, I love how easy it is to earn gift cards just by submitting my notes.

Jenna — University of Wisconsin
Anne — University of California

OneClass has allowed me to catch up with my most difficult course! #lifesaver

Anne — University of California
Description
find more resources at oneclass.com Social Psychology
 Study Notes
 
 Social Psychology: defined as the systematic study of the nature and causes of human social behaviour (Delamater) 
 
 Four Core Concerns • The impact of one individual on another’s behaviour and beliefs (ex. Milgram) • The impact of a group on a member’s behaviour and beliefs (ex. family) • The impact of a member on a group’s activities and structure (ex. political leaders) • The impact of one group on another group’s activities and structure
 (ex. inter-group conflict vs. inter-group cooperation) 
 Social Psychology and Other Fields • Sociology: study of development, structure and functioning of society o Sociological Social Psychologists: study relationship between individuals and groups and broader social structures • Psychology: study of the individual and their behaviour o Psychological Social Psychologists: concerned with behaviour and social stimuli • Social Psychology as a Social Science: examine human behaviour and the social world by following a scientific method o Make systematic observations of behaviour and formulate theories that are subject to testing o a scientific method versus personal experience, commonsensical knowledge, philosophy
 Theoretical Perspective - Chapter 1 
 What is a theory? • Goes beyond mere observable facts by suggesting casual relations among variables • Have to be testable, have prediction and explanation • If theory is valid, enables user to explain the phenomenon under considerations and predictions about events not yet observed 
 Theoretical Perspectives o General explanations for social behaviours in a variety of situations • 1. Role Theory o Much of observable behaviour is people carrying out their roles, similar to actors preforming on a stage o Expectations on how to act in a given social setting (social norms) o To change a person’s behaviour, it is necessary to change/redefine their role o Propositions: ▪ People spend much of their lives participating in groups/organizations ▪ Within these groups, occupy distinct positions ▪ Each of these positions entail a role, which is a set of functions preformed by the person for the group find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com ▪ Expectations known as social norms, which are rules specifying how a person should behave ▪ Carry out roles and perform according to norms ▪ Check if each individual conforms to the group’s norms o Limitations: ▪ Difficulty explaining deviant behaviour ▪ Does not and cannot explain how role expectations originate or change overtime • 2. Reinforcement Theory o Human behaviour influenced by external conditions o Individuals reacting to environmental stimuli rather than initiating behaviour on thought o Propositions: ▪ More likely to preform a behaviour if it is followed by something pleasurable or absence of a negative ▪ Will refrain from a behaviour if positive disappears/negative appears Conditioning: Emitting a response and receiving reinforcement ▪ Stimulus: Any event that leads to/changes a behaviour ▪ Response: Change in behaviour induced by a stimulus ▪ Reinforcement: Any favourable outcome that results from a response ▪ Stimulus discrimination: Learn specific behaviour needed to preform to get the positive ▪ ex. training pecommand (stimulus) = sit (response) = treat (reinforcement) o Limitations: ▪ Cannot explain altruism and martyrdom ▪ We are only doing things to get good result • 3. Cognitive Theory o The cognitive processes of the individual are important determinants of social behaviour (perception, memory, judgment, problem solving, decision making) o Intervene between external stimuli and behavioural responses o Propositions: ▪ Schema: cognitive structure of related ideas connected to each other, used to explain people, groups and situations (ex. thought when thinking of a “lawyer”); can make decisions/process information quickly ▪ Cognitive Consistency: strive to hold ideas that are consistent; if hold ideas that are inconsistent, will experience internal conflict o Limitations: ▪ Everyone processes information differently (not everyone uses schemas) ▪ Hard to observe, inferred from what people say/do • 4. Symbolic Interaction Theory o Human nature and social order are products of symbolic communication o People trying to understand what other people are doing and engage in “impression management” (using symbols to play roles (clothing, body language) etc.); give or take o Propositions: ▪ The “Self”: social order is rested on part of self-control ▪ Because continuously engaging in role taking, see themselves from the viewpoint of others (ex. “not a teacher until you start teaching”, audience helps to feel like a professor) find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com ▪ Individuals care most about opinions from significant others (people who control important rewards or occupy key positions) o Limitations: ▪ Not always thinking about how others see us ▪ Concerned primarily with maintaining self-respect by meeting other’s standards ▪ Too much emphasis on cooperation, neglects importance of conflict • 5. Evolutionary Theory o Propositions: ▪ Extend evolutionary ideas to explain social behaviour ▪ In our genetic material and passed on through reproduction (Darwin) ▪ Characteristics that enable the individual to survive will occur more frequently o Limitations: ▪ Circular Reasoning: Why did the behaviour begin in the first place? ▪ Ignores the role of cultural and social factors (choice of mates has changed historically) Comparison of Theoretical Perspectives Symbolic Interaction Dimension Role Theory Reinforcement Cognitive Theory Theory Theory Central Concepts Role Stimulus-response; Cognitions, cognition Self; role taking reinforcement structure Primary Behaviour Behaviour in role Learning of new Formation of beliefs Sequences of acts responses during interaction Assumptions about People are conformist People are hedonistic People act on their People are self- Human Nature (conform to accepted (want best for cognitions monitoring actors behaviours) themself) Factors Changing Shifts in role Change in Cognitive consistency Shifts in others’ Behaviour expectations reinforcement standards Research Method Surveys Experiment Survey, Experiment Survey 
 
 *MIDTERM QUESTION
 Which social psychology theoretical perspective argues that inconsistent beliefs produce changes in behaviour? 
 a. Role theory
 b. Reinforcement theory
 c. Symbolic interaction theory
 d. Cognitive theory find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com Research Methods - Chapter 2 Aggregates, Not Individuals • Deal with groups and not individual behaviour o Goal: to explain aggregate patterns of behaviour that are regular • Try to understand the systems in which people operate o The elements of the systems are not people, but variables Research Methods & Variables • Method for testing causal relationships • Variable: any characteristic that varies o ex. gender, age, income • Independent variable (X) o has an effect on another variable • Dependant variable (Y) o the outcome or the variable that is being caused by X • Extraneous (Z) o possible other variable that might account for the relationship between X and Y Causality • Temporal Order o Arrangement of events in time o The thing that is doing the causing happens before something is caused • Co-Variation (Association/Correlation) o What you are observing moves together o Co-variation does not equal causation (if you see things move together, does not mean causily related) • Non-Spuriousness o Absence of third variable Spuriousness Relationships • When a casual relationship between two variables (X and Y) is actually accounted for by third variable (Z) o ex. how is ice cream (X) and homicides (Y) related? temperature (Z) 
 Validity • External validity o When the causal relationship can be generalized to the broader population • Internal validity o Exists if the causal relationship is real and not caused by extraneous variables (Z) 
 Experiments • An operation/procedure carried out under controlled conditions in order to test a hypothesis (pg. 452) o Used to examine cause-and-effect relations between X and Y find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com • Involves manipulation of the independent variable (X) to examine effects on dependent variable (Y), while holding constant extraneous variable (Z) • What determines grades? seat position (X) to grades (Y) o two conditions: front and back o possible spurious association: motivation (Z) • Two features help establish causality: o 1. manipulation of X o 2. random assignment to levels of X • Terms: o Treatment vs. control group (placebo) o Field (real world) vs. laboratory experiments 
 One Group Pre-Test Post-Test Design • ex. test and compare health before and after drug • Problematic: no control?; health improves from being “hopeful” not drug Two Group Post-Test Only Design/Two Group Pre-Test Post-Test Design • Experimental control group: control groups common in medical research • One group receives treatment whereas control group gets placebo • Look at health afterward, only cause would be treatment Challenges to Experimental Design • Hawthorne effect o Behaviour changes when we know we are being watched o Now refers to any impact of research on the subject of study o Solution: have a control group that does not experience manipulation - if group improves without the stimulus, the presence of the researcher may be affecting study • Experimenter Effect o Describes subtle cues or signals from an experimenter that affect the performance or response of subjects ▪ To overcome, use double-blind experiment • Double-Blind Experiment o Neither the subjects nor the experimenter know which is the experimental or control group o In medical research, do not know which is placebo group Frequently not possible ▪ 
 Experiment Strengths and Weaknesses • Strengths o Strong internal validity (good evidence that X caused Y) o Artificiality (able to test things we don’t see in reality) o Replication • Weaknesses o Unrealistic lab setting (threat to internal validity) o Weaker external validity (generalization) o Sometimes unethical find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com Survey Methods • Provided self-reported data that can be coded numerically into variables • Survey researchers then examine how these variables are associated • People normally unit of analysis; if not individual not unit, they are still contacted and known as “respondent” o Respondent: A person who provides data for analysis by responding to a survey questionnaire • Excellent tool for measuring the attitudes and orientations of a large population
 
 Survey Strengths and Weaknesses • Strengths o Can be cheaper o More generalizable (strong external validity) o Can test many hypothesis in a single survey • Weaknesses o Harder to establish internal validity ▪ less control over X Harder to establish temporal order and rule out spurious association ▪ o Self-reports bias (may not tell truth) 
 
 
 
 Socialization - Chapter 3 
 Socialization • The ways in which individuals learn and recreate skills, knowledge, values, motives, and roles appropriate to their position in a group or society (Delamater) o Process in which we learn to be functioning members of society; develop identity and uniqueness • The means by which social and cultural continuity are attained (Clausen) o Pass culture to next generations o Social norms/patterns have existed for centuries, but changes are we interpret it in different ways Types of Socialization • Primary Socialization o Learning attitudes, values, norms and appropriate actions within a small group/ culture o Initiated from friends and family • Secondary Socialization o Learning appropriate ways to behave within the larger society (outside of home) o Sources are peers and teachers • Anticipatory Socialization o Happens before entering a role, anticipate how it would feel/expectations ▪ ex. thinking of being a parent find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com • Re-socialization o Process of changing/discarding behaviours and beliefs and taking on new ones o Found in total institutions: ▪ A great number of people in similar situations ▪ Cut off from wider community for considerable amount of time (ex. jail) Perspectives on Socialization • Psychological (micro) o Developmental Theory: ▪ Timing and sequencing of physical/psychological development in early childhood ▪ The process of maturing and effects on behaviour (ex. puberty, pregnancy, menopause) o Social Learning Theory: ▪ Cognitive development; focused on child’s interaction with environment (instrumental conditioning and observational learning) • Sociological (macro) o Interpretive Theory: ▪ Focus on interaction itself ▪ Discovery of the meanings common to a social group with an emphasis on the role of communication and cultural routines o Social Structural: ▪ Socialization is organized according to the sequence of social roles that individuals occupy throughout their life (ex. son, student, parent) Genie and Socialization
 *Lecture #5 note has documentary comments • Primary socialization largely absent for Genie o Limited social interaction with her parents, absence of attachment and bonding o Confined to room and specific situations (ex. feeding) • Key processes identified by social learning theory absent o Instrumental Conditioning (learning process) ▪ Shaping: gradually increase correspondence between the learner’s behaviour and the desired response (getting closer to learning complex behaviour = given reward) ▪ External reinforcement vs. Internal reinforcement (learn about performance standards of behaviour) o Observational Learning ▪ Genie’s isolation meant that she had very little opportunity to observe even basic behaviours, or more complex behaviour patterns (ex. dressing) 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com Genie and Language Acquisition • Without language, children are unable to successfully undergo more complex socialization and learn about the values, norms, and standards of a particular culture • Genie initially demonstrated little aptitude for the 3 components of language: o Phonology: The sound system o Lexicon: Words and the associated meanings o Grammar: Rules for combining words into sentences • Evidence for the critical period hypothesis? o Based on the notion that the brain is malleable at younger ages and brain plasticity • Limitation o Possibility that she already had development issues from birth (retardation/ mental disability) The Case of Genie • Other observations: o Substitution of other communication skills? ▪ In absence of language, developed other communication skills (ex. touch, hand gestures) o Language not necessary to form/retain memories o Physical senses shaped by socialization experiences ▪ ex. sense of heat o Cathartic strategies are learned ▪ Release of emotion pain/tension through expressive behaviour Punishment • Prevalence o 50% of Canadians with children 0-5 report corporal punishment ▪ Majority classified as “normative non-use physical punishment” (Baumrind) • Straus et al. 1997: Spanking o Consequences ▪ Physical punishment is associated with future antisocial behaviour in children (p. 37) ▪ Corporal punishment: the use of physical force with the intention of causing a child to experience pain, but not injury, for the purpose of correction or control of the children’s behaviour o Longitudinal study o Variables: Frequency of spanking and antisocial behaviour o Findings: ▪ When the parents used corporal punishment to reduce ASB, the long term effects are opposite ▪ Parents should replace corporal punishment with non-violent modes of discipline to reduce the level of violence in American Society
 find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com Agents of Socialization • How we learn to act in social institutions o Family ▪ Most important, teach us how to function and care for ourselves ▪ Teach first system of values, beliefs, and norms o Schools Teach life skills (following directions, meeting guidelines, etc) ▪ ▪ Learn how to interact with authority figures o Peers ▪ Learn how to cooperate, negotiate and relate to others ▪ Influence many aspects - fun, companionship, and emotional support ▪ Downside: peer pressure o Mass Media ▪ Influences our political views, and can reinforce stereotypes (age, gender, race, etc) ▪ Often blamed for influencing violence (rap lyrics, movies, etc.)
 Moral Judgement • Moral Development: the process through which children become more capable of making moral judgements o Two components: ▪ 1. The reasons one adheres to social rules ▪ 2. The bases used to evaluate actions by self or others as good or bad Kohlberg’s Model • Proposes a developmental model with three levels of moral reasoning • Progression from stage 1-6 is universal o Pre-Conventional Morality (moral judgement based on external, physical consequences of acts) ▪ Stage 1: Obedience and punishment orientation - rules are obeyed in order to avoid punishment ▪ Stage 2: Hedonistic orientation - rules are obeyed in order to obtain rewards for the self o Conventional Morality (moral judgement based on social consequences of acts) ▪ Stage 3: “Good boy/nice girl” orientation - rules are obeyed to please others, avoid disapproval ▪ Stage 4: Authority and social-order maintaining orientation - rules are obeyed to show respect for authority and maintain social order o Post-Conventional Morality (moral judgement based on universal moral and ethical perspectives) ▪ Stage 5: Social-contract orientation - rules are obeyed because they represent the will of the majority, to avoid violation of rights of others Stage 6: Universal ethical orientation - rules obeyed in order to adhere to ▪ one’s principles find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com Self and Identity - Chapter 4 Halloween Experiment: • Two conditions: mirror with bowl of candy vs. NO mirror with bowl of candy; adult leaves and tells child to only take ONE piece of candy o Purpose: to see if children would obey instructions o Findings: involvement of mirror made them more likely to obey o Explanation: more self-awareness with mirror, self exists as two o Processes: ▪ Active/Impulsive component in the moment ▪ Reflective component that looks back and evaluates behaviour The Self • Self-concept / Self-schema o Our thoughts about who we are, and our perceptions of our social identitie
More Less
Unlock Document

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

You've reached the limit of 4 previews this month

Create an account for unlimited previews.

Already have an account?

Log In


OR

Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit