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SOCPSY 1Z03 Final: SOCPSY 1Z03: Final Exam Study Guide

19 Pages
108 Views
Fall 2016

Department
Social Psychology
Course Code
SOCPSY 1Z03
Professor
Paul Galvin
Study Guide
Final

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SocPsy: 1Z03
Introduction to Social Psychology
Lecture 1: September 7th, 2016
Tutorials begin week 3
Textbook: DeLamater textbook 8th edition
Course coordinator: Melanie Dani ([email protected])
Social Psychology: The systematic study of the nature and causes of human social behaviour
Social psychologists are skeptical of personal experience as a means of understanding
human behaviour
Rely on systematic observation
Topics of Interest:
Socialization, social origins of the self
Perception + cognition
Social influence and persuasion
Conformity in groups
Aggressive vs. altruistic behaviour
Social roles + individual behaviour
Sociology: The scientific study of the development, structure and functioning of human society
Psychology: The scientific study of the individual and of individual behaviour
Lecture 2: September 9th, 2016
What is a theory:
A set of interrelated propositions that organizes and explains observations
Goes beyond mere observable facts
Make predictions + have an explanation
Has to be tested
Theoretical Perspectives:
General explanations for a variety of social behaviours in a variety of situations
Frame of reference for interpreting + comparing a wide range of social situations and
behaviours
Role theory:
Much of observable social behaviour is people carrying out their roles (similar to actors
following a role)
According to role theory it is necessary to redefine ones role to change their behaviour
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Propositions in role theory:
1. People spend much of their lives participating in groups + organizations
2. Within these groups, people occupy distinct positions
3. Each of these positions entails a role (set of functions performed by the person/group)
4. Goups foalize these epetatios as os
5. Individuals carry out their roles and perform according to the norms
6. Group members check each idiiduals performance to determine whether it conforms
to the groups norms
Limitations of role theory:
Role theory has difficulty explaining deviant behaviour or any behaviour that violates
the norms
Does not explain deviant behaviour (because deviant behaviour opposes the idea that
people are conformists)
Role theory does not/cannot explain how role expectations originate or how they
change
Reinforcement theory:
People are more likely to perform a behaviour if it is followed by something pleasurable
or by the removal of something aversive (reward system)
People will refrain from a behaviour if it is followed by something unpleasant
Conditioning:
In conditioning, a relationship is established between producing a response and
receiving a reinforcement
Stimulus:
Any event that leads to an alteration or change in behaviour is called a stimulus
the change in behaviour induced by a stimulus is called a response
A reinforcement is any favourable outcome that results from a response
Reinforcement theory portrays individuals as reacting to environmental stimuli rather than
initiating behaviour based on imaginative or creative thought
Limitations: reinforcement theory cannot explain altruism and martyrdom
Cognitive theory:
The mental activities (cognitive processes) of the individual are important determinants
of social behaviour
These cognitive processes include perception, memory, judgement, problem solving,
and decision making
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find more resources at oneclass.com
Schemas/schemes: explanation of complex information about other people, groups, and
situations (interpretations)
Cognitive consistency:
Maintains that individuals strive to hold ideas that are consistent with one another
people dot like iosiste
If a person holds several ideas that are incongruous or inconsistent, he/she will
experience external conflict
Limitations of cognitive theory:
Cognitive theory simplifies the way people process information
Cognitive phenomena are not directly observable; must be inferred from what people
say and do
Symbolic interaction theory:
Human nature and social order and products of symbolic communication among people
In this perspective, a pesos behaviour is constructed through a give and take
The self oupies a etal place in symbolic interaction theory because social order is
hypothesized to rest in part on self control
Because individuals are continually engaging in role taking, they see themselves in the
viewpoint of others
Individuals care most about the opinions of significant others, people who control
important rewards or occupy key positions
Lecture 3: September 14, 2016
Aggregates, not individuals:
Social scientific theories deal with aggregated and not individual behaviour
Goal is to explain aggregate patterns of behaviour
Research methods: methods for testing casual relationships between phenomena
Variable: any characteristic or attribute that varies (eg. Gender, age, income)
Variables:
Independent variables (X) a variable that has an effect on another variable
Dependent variables (Y) the outcome or the variable that is being caused by the IV
Extraneous variables (Z) possible other variable that might account for the relationship
between X and Y
Causality:
1. Temporal order
2. Co-variation (association or correlation)
BUT: correlation is not equal to causation
3. Non-spuriousness
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Description
SocPsy: 1Z03 Introduction to Social Psychology th Lecture 1: September 7 , 2016 Tutorials begin week 3 Textbook: DeLamater textbook 8 edition Course coordinator: Melanie Dani ([email protected]) Social Psychology: The systematic study of the nature and causes of human social behaviour  Social psychologists are skeptical of personal experience as a means of understanding human behaviour  Rely on systematic observation Topics of Interest:  Socialization, social origins of the self  Perception + cognition  Social influence and persuasion  Conformity in groups  Aggressive vs. altruistic behaviour  Social roles + individual behaviour Sociology: The scientific study of the development, structure and functioning of human society Psychology: The scientific study of the individual and of individual behaviour th Lecture 2: September 9 , 2016 What is a theory:  A set of interrelated propositions that organizes and explains observations  Goes beyond mere observable facts  Make predictions + have an explanation  Has to be tested Theoretical Perspectives:  General explanations for a variety of social behaviours in a variety of situations  Frame of reference for interpreting + comparing a wide range of social situations and behaviours Role theory:  Much of observable social behaviour is people carrying out their roles (similar to actors following a role)  According to role theory it is necessary to redefine ones role to change their behaviour Propositions in role theory: 1. People spend much of their lives participating in groups + organizations 2. Within these groups, people occupy distinct positions 3. Each of these positions entails a role (set of functions performed by the person/group) 4. Groups formalize these expectations as “norms” 5. Individuals carry out their roles and perform according to the norms 6. Group members check each individual’s performance to determine whether it conforms to the groups norms Limitations of role theory:  Role theory has difficulty explaining deviant behaviour or any behaviour that violates the norms  Does not explain deviant behaviour (because deviant behaviour opposes the idea that people are conformists)  Role theory does not/cannot explain how role expectations originate or how they change Reinforcement theory:  People are more likely to perform a behaviour if it is followed by something pleasurable or by the removal of something aversive (reward system)  People will refrain from a behaviour if it is followed by something unpleasant Conditioning:  In conditioning, a relationship is established between producing a response and receiving a reinforcement Stimulus:  Any event that leads to an alteration or change in behaviour is called a stimulus  the change in behaviour induced by a stimulus is called a response  A reinforcement is any favourable outcome that results from a response Reinforcement theory portrays individuals as reacting to environmental stimuli rather than initiating behaviour based on imaginative or creative thought Limitations: reinforcement theory cannot explain altruism and martyrdom Cognitive theory:  The mental activities (cognitive processes) of the individual are important determinants of social behaviour  These cognitive processes include perception, memory, judgement, problem solving, and decision making Schemas/schemes: explanation of complex information about other people, groups, and situations (interpretations) Cognitive consistency:  Maintains that individuals strive to hold ideas that are consistent with one another (people don’t like inconsistency)  If a person holds several ideas that are incongruous or inconsistent, he/she will experience external conflict Limitations of cognitive theory:  Cognitive theory simplifies the way people process information  Cognitive phenomena are not directly observable; must be inferred from what people say and do Symbolic interaction theory:  Human nature and social order and products of symbolic communication among people  In this perspective, a person’s behaviour is constructed through a give and take  The “self” occupies a central place in symbolic interaction theory because social order is hypothesized to rest in part on self control  Because individuals are continually engaging in role taking, they see themselves in the viewpoint of others  Individuals care most about the opinions of significant others, people who control important rewards or occupy key positions Lecture 3: September 14, 2016 Aggregates, not individuals:  Social scientific theories deal with aggregated and not individual behaviour  Goal is to explain aggregate patterns of behaviour Research methods: methods for testing casual relationships between phenomena  Variable: any characteristic or attribute that varies (eg. Gender, age, income) Variables:  Independent variables (X) – a variable that has an effect on another variable  Dependent variables (Y) – the outcome or the variable that is being caused by the IV  Extraneous variables (Z) – possible other variable that might account for the relationship between X and Y Causality: 1. Temporal order 2. Co-variation (association or correlation) BUT: correlation is not equal to causation 3. Non-spuriousness Spurious relationships: when an apparently casual relationship between two variables is actually accounted for by a third variable (extraneous variable: z) Experiments: an operation or procedure carried out under controlled conditions in order to test a hypothesis  Two features of experiments help establish causality (manipulation of the IV, and random assignment to levels of the IV) Experiment strengths:  Strong internal validity  Artificiality  Replication Experiment weaknesses:  Unrealistic lab setting (threat to internal validity)  Weaker external validity: generalizing to broader groups can be difficult  Sometimes unethical Survey Methods:  Procedure for collecting information by asking members of some population a set of questions and recording their responses  Provides self-reported data that can be coded numerically into variables  Survey researches then examine how these variables are associated Surveys:  Used for descriptive, explanatory or exploratory studies  Most often, people are the unit of analysis  Respondent: a person provides data by responding to a survey  Excellent tool for measuring attitudes + orientations of a large population Survey Strengths:  Cheaper than experiments  Easier to generalize to broader populations  Can test many hypotheses in a single survey Weaknesses:  Harder to establish internal validity  Less control over variable  Harder to establish temporal order and rule out spurious association Tutorial #1: September 20, 2016 Symbolic Interactionism Theory:  Cognitive + interaction  Behaviour emerges through interaction  Negote meanings  Significant others  Limitations: overemphasizes rational self conscious thought, de-emphasizes unconscious states  Doesn’t look at conflict Cognitive Theory:  Does not deny importance of external stimuli, the focus however is on cognitive processes  Schemas help us process external stimuli (pictures we have of people in our minds, through exposure..kind of like background knowledge ex. Lawyers being rich, well dressed, suit etc.)  Limitations: hard to test, over simplifies cognitive process Evolutionary Theory:  Roots of social behaviour in genes  Behaviours that enable us to survive get passed on to next gen  Implies that human nature is genetic  Limitations: circular reasoning Role Theory:  Everyone holds a role  Behaviour we observe is people fulfilling their role  Roles are reinforced through norms  Norms enforced by group members  Limitations: can’t explain deviant behaviour, doesn’t explain how norms form/change Reinforcement Theory:  Behaviour governed by external stimuli  Behaviour likely to occur/repeat if followed by positive reinforcement, less likely if followed by negative  Event that causes change in behaviour = STIMULUS  Social learning theory = we learn through observation  Social exchange theory – assumes people have freedom of choice, must choose from alternative actions (we choose actions with high benefits, avoid ones with low)  Limitations: doesn’t account for imagination  Not able to explain selfless behaviour (supports selfish mind) st Week 3: September 21 , 2016: Genie: Social Isolation  Feral child  Socialization outline:  Defining socialization + key perspective  Socialization + language acquisition  Genie documentary  Punishment + antisocial behaviour (strauss article) Socialization  Ways in which individuals learn + recreate skills knowledge, values, motives and roles appropriate to their position in a group or society (textbook)  Therefore, the means by which social and cultural continuity are attained Types of socialization:  Primary socialization  Secondary socialization  Anticipatory socialization  Re-socialization Perspectives on socialization: MICRO – PSYCHOLOGICAL:  Developmental theory: timing and sequencing of physical/psychological development in early childhood  Social learning theory: acquisition of cognitive and behavioral skills in interaction with the environment MARCO: SOCIOLOGICAL  Interpretive theory: discovery of meanings common to the social group  Social structural: Organized according to the sequence of social roles Week 4: September 23, 2016 - Socialization Genie and Socialization  Primary socialization largely absent for genie  Limited social interaction with parents  Confined to room and specific situations  Key processes identified by social learning theory absent  Instrumental conditioning:  Shaping: gradually increase correspondence between learner’s behaviour and desired response  External reinforcement vs internal reinforcement  Observational learning:  Genies isolation meant that she had little opportunity to observe even basic behaviours, or more complex behaviour patterns (eg. Dressing) Genie and language acquisition  Without language, children are unable to successfully undergo more complex socialization + learn about the values, norms and standards of a particular culture  Genie initially demonstrated little aptitude for the 3 components of language  1. The sound system (phonology)  2. Words and their associated meanings (lexicon)  3. The rules for combining words into meaningful utterance (grammar) Other observations:  substitution of other communication skills?  Language not necessary to form memories  Physical senses shaped by socialization Punishment:  50% of Canadian parents with children 0-5 report corporal punishment (normative nonabuse physical punishment)  consequence: physical punishment is associated with future antisocial behaviour in children Week 5: September 28, 2016 The Self:  self concept/self-schema o our thoughts about we were are, our perceptions of our social identities and personal qualities o self awareness o self esteem o self knowledge  Early development of self awareness o Mirror test o Behavioural test by Gordon Gallup as an attempt to determine if animals have the ability of self recognition Nature and genesis of the self  Our understanding of the self is drawn from symbolic interaction theory  The individual is viewed as both the source and the object of reflexive behaviour Charles Horton Cooley: The Looking Glass Self (1902)  People shape themselves based on what others perceive and confirm other people’s opinion of themselves  “I am, who I think you think, that I am”  Three components: 1. We imagine how we must appear to others 2. We imagine the judgement of that appearance 3. We develop our self through the judgements of others Stages in the development of self: Mead  Role taking: imaginatively occupying the position of another person and viewing the self and the situation from that person’s perspective  Mead – 1934: identified two sequential stages leading to emergence of the self in kids o The play stage o The game stage #1 Play:  Young children imitate activities of people around them  Role taking involves imitating the doctor, mom and dad, etc #2 Game:  Occurs when children enter organized activities such as school, team sports  Now, role taking requires children to imagine the viewpoints of several others at the same time The Generalized Other:  Conception of the attitudes and expectations held in common by the members of the organized groups with whom they interact  When we imagine what the group expects of us, we are taking the role of the generalized other Identities: the meanings attached to the self by one’s self and others  Personal identities: individual traits (eg. Moody, extroverted)  Role Identities: concepts of self in specific roles (eg. Parent, student)  Social identities: the self in terms of the defining characteristics of a social group Identity control theory:  Behaviour is a product of our attempts to control perceptions of situations to confirm the meanings associated with our identities  Components: 1. Identity standard: defines meanings attached to a particular identity in a situation (eg. Supervisor identity/power) 2. Input (action to provoke emotion) 3. Comparator (produces emotional reaction) 4. Output (establish consensus) Identities as sources of consistency:  Although the self includes multiple identities, people usually experience themselves as a unified entity Salience Hierarchy: our most salient identities provide consistent styles of behaviour and priorities that lend continuity + unity to our behaviour Influences consistency by: 1. Providing a basis to choose which situations we enter and which we avoid 2. Influencing the consistency of behaviour across different situations 3. Influencing consistency in behaviour across time Self-presentation:  The processes by which individuals attempt to control the impressions that others form of them in social interaction o Authentic self presentations o Ideal self presentations o Tactical self presentations (influence impressions)
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