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Final

SOCPSY 1Z03 Final: Social Psychology Final Exam Review

7 Pages
105 Views
Fall 2016

Department
Social Psychology
Course Code
SOCPSY 1Z03
Professor
Paul Galvin
Study Guide
Final

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Social Psychology Final Exam Review
Social Psychological Theories:
Role Theory: individuals have roles they are expected to carry out
Reinforcement theory: people are more likely to perform a behaviour if it is followed by
something pleasurable (reward system)
Conditioning: Relationship established between producing a response and receiving a
reinforcement
Stimulus: Any event that leads to a change in behaviour
Cognitive theory: mental activities are important determinants of social behaviour
Symbolic interaction theory: human nature and social order to productive of symbolic
communication among people
Socialization and the development of the self:
Taking on more roles, imaginatively occupying position of another person (role play)
Socialization: ways in which individuals learn
Attitudes shape behaviour and vice versa:
Social perception biases:
Social perception: constructing an idea understanding of the social world from the data
we get through our senses (the way we perceive things socially)
The poesses y hih e fo ipessios of othe peoples taits ad pesoalities
Biases: stereotypes, influences from others, schemas and prototypes
Obedience and authority:
People will almost always obey a figure of authority
Group influences on individual behaviour:
People are more likely to follow the crowd
Less likely to act individualistic out of fear of being judged/shamed or wrong
Collective Behaviour: individuals and crowds
Altruism and aggression:
Kitty Genovese:
Murdered in streets in broad daylight
There were witnesses, but nobody helped
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find more resources at oneclass.com
Aggression:
Any behaviour intended to harm another person
Target person wants to avoid this behaviour
Intention matters
Altruism:
Helping that is intended to provide aid to someone else without expectation of any
reward (except for a good feeling)
Instinct and evolution:
Aggression/altruism is instinctual
Freud innate urge to destroy
Social Learning:
Bandura doll study
Children learn aggressive behavior from their parents
Boy who experienced harsh parenting are more likely to be involved in violent dating
relationships
Sociobiology
Applies Darwinism ideas to animal/human behaviour
Belief that human/animal behaviour can be partly explained as the outcome of natural
selection
Learning explanations (violence and media)
Moderate positive correlations between watching tv and aggressive behaviour
Imitation, cognitive priming, legitimization, desensitization, arousal
Situational explanations (bystander effect, social norms)
Bystander effect (greater amount of bystanders, less likely any one bystander will help)
Factors to bystander effect: noticeability, interpretation, diffusion of responsibility
Social norms
Norms shape social behaviour
Shotland & straw experiment (fights between husband/wife; strangers)
People less likely to intervene between husband and wife
Norms associated with social roles shape meaning of the situation
Social responsibility norm: we should help others that are dependent on us
Norm of reciprocity: help those who help us
Norms and aggression: an eye for an eye
Pinker article (why is there peace?)
Decline of violence, appalled by violence in previous eras, and worked to end it
find more resources at oneclass.com
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Description
Social Psychology Final Exam Review Social Psychological Theories:  Role Theory: individuals have roles they are expected to carry out  Reinforcement theory: people are more likely to perform a behaviour if it is followed by something pleasurable (reward system)  Conditioning: Relationship established between producing a response and receiving a reinforcement  Stimulus: Any event that leads to a change in behaviour  Cognitive theory: mental activities are important determinants of social behaviour  Symbolic interaction theory: human nature and social order to productive of symbolic communication among people Socialization and the development of the self:  Taking on more roles, imaginatively occupying position of another person (role play)  Socialization: ways in which individuals learn Attitudes shape behaviour and vice versa: Social perception biases:  Social perception: constructing an idea understanding of the social world from the data we get through our senses (the way we perceive things socially)  The processes by which we form impressions of other people’s traits and personalities  Biases: stereotypes, influences from others, schemas and prototypes Obedience and authority:  People will almost always obey a figure of authority Group influences on individual behaviour:  People are more likely to follow the crowd  Less likely to act individualistic out of fear of being judged/shamed or wrong Collective Behaviour: individuals and crowds Altruism and aggression: Kitty Genovese:  Murdered in streets in broad daylight  There were witnesses, but nobody helped Aggression:  Any behaviour intended to harm another person  Target person wants to avoid this behaviour  Intention matters Altruism:  Helping that is intended to provide aid to someone else without expectation of any reward (except for a good feeling) Instinct and evolution:  Aggression/altruism is instinctual  Freud – innate urge to destroy Social Learning:  Bandura doll study  Children learn aggressive behavior from their parents  Boy who experienced harsh parenting are more likely to be involved in violent dating relationships Sociobiology  Applies Darwinism ideas to animal/human behaviour  Belief that human/animal behaviour can be partly explained as the outcome of natural selection Learning explanations (violence and media)  Moderate positive correlations between watching tv and aggressive behaviour  Imitation, cognitive priming, legitimization, desensitization, arousal Situational explanations (bystander effect, social norms)  Bystander effect (greater amount of bystanders, less likely any one bystander will help)  Factors to bystander effect: noticeability, interpretation, diffusion of responsibility Social norms  Norms shape social behaviour  Shotland & straw experiment (fights between husband/wife; strangers)  People less likely to intervene between husband and wife  Norms associated with social roles shape meaning of the situation  Social responsibility norm: we should help others that are dependent on us  Norm of reciprocity: help those who help us  Norms and aggression: an eye for an eye Pinker article (why is there peace?)  Decline of violence, appalled by violence in previous eras, and worked to end it  Improvements in the reporting of violence  Cognitive illusion, 24/7 newsrooms Attitudes:  A predisposition to respond to a particular object in a favorable or unfavorable way  Components of attitudes o Cognitive o Evaluative o Behavioural  Attitude formation o Reinforcement (instrumental/classical conditioning) o Observational learning (watching behaviour of parents or others)  Post-decisional dissonance o Whenever we make a decision, there are some cognitions that are consonant, and others that are dissonant with it  Counter-attitudinal dissonance  Festinger and carlsmith 1959 o Experiment, participants told to do boring asks, paid $1 or $20 incentive o Participants given $1 rated task more interesting (evidence of more dissonance) o Less dissonance for $20 group  Balance theory: deals with cognitive consistency o Three components in a cognitive system o Person (P) o Object (O) o Impersonal object (I)  Why weak relationship between attitude and behaviour? o Situational constraints + cognitive dissonance Cognitive Dissonance + Four strategies to resolve:  State of psychological tension, mental stress experienced by an individual who holds inconsistent thoughts, beliefs, attitudes  especially relating to behavioral decisions and attitude change Example: Someone who is normally against smoking decides to smoke at a party in order to fit in with their friends, this dissonance should cause feelings of distress or discomfort in the person Four strategies to overcome: 1. Distort: the person can distort their view of the behaviour by telling themselves that they only smoked a little or not even the whole cigarette 2. Change: They could change their negative attitude towards smoking to a neu
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